Main Battle Tanks
Posted 12 February 2003 - 08:23 PM
Do you like the turrets?
The two turrets (Merkava Mk-4 and M-551 Sheridan) are a copy one of the other.
One is a heavy Main Battle Tank (Merkava) and the other is a light airborne tank with the Shillelaghs AT missile launched from the 152 mm smoothbore gun system.
Posted 13 February 2003 - 01:11 PM
Panzer 1.st WW with frontal engines:
the germans LK-1 and LK-2 (Prototypes with Rotating Turret and gun (37 mm ??) on the top) are inspired from the british Mark-A "WHIPPET" cavalry tank. It was used the first time in 1917 to Cambrai France.
The Swedish army bought the WHIPPETS and call them M-21/29 they was with rotating turret (with machine gun) on the top of the hull.
pacific posted 01-16-2003 16:06
The TH-301 THYSSEN is also knowed like TAM (Tanque Argentino Mediano).
It's the MBT of the Argentinian Army.
Ballistic, aereodynamical and hydrodynamical shapes are very similiar or the same thing.
Are you lucky or unlucky?
I consider me always unlucky then i think to build something good for me and my unlucky destiny.
The LEOPARD 2AV was the prototype. At that time were considered two different shapes of turrets the discarded was the one similiar to the turret of the LEOPARD 2A6/STRV-122.
At that time there was the cold war, the Warsaw pact and the NATO.
pacific posted 01-16-2003 21:21
The ring between the turret and the hull is the weackest point of a tank, wheeled or tracked-crawled.
A panzerfaust-3 or an RPG or similiar well know this.
Posted 13 February 2003 - 04:34 PM
There's not more difference between the shape of a car and of a tank (MBT).
pacific posted 01-11-2003 15:40
pacific posted 01-11-2003 15:47
The basics solution are always the better in every field. Passive security and safety.
pacific posted 01-12-2003 12:32
3/three in the hull and a big unmanned rotating turret.
pacific posted 01-12-2003 22:06
To Put Three beside one by one in the front of the hull is wrong twice. One because the engine is rear, one because they cannot run out faster to save the skin and 1/3 is always dead or injured.
The engine in the front, the large wide turret with the basket (all rotating) unmanned in the middle, 2 + 1 rear in the hull to save the skin 3/3.
This means more electronic systems (radar?)and electronic viewer systems like in the airplanes.
Weight limit 50 metric tons.
Automatic loaders, 1 main gun 120 mm, 1 x 60 mm automatic mortar, 2 heavy machine guns on the ceiling of the turret or on the sides or 1 up with automatic loader and 1 very heavy with automatic loader (from 20 to 40 mm)(gatling/gorloff or bofors) on a side. All the rouns magazines for every gun system in the turret or in the basket. (F-15 rounds magazine).
they are the more safety solutions. The V.C.I. and similiar the same. all tracked not wheeled.
The armoured wheeled the same all the team rear in the hull and electronic viewer systems plus radar?. Weight limit 30 metric tons.
pacific posted 01-12-2003 22:17
Drum magazines like in the F-15 and similiar for all the less gun systems.
A tank with this concept is a heavy cost vehicle but is safety and secure for the crew. The door on the rear large as you want the most important thing is to run out fast and quickly if injured.
SAFETY SECURITY AND SURVIVAL
If is possible the crew in an armoured capsule ejectable when tank blows up.
The energy of an explotion can launch to a safety distance the armoured capsule.
They are all the things we require from a tank or an armoured system tracked or wheeled.
GOOD JOB PLANNERS we don't want nothing less of the above mentioned in the armoured.
Our lifes are more than an irony box.
pacific posted 01-13-2003 23:23
The Mark A tank, nicknamed, the WHIPPET, was introduced in 1917. Faster than the earlier, heavy tanks, the WHIPPET was intended as a cavalry style weapon. These tanks proved effective at the offensive at Cambrai in November 1917, when nearly 400 tanks created a battering ram that punched straight through the German lines.
THE WHIPPET was planned as a tank to exploit the breakthrough in the tradition of the cavalry and was armed with four machine guns. The engine was in the front of the vehicle, and could propel the vehicle at 8 mph. Originally, a rotating turret was planned, but was dropped for mass production. First used in combat in spring 1917, the vehicle was considered successful. In a post war experiment, a Whippet was fitted with a suspension and a better engine reached 30 mph, but this development was ignored.
