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NASA on the Dark matters


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#1 bishadi

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Posted 14 April 2015 - 09:51 PM

Dark Energy, Dark Matter

http://science.nasa....is-dark-energy/





In the early 1990s, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the Universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the Universe had to slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it.

Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein's theory of gravity, one that contained what was called a "cosmological constant." Maybe there was some strange kind of energy-fluid that filled space. Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein's theory of gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy.

What Is Dark Energy?


More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the Universe's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 68% of the Universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest - everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter - adds up to less than 5% of the Universe. Come to think of it, maybe it shouldn't be called "normal" matter at all, since it is such a small fraction of the Universe.

One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing







What Is Dark Matter?
By fitting a theoretical model of the composition of the Universe to the combined set of cosmological observations, scientists have come up with the composition that we described above, ~68% dark energy, ~27% dark matter, ~5% normal matter. What is dark matter?

We are much more certain what dark matter is not than we are what it is. First, it is dark, meaning that it is not in the form of stars and planets that we see

The thing that is needed to decide between dark energy possibilities - a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or a new theory of gravity - is more data, better data.




I want to add, that it was the rotation of the galaxy arms as observed by Hubble that caused the creation of the dark matter/energy model. The predictions, did not meet the observation. 1998.

My point is, there is so much to learn and the first order of personal responsibility, is to just be fare to yourself and allow it to be OK to find out that what many of us grew up with as believed truths, are incorrect.

From there, it is easy to return to science and the integrity of measuring evidence with predictions and theory.

Edited by bishadi, 14 April 2015 - 10:05 PM.

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#2 macaense

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Posted 16 April 2015 - 12:09 PM

Does it mean that all of us are still in the dark on dark issues ?


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#3 macaense

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Posted 16 April 2015 - 12:24 PM

Let's examine these dark issues:

 

 

April 15, 2015 "Dark Matter Phenomena of an Unknown Nature are Occuring" --The European Space Organziation

 

 

 

 

For the first time dark matter may have been observed interacting with other dark matter in a way other than through the force of gravity. Observations of colliding galaxies made with ESO’s Very Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have picked up the first intriguing hints about the nature of this mysterious component of the Universe.

The image above from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the rich galaxy cluster Abell 3827. The strange blue structures surrounding the central galaxies are gravitationally lensed views of a much more distant galaxy behind the cluster. Observations of the central four merging galaxies have provided hints that the dark matter around one of the galaxies is not moving with the galaxy itself, possibly implying dark matter-dark matter interactions of an unknown nature are occurring.

Using the MUSE instrument on ESO’s VLT in Chile, along with images from Hubble in orbit, a team of astronomers studied the simultaneous collision of four galaxies in the galaxy cluster Abell 3827. The team could trace out where the mass lies within the system and compare the distribution of the dark matter with the positions of the luminous galaxies.

Although dark matter cannot be seen, the team could deduce its location using a technique called gravitational lensing. The collision happened to take place directly in front of a much more distant, unrelated source. The mass of dark matter around the colliding galaxies severely distorted spacetime, deviating the path of light rays coming from the distant background galaxy — and distorting its image into characteristic arc shapes.

Our current understanding is that all galaxies exist inside clumps of dark matter. Without the constraining effect of dark matter’s gravity, galaxies like the Milky Way would fling themselves apart as they rotate. In order to prevent this, 85 percent of the Universe’s mass must exist as dark matter, and yet its true nature remains a mystery. Astronomers have found that the total mass/energy content of the Universe is split in the proportions 68% dark energy, 27% dark matter and 5% “normal” matter. So the 85% figure relates to the fraction of “matter” that is dark.

In this study, the researchers observed the four colliding galaxies and found that one dark matter clump appeared to be lagging behind the galaxy it surrounds. The dark matter is currently 5000 light-years (50 000 million million kilometres) behind the galaxy — it would take NASA’s Voyager spacecraft 90 million years to travel that far.

A lag between dark matter and its associated galaxy is predicted during collisions if dark matter interacts with itself, even very slightly, through forces other than gravity. Dark matter has never before been observed interacting in any way other than through the force of gravity.

