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#1 pacific

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Posted 15 February 2003 - 07:54 AM

Author Topic: TREATY ON CONVENTIONAL FORCES IN EUROPE (CFE)
pacific posted 01-26-2003 16:53
Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)
Provisions
The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) is a complex instrument which established a military balance between the two groups of States by providing equal ceilings for major weapons and equipment systems, namely for each group in the whole area from the Atlantic to the Urals:

20,000 tanks ;

20,000 artillery pieces ;

30,000 armoured combat vehicles ;

6,800 combat aircraft

2,000 attack helicopters.

The group ceilings were subsequently translated into national limits for each individual State-Party. It also establishes within the Treaty area several sub regions where both groups would be allowed to keep equal numbers of the mentioned weapons systems, with further provisions on how many items could be kept in active units. Furthermore, the Treaty limits the proportion of armaments to be held by a single country to one third of the total numbers, the so-called "sufficiency rule". The Treaty stipulates that arms or equipment beyond the agreed limits have to be destroyed so that within 40 months from entering into force the limits will have been reached. It also includes a thorough notification and verification regime of on-site inspections for the notified holdings, challenge inspections, and the monitoring of destruction of treaty-limited items. Finally, the Treaty established in Vienna a body composed of all Treaty members, the Joint Consultative Group (JCG), as a forum for further consultations.
Status
The Vienna CSCE Follow-up Meeting (1986 - 1989) endorsed, in parallel with the mandate for the Negotiations on Confidence-and Security Building Measures, the mandate to negotiate, within the framework of the CSCE process, measures for military stability of the conventional forces in Europe. The latter negotiations could build upon the experience gained within the former negotiations on Mutual Reductions of Forces and Armaments and Associated Measures in Central Europe (MBFR) which had been held in Vienna from 1973 until 1989. They differed, however, from the earlier negotiations in their scope since they were not limited to Central Europe but covered all of Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals. They also differed from other CSCE-mandated fora in that participation in them was limited to the then twenty-three Member-States of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organisation, and in that they were aimed at a legally binding Treaty rather than a politically binding agreement. Their objective was, according to their mandate, the establishing of a military equilibrium on a lower level of armaments between the Eastern and Western alliances. Negotiations conducted within the framework of the CSCE process resulted in the (legally binding) CFE Treaty of 17 November 1990.

After the signing of the Treaty in 1990 negotiations were continued on the basis of the CFE mandate in order to deal with personnel strength. They led to the Concluding Act of the Negotiation on Personnel Strength of Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (so-called CFE-1A agreement), establishing limits on the manpower of certain kinds of forces, excluding, however, sea-based naval forces, internal security forces, or forces serving under UN command. Ceilings declared by each State take effect 40 months after entry into force. The agreement, also, contains provisions for information exchange, notification and verification. It was signed in Helsinki on 6 July 1992 on the occasion of the 1992 CSCE Summit. In contrast to the CFE Treaty, it is not legally binding but rather a political commitment.

Both, the CFE Treaty and the CFE-1A agreement came into force on 17 July 1992. For the CFE Treaty as well as the CFE-1A agreement the limits envisaged by them were to be legally reached by 16 November 1995. Due to the disappearance of the GDR and the break-up of the former Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, there are currently 30 States parties to the CFE Treaty and CFE-1A agreement.

Chronology
A chronological listing of major events and developoments.

Texts
Primary documents, including treaty text and associated memoranda, statements and other related material.

Congressional Material
Hearings, reports, floor debates and related materials from the United States Congress.

News
Chronological archive of news reports, factsheets, announcements, speeches and other related material.

Related Resources and Web Sites

On-Site Inspections Under the CFE Treaty Joseph Harahan and John Kuhn



pacific posted 01-26-2003 17:13

http://www.fas.org/n...text/index.html
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#2 pacific

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Posted 15 February 2003 - 07:55 AM

pacific posted 01-26-2003 17:24
PROTOCOL FOR THE PROHIBITION OF THE USE IN WAR OF ASPHYXIATING, POISONOUS OR OTHER GASES, AND OF BACTERIOLOGICAL METHODS OF WARFARE
Signed at Geneva June 17, 1925
Entered into force February 8, 1928
Ratification advised by the U.S. Senate December 16, 1974
Ratified by U.S. President January 22, 1975
U.S. ratification deposited with the
Government of France April 10, 1975
Proclaimed by U.S. President April 29, 1975
The Undersigned Plenipotentiaries, in the name of their respective Governments:

Whereas the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices, has been justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilized world; and

Whereas the prohibition of such use has been declared in Treaties to which the majority of Powers of the World are Parties; and

To the end that this prohibition shall be universally accepted as a part of International Law, binding alike the conscience and the practice of nations;

Declare:

That the High Contracting Parties, so far as they are not already Parties to Treaties prohibiting such use, accept this prohibition, agree to extend this prohibition to the use of bacteriological methods of warfare and agree to be bound as between themselves according to the terms of this declaration.