: IN SWEDISH ARMY KNOWED AS TANK/M21-29 WITH ROTATING TURRET. AFTER THE 1919.
pacific posted 01-13-2003 23:26
pacific posted 01-13-2003 23:46
TAM Tanque Argentino Mediano
The TAM (Tanque Argentino Mediano, Argentine Medium Tank) is a the 40 tons class tank based on the German Marder 1 IFV. Principle differences include different powerpacks and slightly heavier armor for the tank version. The TAM and the IFV version, the VCTP (Vehiculo de Combate Transporte de Personal, combat vehicle personnel transport) were shown as prototypes in the mid-1970s. They are the standard equipment of the Argentine army mechanised units. A family of derivative vehicles in various stages of development include the VCPM mortar carrier, VCRC recovery vehicle, VCTC command vehicle, VCLC rocket launcher, and a self-propelled howitzer carrying a local version of the italian Palmaria gun.
The first few TAM's were equiped with the locally produced variant of the L7A1. Later vehicles were armed with the Rheinmetall LTA2, and the last produced vehicles were equiped with a locally produced modified version of the French CN-105-57, produced in the TAMSE military factory of Rio Tercero, in Cordoba province.
pacific posted 01-13-2003 23:49
CV90 TRACKED ARMOURED COMBAT VEHICLES, SWEDEN
Combat Vehicle 90 represents a family of armoured combat vehicles developed by Hagglunds Vehicle AB (part of the Alvis Group) and Saab Bofors Dynamics of Karlskoga, Sweden. Hagglunds builds the chassis and Saab Bofors supply the turret.
The development of the CV90 began in 1984 in response to the requirements outlined by the Swedish Army for a family of armoured combat vehicles with high tactical and strategic mobility, air defence and anti-tank capability, high survivability and protection. Production began in 1993 and over 900 vehicles have been ordered.
The all-welded steel hull can be upgraded with add-on armour, which protects against 30mm APFSDS (armour piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot) rounds. The vehicle has low radar, acoustic and infrared signature. A fire detection and extinguishing system is fitted and full nuclear, chemical and biological (NBC) protection is provided.
CV90 INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE
The CV90 Infantry Fighting Vehicle is compatible with a range of armaments, sights and fire control systems to suit the mission requirement. All versions carry a crew of three: commander, driver and gunner, together with up to eight soldiers.
Current production versions of the CV90 IFV include the CV9030, which is the export variant, and the CV9040. The CV9030 has been operational with the Norwegian Army since 1995 (104 vehicles). It is armed with a 30mm Boeing Bushmaster II, Bushmaster Mk 44 or a Mauser MK 30mm Model F cannon. The 9030 has also been selected by the Swiss Army, which requires 180 vehicles for delivery from 2002 - 2005. These will be fitted with Boeing 30mm/40mm Mk 44 cannon, Saab Tech UTAAS anti-aircraft sight and a battlefield management system. Finland has ordered 57 CV9030 vehicles, out of a total requirement of 150. Patria Hagglunds (a joint venture company) is building the vehicle turrets and the first was delivered in April 2002. The CV9040 has been in service with the Swedish army since 1993 with 300 systems delivered and is armed with a 40mm Bofors U70 cannon. In March 2001, the Swedish Army ordered a further 40 vehicles to be delivered by 2003.
Patria Hagglunds has been awarded a contract to integrate the AMOS (Advanced Mortar System) on a Swedish Army CV90 infantry fighting vehicle. The AMOS twin 120mm mortar system has a direct fire capability and a digital, computerised fire control system, which can fire a variety of mortar bombs including the Strix "smart" mortar, developed by Saab Bofors Dynamics.