Computer simulations show that the extra friction from the collision would make the dark matter slow down. The nature of that interaction is unknown; it could be caused by well-known effects or some exotic unknown force. All that can be said at this point is that it is not gravity.

Lead author Richard Massey at Durham University, explains: “We used to think that dark matter just sits around, minding its own business, except for its gravitational pull. But if dark matter were being slowed down during this collision, it could be the first evidence for rich physics in the dark sector — the hidden Universe all around us.”

The researchers note that more investigation will be needed into other effects that could also produce a lag. Similar observations of more galaxies, and computer simulations of galaxy collisions will need to be made.

Team member Liliya Williams of the University of Minnesota adds: “We know that dark matter exists because of the way that it interacts gravitationally, helping to shape the Universe, but we still know embarrassingly little about what dark matter actually is. Our observation suggests that dark matter might interact with forces other than gravity, meaning we could rule out some key theories about what dark matter might be.”

This result follows on from a recent result from the team which observed 72 collisions between galaxy clusters and found that dark matter interacts very little with itself. Galaxy clusters contain up to a thousand individual galaxies. The new work however concerns the motion of individual galaxies, rather than clusters of galaxies. Researchers say that the collision between these galaxies could have lasted longer than the collisions observed in the previous study — allowing the effects of even a tiny frictional force to build up over time and create a measurable lag.

Taken together, the two results bracket the behaviour of dark matter for the first time. Dark matter interacts more than this, but less than that. Massey added: “We are finally homing in on dark matter from above and below — squeezing our knowledge from two directions. The main uncertainty in the result is the timespan for the collision: the friction that slowed the dark matter could have been a very weak force acting over about a billion years, or a relatively stronger force acting for “only” 100 million years.

All four galaxies might have been separated from their dark matter. But we happen to have a very good measurement from only one galaxy, because it is by chance aligned so well with the background, gravitationally lensed object. With the other three galaxies, the lensed images are further away, so the constraints on the location of their dark matter too loose to draw statistically significant conclusions.

The Daily Galaxy via ESO


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#4 bishadi

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Posted 17 April 2015 - 12:32 PM

Does it mean that all of us are still in the dark on dark issues ?


Heck no.

It's actually pretty easy.

Try the munchen team

Non-classical interference of momentum entangled photons
In the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) a pair of photons can be generated out of a single photon. A direct consequence of energy and momentum conservation in SPDC are energy and momentum entanglement of the down converted photons.


Momentum entangled photons enable diffraction effects of half wavelength size as each of the two photons collects a phase – and these phases add up for a coherent superposition (entanglement) of their momenta




http://xqp.physik.un...copy/index.html

You can find india, russia, japan, china, etc............ even here, doing their homework but you wont find any of it in a text book just yet, because the research is new.
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#5 Shura

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Posted 17 April 2015 - 05:58 PM

Heck no.

It's actually pretty easy.

Try the munchen team

Non-classical interference of momentum entangled photons
In the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) a pair of photons can be generated out of a single photon. A direct consequence of energy and momentum conservation in SPDC are energy and momentum entanglement of the down converted photons.


Momentum entangled photons enable diffraction effects of half wavelength size as each of the two photons collects a phase – and these phases add up for a coherent superposition (entanglement) of their momenta




http://xqp.physik.un...copy/index.html

You can find india, russia, japan, china, etc............ even here, doing their homework but you wont find any of it in a text book just yet, because the research is new.

Only Pissadi knows abut it!


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#6 macaense

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Posted 17 April 2015 - 10:22 PM

"How do scientists “know” that these black holes would be harmless? That defies logic. Why would these black holes function any differently than black holes in outer space, sucking matter into them?"   IS  THIS  BLACK  MAGIC ?


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#7 bishadi

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Posted 18 April 2015 - 02:44 PM

"How do scientists “know” that these black holes would be harmless? That defies logic.


what logic?

Have you seen one?

Do you know any gods? Ever had one flood your world?


Why would these black holes function any differently than black holes in outer space, sucking matter into them?"


   IS  THIS  BLACK  MAGIC ?


It's takes a year for the earth to go around the sun, 1 time. At ANYTIME, has anyone observed matter being sucked into a black hole? Please no homosexual jokes.