The High Contracting Parties will exert every effort to induce other States to accede to the present Protocol. Such accession will be notified to the Government of the French Republic, and by the latter to all signatory and acceding Powers, and will take effect on the date of the notification by the Government of the French Republic.

The present Protocol, of which the French and English texts are both authentic, shall be ratified as soon as possible. It shall bear todays date.

The ratifications of the present Protocol shall be addressed to the Government of the French Republic, which will at once notify the deposit of such ratification to each of the signatory and acceding Powers.

The instruments of ratification of and accession to the present Protocol will remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the French Republic.


The present Protocol will come into force for each signatory Power as from the date of deposit of its ratification, and, from that moment, each Power will be bound as regards other powers which have already deposited their ratifications.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Protocol.

DONE at Geneva in a single copy, this seventeenth day of June, One Thousand Nine Hundred and Twenty-Five.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


STATES PARTIES TO THE PROTOCOL FOR THE PROHIBITION OF THE USE IN WAR OF ASPHYXIATING, POISONOUS OR OTHER GASES, AND OF BACTERIOLOGICAL METHODS OF WARFARE, DONE AT GENEVA JUNE 17, 1925

States which have deposited instruments of ratification or accession, or continue to be bound as the result of succession agreements concluded by them or by reason of notification given by them to the Secretary-General of the United Nations:

Afghanistan-Dec. 9, 1986
Angolo-Oct. 23, 1990
Antigua and Barbuda-Nov. 1, 1981
Argentina-May 12, 1969
1ab Australia-Jan. 22, 1930
Austria-May 9, 1928
1ab2 Bahamas, The-July 10, 1973
Bahrain-Dec. 9, 1988
Bangladesh-May 20, 1989
2 Barbados-June 22, 1976
1ab Belgium-Dec. 4, 1928
Belize-Sept. 21, 1981
Benin-Dec. 9, 1986
6 Bhutan-June 12, 1978
Bolivia-Aug. 28, 1970
1ab2 Botswana-Sept. 30, 1966
Brazil-Aug. 28, 1970
1ab Bulgaria-Mar. 7, 1934
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta)-Mar. 3, 1971
1ab2 Burma-Jan. 4, 1948
Cambodia-Mar. 15, 1983
Cameroon-July 20, 1989
1ab Canada-May 6, 1930
Cape Verde-May 20, 1991
Central African Republic-July 31, 1970
1ab Chile-July 2, 1935
1ab China, People's Republic of-Aug. 9, 1952
8 China (Taiwan)-Aug. 7, 1929
7 Comoros
Cuba-June 24, 1966
Cyprus-Dec. 12, 1966
1b Czechoslavakia-Aug. 16, 1938
Denmark-May 5, 1930
7 Djibouti
Dominica-Nov. 8, 1978
Dominican Republic-Dec. 8, 1970
Ecuador-Sept. 16, 1970
Egypt-Dec. 6, 1928
1ab Estonia-Aug. 28, 1931
Ethiopia-Sept. 18, 1935
Equatorial Guinea-May 20, 1989
1ab Fiji-Mar. 21, 1973
Finland-June 26, 1929
1ab3 France-May 9, 1926
Gambia, The-Nov. 16, 1966
Germany (GDR/FRG)-Apr. 25, 1929
Ghana-May 3, 1967
Greece-May 30, 1931
1ab Grenada-May 20, 1989
Guatemala
Guinea-Bissau-May 20, 1989
1ab2 Guyana
Holy See-Oct. 18, 1966
Hungary-Oct. 11, 1952
Iceland-Nov. 2, 1967
1ab India-Apr. 9, 1930
Indonesia-Jan. 26, 1971
Iran-July 4, 1929
1ab Iraq-Sept. 8, 1931
Ireland-Aug. 18, 1930
1abd Jordan-Jan. 20, 1977
Kenya-July 6, 1970
Kiribati-July 12, 1979
Korea, North-Jan. 4, 1989
1ab Korea, South-Jan. 4, 1989
1abd Kuwait-Dec. 15, 1971
Laos-May 20, 1989
Latvia-June 3, 1931
Lebanon-Apr. 17, 1969
Lesotho-Mar. 15, 1972
Liberia-Apr. 2, 1927
1bd Libya-Dec. 29, 1971
Liechenstein-Nov. 6, 1991
Lithuania-June 15, 1933
Luxembourg-Sept. 1, 1936
Madagascar-Aug. 12, 1967
Malawi-Sept. 14, 1970
Malaysia-Dec. 10, 1970
Maldives (Islands)-Jan. 6, 1967
Mali-Nov. 19, 1966
Malta-Oct. 15, 1970
Mauritius-Jan. 8, 1971
Mexico-Mar. 15, 1932
Monaco-Jan. 6, 1967
1b Mongolia-Dec. 6, 1968
Morocco-Oct. 13, 1970
Nepal-May 9, 1969
1cd Netherlands, The-Oct. 31, 1930
1ab New Zealand-Jan. 22, 1930
Nicaragua-Oct. 5, 1990
Niger-Apr. 19, 1967
1ab Nigeria-Oct. 15, 1968
Norway-July 27, 1932
Pakistan-June 9, 1960
Panama-Dec. 4, 1970
1ab Papua New Guinea-Sept. 16, 1975
Paraguay-Jan. 14, 1969
Peru-Aug. 13, 1985
Philippines-May 29, 1973
Poland-Feb. 4, 1929
1ab Portugal-July 1, 1930
Qatar-Sept. 16, 1976
1ab Romania-Aug. 23, 1929
Russia (See USSR)
Rwanda-June 25, 1964
St. Kitts & Nevis-Sept. 19, 1983
St. Lucia-Dec. 21, 1988
St.Vincent & The Grenadines-Oct. 27, 1979
Saudi Arabia-Jan. 27, 1971
1ab2 Seychelles-June 29, 1976
Sierra Leone-Mar. 20, 1967
1ab2 Singapore-Aug. 9, 1965
Solomon Islands-July 7, 1978
1ab South Africa-Jan. 22, 1930
1ab Spain-Aug. 22, 1929
Sri Lanka-Jan. 20, 1954
Sudan-Dec. 17, 1980
1c4 Suriname-Sept. 25, 1975
1ab2 Swaziland-Sept. 6, 1968
Sweden-Apr. 25, 1930
Switzerland-July 12, 1932
1d Syrian Arab Republic-Dec. 17, 1968
Tanzania-Apr. 22, 1963
Thailand-June 5, 1931
Togo-Apr. 5, 1971
Tonga-July 28, 1971
Trinidad & Tobago-Nov. 30, 1970
Tunisia-July 12, 1967
Turkey-Oct. 5, 1929
Tuvalu-Oct. 1, 1978
Uganda-May 24, 1965
1ab Union of Soviet Socialist Republics-Apr. 5, 1928
1ab5 United Kingdom-Apr. 9, 1930
1c United States-Apr. 10, 1975
Uruguay-Apr. 12, 1977