The CV90120-T is a light tank which has a Hagglund turret mounted on the latest CV90 chassis. RUAG Land Systems of Switzerland has developed the fully stabilised 120 mm high pressure smoothbore CTG 120/L50 gun, which has a rate of fire of up to 14 rounds per minute. SaabTechSystems of Sweden has developed the fire control system, UTAAS, and the Panoramic Low Signature commander
Posted 13 February 2003 - 06:42 PM
D.Sc. (Technology), Professor, State Prize Winner
We continue to publish articles on tanks of the near future . This article briefly describes the tank's features, including its mobility, controllability and reliability. Some possible layout versions are also highlighted.
mproved mobility is the key feature of the tank that enhances its combat efficiency. In the first quarter of the 21st century one can anticipate only a minor increase in specific horsepower, of up to 35-40 hp/t (1,750 - 2,000 hp for a 50-ton tank), because it cannot be increased any further when tanks move either in march columns or in combat formations on the battlefield. Average speeds of tanks moving in march columns can reach 35-40 km/h. It is anticipated that fuel endurance will remain unchanged, namely about 350-400 km, depending on road and terrain conditions. Tanks will perform long-range marches covering 1,500-2,000 km while making 350-400 km day's marches.
Multi-fuel diesel and gas-turbine engines will continue to compete with each other. Multi-fuel diesel engines have not yet exhausted their capabilities; more than that, merely by applying the adiabatic principle, minimal heat emission into the atmosphere can radically increase their power and efficiency in addition to considerable design advantages due to the incorporation of a more compact cooling system. However, it will take time to adopt engine designs that will be able to operate at high temperatures.
Gas-turbine engines have so far been unable to produce to a considerable extent the expected advantages, which include a higher power-to-volume ratio, easy start in cold weather, long service life, and the opportunity to simplify transmission design. However, despite theoretical and design preconditions that appear promising, their main drawback has yet not been eliminated. This involves high fuel consumption compared with a diesel engine (30-40 percent higher). It should be noted here that, even if it were given preference in the long run, the gas-turbine engine would not create a revolution in ground transportation as it did in aviation.
In the transmission's improvements there is a clear tendency to use an interlocking hydrodynamic transmission coupled with a planetary gearbox in the main power cascade and hydrostatic gearbox incorporated in the steering mechanism. Meanwhile, the high efficiency factor is achieved by the improvement of the hydrodynamic transmission and its use only during movement on rugged terrain.
The electromechanical transmission can not operate, at least for the time being, on a par with a hydromechanical transmission because of a low efficiency factor. In the future, electromechanical transmissions may be installed in tanks with new layouts, where the layout "flexibility" of a transmission will play a key role.
The tank running gear will evidently feature a hydropneumatic suspension. It will enable the operator to not only change the tank's clearance and running trim, but also increase speed and smoothness of the movement over the terrain by changing the suspension characteristics according to the road and ground conditions. Such "adaptive" suspension will be of great value to tanks because in battlefield operations they move on cross-country terrain. Later on, such innovations may be incorporated to form a hull stabilization system which will enhance accuracy when firing on the move.
The adjustable automation of operating modes of the engine-transmission-running gear system will drastically simplify the tank's movement control, increase average speed, ensure stability during curvilinear movement and at high speed, and help maintain the preset speed or distanse to the tank ahead.
The number of controls will be minimal: a steering wheel, throttle pedal and foot brake pedal. This will allow the driver to concentrate his attention on the road, terrain, battlefield and therefore prolong his fitness for work.
The commander's steering system override will become a standard feature on tanks.
Tank crews rarely use the full extent of combat capabilities incorporated in a tank design while operating on the battlefield. Capabilities of tank subunits can be significantly enhanced by automation of all operations performed by tank crews inside their vehicles and control operations within a tank subunit, provision of tank crews and subunit commanders with requisite information and care for their comfort.
Three-shaft gas-turbine engine (diagram)
An onboard computer should provide for automatic fire, movement and tank protection control. The crew-members should be provided with information in a visual form presenting the combat situation at hand, tank capabilities and its present position. The tank commander should be able to visually orientate himself on the terrain without protruding himself from a hatch. All routine control operations should be excluded. The crew-members will perform a minimum of the required actions that stem from the logic of combat tasks.
The unit commander should at all times be aware of the situation and state of his tanks, and obtain ample information about the enemy deployed on the frontage and in depth. A helicopter or drone can be used for this purpose. Thus, the unit commander will be able to act in advance of a situation, quickly make decisions, quickly transfer the appropriate control commands and personally perform tank fire control, if the need arises. The complexity and dynamic nature of combat actions and poor visibility necessitate the installation in tanks of an IFF system.