Edited by bishadi, 18 April 2015 - 02:45 PM.

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#8 macaense

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Posted 19 April 2015 - 09:41 PM

A  BLACK  HOLE ?   Please translate: 

 

 

http://actualidad.rt...n-agujero-negro


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#9 macaense

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Posted 19 April 2015 - 09:42 PM

Científicos logran mirar en el 'corazón' de un agujero negro supermasivo
Publicado: 19 abr 2015 02:53 GMT
2.9K702
5532dd0cc461883f498b4571.jpg ESO/L. Calçada

El radiotelescopio ALMA permitió a los científicos observar las proximidades del centro de un agujero negro supermasivo en el centro de una galaxia en la constelación de Sagitario, y por primera vez medir la intensidad del campo magnético en el chorro, corriente de la materia que 'escupe' el agujero negro.

El astrofísico Ivan Marti-Vidal y sus colegas de la Universidad Chalmers de Tecnología en Onsale (Suecia) han revelado un campo magnético muy potente más allá de lo detectado antes en el núcleo de la galaxia PKS 1830-211, muy cerca del horizonte de sucesos de un agujero negro supermasivo, informa la página web del Observatorio Europeo Austral. 

Lea también: Los astrofísicos revelan la verdad sobre los agujeros negros

Los investigadores midieron la intensidad del campo magnético mediante el estudio de la forma en la que la luz se polarizaba mientras se movía fuera del agujero negro. "Estos resultados y estudios futuros nos ayudarán a entender lo que realmente está pasando en las inmediaciones de los agujeros negros supermasivos", escribió el coautor del estudio, Sebastien Muller.


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#10 macaense

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Posted 19 April 2015 - 09:49 PM

Maps of the Moon:

 

Los mapas más impresionantes de la Luna jamás publicados
Publicado: 18 abr 2015 06:32 GMT
700173
5531d1f9c461881b768b4593.jpg NASA

El Servicio Geológico de Estados Unidos (USGS, por sus siglas en inglés) ha elaborado, a petición de la NASA, dos mapas muy detallados de la Luna que muestran la superficie del satélite natural de la Tierra en todo su esplendor.

Los dos conjuntos de mapas, compilados por el cartógrafo del USGS, Trent Hare, y sus colegas, incluyen mosaicos de imágenes y mapas topográficos.

Las imágenes en el primer conjunto fueron combinadas con el uso de los datos recibidos por la Cámara de Gran Angular (WAC) del Orbitador de Reconocimiento Lunar (LRO). 

5531d23bc461881b768b4597.jpg NASA
5531d27bc46188fc758b459b.jpg NASA

Los mapas topográficos de la Luna, a su vez, fueron elaborados con base a los datos del Altímetro Láser del Orbitador Lunar que se encuentra a bordo del LRO de la NASA. Para crear los mapas, los cartógrafos utilizaron más de 6.500 millones de mediciones recogidas entre los años 2009 y 2013. 

Lea también: Adiós al enigma de la cara oculta de la Luna

5531d2fac4618812768b45ae.jpg NASA
5531d2ecc46188ad778b45ae.jpg NASA

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#11 bishadi

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Posted 20 April 2015 - 03:33 AM

A  BLACK  HOLE ?   Please translate: 
 
 
http://actualidad.rt...n-agujero-negro


no different than the eye of a hurricane.

Basic
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#12 bishadi

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Posted 04 September 2016 - 03:44 PM

Any other questions?


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#13 GodElectric

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Posted 19 February 2017 - 07:54 PM

This is Russian pravda (TRUTH) report, then you should all know dark energy is a complete and total lie. The cosmos is electric, probes have been sent up confirming it is full of charges and electric fields. The gravity model of the universe requires dark energy to explain the motions of celestial bodies, add electricity to the model and it can all be explained away. You want the truth look up the discoveries of people like Nikola Tesla, Ralph Juergens, Kristian Birkeland, Hannes Alfven [etc]..  I will even give you the true decipherment of the hieroglyphs for free, here is positive and negative charge hieroglyphs, proving that its an electric Universe and we're not alone! Enjoy! >

TJicR9ialrw

 


Edited by GodElectric, 19 February 2017 - 07:55 PM.

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