___________________________
1 a,b,c,d With reservations to Protocol as follows:


a - binding only as regards relations with other parties.
b - to cease to be binding in regard to any enemy States whose armed forces or allies do not observe provisions.

c - to cease to be binding as regards use of chemical agents with respect to any enemy State whose armed forces or allies do not observe provisions.

d - does not constitute recognition of or involve treaty relations with Israel.


2 By virtue of agreement with former parent State or notification to the Secretary General of the United Nations of succession to treaty rights and obligations upon independence.

3 Applicable to all French territories.

4 Applicable to Suriname and Curacao.

5 It does not bind India or any British Dominion which is a separate member of the League of Nations and does not separately sign or adhere the Protocol. It is applicable to all colonies.

6 Deposited accession on June 12, 1978, but the French Government asked that accession take effect on date of notification by them Feb. 19, 1979.

7 Included in declaration by France. Continued application has apparently not been determined.

8 Effective Jan. 1, 1979, the United States recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China.


pacific posted 01-26-2003 17:40
Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons

Provisions
The draft Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons would prohibit the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons under any circumstances.
Status
At its fiftieth session the UN General Assembly adopted on 12 December 1995 resolution 50/71 E, entitled "Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons" requested the Conference on Disarmament to commence negotiations and requested the Conference on Disarmament to report to the Assembly on the results of those negotiations. The Assembly stressed that an international convention banning the use of nuclear weapons was an important step in a phased program towards the complete elimination of nuclear weapons, within a specified time framework. The Conference on Disarmament has been unable to undertake negotiations on this subject as called for by this and subsequent General Assembly resolutions.

Chronology

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#3 pacific

pacific

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Posted 15 February 2003 - 08:54 AM

pacific posted 01-26-2003 17:39

Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons

Provisions
The draft Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons would prohibit the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons under any circumstances.

Status
At its fiftieth session the UN General Assembly adopted on 12 December 1995 resolution 50/71 E, entitled "Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons" requested the Conference on Disarmament to commence negotiations and requested the Conference on Disarmament to report to the Assembly on the results of those negotiations. The Assembly stressed that an international convention banning the use of nuclear weapons was an important step in a phased program towards the complete elimination of nuclear weapons, within a specified time framework. The Conference on Disarmament has been unable to undertake negotiations on this subject as called for by this and subsequent General Assembly resolutions.

Chronology

Documents
Chronological archive of official factsheets, announcements, briefings speeches and other related material.

News
Chronological archive of news reports, commentary analysis and other related material.

Related Resources

bellisaurius posted 01-26-2003 17:42

Pac, of all the cutting and pasting stuff I've seen here, this is by far the most welcome.

Thank you,

belli
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#4 pacific

pacific

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Posted 18 August 2005 - 09:20 PM

:tralala: :devil: :angel: :D
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