All this will enhance the efficiency of tank subunits. These units will become more mobile and less vulnerable close combat firing systems that will "see" the battlefield, quickly and rationally respond to the changing situation.
The automation of the tank also provides an opportunity to create tank-robots that could be used in the foreseeable future for resolving special tasks, including disclosure of a hostile fire system, demolition of vital hostile installations, operation on the terrain with a high degree of radiation, etc.
Confused and rapidly changing battlefield situation and prolonged periods of severe combat actions urgently require tanks to become self-sufficient in terms of fuel, ammunition load and conditions of the crew's habitat. However, the tank must not be converted into a "depot" of ammunition and fuel. The tanks should be supplied from an advanced logistical unit that will have armored vehicles intended to carry ammunition, fuel and foods and load the supplies via mechanical means into tanks. It is necessary to provide proper ergonomic conditions for the crew. Tanks should be self-sufficient to operate efficiently on the battlefield during twenty-four hours of extensive combat actions or three days of combat actions with short respites.
Sophistication of design of future tanks by cramming them with electronics, automatics, hydraulics, etc., and striving after ever more compact arrangement of their main units and mechanisms, on the one hand, and severe conditions of their combat use, on the other hand, make the problem of their reliability rather acute.
I believe that this problem can be resolved successfully, provided the tank building industry will reach the expected level. Meticulous development of a tank's design, use of new materials and technologies, state-of-the-art methods of calculation and tests will ensure fairly high basic reliability indices: failure rate of 0.6-0.7 per 1,000 km and a total mileage of 16,000-18,000 km. This will allow tank crews to undergo combat training during peacetime, their participation in 2 to 3 deep combat operations and maintenance of combat readiness on the level of 0.9-0.95 during their execution.
Prevention of failures and effective troubleshooting will be ensured by an automated, information-diagnostic system alongside the incorporation of a modular design principle.
A genuine leap forward to enhance the tanks's efficiency and survivability can be made by introducing a principally new layout, because the conventional configuration with a gun mounted in the rotating turret arranged in the center, accommodating the commander and gunner, driving compartment arranged in the front of the hull, and engine-transmission compartment in the rear is no longer efficient. The use of the automatic, electronic and remote control systems allow a three-man crew to be accommodated in the front part of the hull in a special armored module outfitted with comfortable automobile seats and an air conditioning system. It is tempting to arrange the power plant in the lower front part of the hull, in front of the habitable compartment, which will provide additional protection for the crew. Similar configuration of a 50-ton tank will radically enhance protection of the tank and its crew, increase ammunition load and fuel distance, create excellent ergonomic conditions, and allow for the mount of a gun of more than 125mm caliber.
Posted 13 February 2003 - 06:42 PM
Two gas-turbine engines coupled with electric transmission generators can be arranged in the hull's above-track space, thereby allowing the inner space to be utilized more rationally. Other layouts can also be used.
The combination of modular layouts with the high degree of unification will provide for the prompt conversion of the production facilities to manufacture infantry combat vehicles instead of tanks on the tank's chassis.
The new layout, without a high ballistic gun and even without a turret, can become a reality only when the reliable jamming immune guided reactive weapons with more compact ammunition produced at reasonable cost are created to effectively encounter various targets. Projectiles will be fired through the roof of the combat compartment.
This will reduce the overall weight by 12-15 tons which can be used to enhance the vehicle's protection.
The tank's weight is unlikely to exceed 60-65 tons due to the dimension and weight restraints for the transportation of equipment by rail and on trailers.
Automation of the crew's operations will reduce its number to two men. However, proceeding from functional considerations it is expedient to retain the three-man crew to allow one of them to focus his attention on the battlefield, enemy and cooperating tanks, orientate on the terrain and maintain communication with superior commanders.
Thus, analyzing probable trends in the development of tanks and their armament in the first quarter of the 21st century and taking into consideration the feasibility of advent of fundamentally new means of armed struggle, it is possible to assume the following:
The concept of the tank as a mass-produced, ground-based tactical weapon operating on the firstline that is equally effective both in the offensive and defensive operations will remain basically intact. This weapon will constitute the core of the combat power of general purpose forces which will continue to exist while there is a need for the armed forces in general.
The system of armament intended for armored vehicles will be further improved. Other combat vehicles featuring the same level of protection as tanks will cooperate with them while operating in the first echelon. To carry out mobile operations, mobile echelon combat vehicles (amphibious and air-transportable) will be used.
As regards the appearance of the tank, it may be drastically changed against a background of extensive science and technology progress. Most changes will occur in its layout, provision with required data on the battlefield, automation of fire control, movement and combat activity, reliable detection of small-size targets even in adverse weather conditions and use of new methods to enhance protection and create good ergonomic conditions for the crew
Posted 13 February 2003 - 06:58 PM
Vladimir Kovalev, Vladimir Batenin, Mikhail Starostin
We continue to publish materials about the tanks of the future (see Military Parade issues #3/97, #4/97 and #2/98). In this article, the representatives of the Russian Armor Academy propose an uncommon approach to designing a tank that would serve in the 21st century. Their proposals are based on investigations conducted to this effect and on patents for relevant inventions.
ne of the goals of Russia's military and technical policy is to develop and manufacture highly effective tanks capable of operating in any combat environment, in different climatic and geographical conditions, and in all types of military operations, including local conflicts.
In Russia and abroad, all of the existing tank types were designed on the "crew and systems in one hull" principle. Each tank was designed as an entity combining all combat (firepower, mobility and armor protection) and maintenance capabilities. Later tanks were equipped with more sophisticated systems, caliber of their guns became larger and their armor protection, engine power and transmission output increased. But the tank's overall dimensions remained unchanged. All this reduced the intertank space thus affecting the crew's comfort and its working efficiency and made it impossible to boost combat effectiveness as a whole.
Investigations show that the combat potentialities of a modern tank are realized by not more than 70 percent and that further upgrades to enhance its overall effectiveness are practically useless, i.e. the traditional approaches used currently to devise tanks do not allow designers to materially improve their performance characteristics.
The combat effectiveness of tanks can be considerably improved if the following requirements are fulfilled.
First, while designing new tanks one should remember that in action the tanks are normally employed within subunits that are assigned missions differing to some extent from those assigned to a single tank. Generally, missions assigned to army units are to defeat (annihilate) enemy manpower, armament and equipment, and capture (occupy) a certain area.
Second, a "system-centered" approach should be used, whose main purpose is to take the most advantage of the systems employed in the tank rather than focus on the enhancement of technical capabilities of new vehicles and creation of comfortable conditions for the crew.
Third, while developing armored tracked vehicles for tomorrow's uses, one should take into account that tank units are likely to perform missions independently, away from the main forces. Moreover, the requirement of standardization of various-purpose vehicles and their components should be met. Consequently, support and auxiliary vehicles are to be designed simultaneously with armored tracked vehicles. Also a family of various-purpose vehicles can be developed from the basic vehicle.
The above-mentioned requirements could be met through developing new types of articulated tracked armored vehicles (ATAV).
A configuration, consisting of a central section and two transport/recovery sections connected to the central section is proposed. The sections can be uncoupled from one another and used separately.
The main advantages of this configuration are:
- the main combat properties of the tank (maneuverability and firepower) can be used separately on the battlefield by employing the combat and two transport/recovery sections independently of one another. This can boost the tank's efficiency due to the purposeful and separate designing of each section. Using the above sections in such a way, units on the battlefield may change their tactics to achieve higher effectiveness and make the tactics more suitable to the type of combat actions and to the operational environment. This can be exemplified by operations in Bosnia, where all tanks were normally used as self-propelled guns while artillery systems were mainly employed from fixed emplacements;
- combination of standard transport/recovery sections with central sections outfitted with different war-fighting, support, and auxiliary equipment provides for the development of a family of such articulated vehicles as infantry combat vehicles, armored recovery vehicles, reconnaissance vehicles, supply vehicles, medical evacuation vehicles, etc. The need for such vehicles stems from the fact that a great number of wheeled transport vehicles have to provide tank units with various supplies, including fuel and ammunition, as well as to repair and recover damaged tanks. However, the cross-country ability of wheeled vehicles is much lower than that of tanks;
- compared with traditional tanks, there is a greater vacant armor-protected space inside the central section of the articulated vehicle obtained because of the absence of a track assembly. The requisite facilities needed to support the crew for a protracted period of time, including sleeping places, can be arranged there. Thus, the standard requirements for ergonomics can be implemented in the design of the vehicles.
The combat tracked armored articulated vehicle consists of a combat section and two transport/recovery sections. The combat section is hinge-mounted between the transport/recovery sections. The hinges allow the transport/recovery sections to turn relative to the combat section in the vertical and horizontal planes and provide for their automatic articulation and disengagement. The hydraulic jacks located in the combat section lift or lower the latter to engage/disengage it with/from the transport/recovery sections.
The combat section turret accommodates armament and crew. The transport/recovery sections accommodate engines, transmission, and drivers' seats to independently use the transport/recovery sections.
The proposed configuration features certain advantages over the traditional design making it possible to enhance some of the combat and service characteristics of the new tank.
Greater firepower can be achieved by:
- varying the location height of observation and sighting devices by means of the combat section hydraulic jacks when the section is used independently;
- installing armaments in the transport/recovery sections when these sections are used independently;
- stabilizing the entire combat section.
The prototype's mobility is increased due to:
- a "pull-and-push" principle behind its straightforward motion;
- the vehicle's ability to move forward and back at the same speed without turning around;
- the vehicle's increased cross-country ability owing to a greater ground clearance (the height of the transport/recovery sections is increased since it doesn't produce any restraints on the total height of the vehicle);
- the vehicle's ability to change the direction of movement by two methods: the "like-a-tank" method, where the speed of one track differs from the other, and by the "like-a-wheeled-vehicle" method where either each of the two transport/ recovery sections turns independently of the other or both turn simultaneously relative to the combat section.
Better protection is provided by:
- two armored transport/recovery sections located in front of and behind the combat section;
- possibility of varying significantly the degree of armor protection from section to section (reasonable increase in the thickness of armor of the combat section at the expense of its reasonable reduction on both transport/recovery sections);
- possibility of reducing the vehicle's clearance.
Use of the armored articulated vehicles enhances the fighting efficiency of tank units due to their high maintainability. For example, one combat-ready vehicle can be assembled of the good sections of two disabled vehicles. Moreover, shipment of articulated vehicles by air is easy since each section can be carried and air-dropped separately.
Thus, the proposed configuration of the armored tracked vehicle would boost practically all of its basic performance characteristics, help the crew to perform to the best of their ability, and allow designers to develop a family of combat, support and auxiliary vehicles that would encourage commanders of all levels to develop basically new methods of employment of army tank units. We can say, in conclusion, that on the basis of the proposed tracked armored articulated vehicle, new-generation armored vehicles can be developed.
Posted 14 February 2003 - 08:03 PM
UNMANNED TURRET AND BASKET ARTILLERY AND AMMOS
CREW 3 MEN (2+1)
h = HULL
t = tracks
G = Main gun 120mm or 125mm
The wide and large rotating turret protect the manned hull from the blows from the sky (Air to ground tank killers helicopters).
man=Driver, Commander, Gunner.
Better than today
TRACKED M.B.T. PURPOSE
SIDE AND PLANT OF THE HULL
LIFE IS FIRST OF ALL
Posted 14 February 2003 - 08:38 PM
If you don't let me in peace
the only thing that remains to me to
do it's Kill you all.
I'm very clear i don't disturb none.
i don't wanna be disturbed from shit cowards and viles.
I wanna live my life in peace if you all want me dead I
can make only a thing kill you all.
LIVE AND LET LIVE OR ALL YOUR LIFES WILL BE LESS OF A DIME.
I DON'T NEED ONE GUN TO KILL YOU ALL.
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I LIVE MY LIFE WITHOUT DISTURB YOU ALL PLEASE IF YOU WANNA CONTINUE TO LIVE DON'T DISTURB ME AGAIN DON'T INVADE MY PERSONALITY DON'T DISTURB MY PERSON AND MY SANITY OR INSANITY,
I THINK I'M VERY CLEAR AND UNDERSTANDABLE.
YOU ALL REMEMBER I NEVER FORGET.
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