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Hypothetical unified Third Reich and Nipponese Empire space program

Empire of Japan Third Reich game-ender Weapons of mass destruction World War II Manchukuo Republic of China spaceflight airship directed energy weaponries

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#1 Soheil


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Posted 07 May 2016 - 11:23 PM

Alternate history: Hypothetical Axis victory in World War II
A S☫heil presentation
First published 2015; Updated version 2016
What if before 1945, the Third Reich and the Nipponese Empire did merge their independent and uncoordinated space programs.
The two Axis powers' exclusive game-enders will first be discussed, then a hypothetical commonly developed Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD) key to an Axis' total victory over the Allied powers will be analysed.
Furthermore, the pivotal role of the Manchukuo puppet state and Guangdong region under the control of the Nipponese Empire in this untold Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD) arms race will also be clarified.

As a friendly nation to another, Russian brothers deserve to have a first look at this work.handshake.gif


Table of Contents
1. Background: The Opening Solar Concentrator
2. The Third Reich's game-ender, the Manned GEO Solar Concentrator WMD
Hint at future spacesuit's lineage
Human Spaceflight Bottleneck
3. The Empire of Japan's game-ender, the Near-space Directed Energy Airship WMD
Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum
Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory activity timeline
3.1. Directed energy weapons
3.1.1. EMFs weapons
Principle of EMF weapons: Air Ionization and breakup 
Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory ruins
Feasibility of radio frequency ranged imagery

3.1.2. Uchūsen weapons (宇宙線兵器)
Yukawas meson exchange interaction for the nuclear force
The World Final Race Theory 
Official Hint: 1942 New National Anthem of Manchukuo
 神風 Glossary
 Stalin V Martians 
Nipponese developments in remote sensory transmissions
Pre-WWI Nipponese neuroscience research
Nipponese neuroscience research on the human central nervous system in the 1940s
Feasibility of studying the ionizing radiation effect on the human central nervous system Airborne field particle accelerator 
Main Mods unlocked by Riken
3.2.Hint at Nipponese attempt to develop nuclear power plants
Feasibility of airborne nuclear electric power plant
3.3. Nipponese Near Space Airships
Discovery of Divine Wind stratospheric current
Nipponese space weather in the 1940s
3.3.1. Nipponese unmanned stratospheric airship
Nipponese developments in remote controlled platforms
The Imperial Japanese Army Nagayama radio controlled prototype tank 
Japanese guided missiles
3.3.2. Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric airship
Nipponese space medicine in the 1940s
Human spaceflight bottleneck
Feasibility of manned stratospheric flight

Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric super-heavy airship
Napoleonic airborne UK landing operation concept circa 1802
The Class Struggle Period in Victorian era's Literature 
Feasibility of controlled Divine Wind navigation
Feasibility of manned stratospheric super-heavy airship
3.4 Nipponese stealth super-heavy airship
Fictitious 1945 INSF Admiral logbook 
4.1. The Germano-Nipponese game-ender, the Orbital Directed Energy WMD
Feasibility of upgraded A-4 engines
4.2. Bonus strategy: Post 1945 Axis victory with Trojan horse in outer space


Part 1
Background: The Opening Solar Concentrator

Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor, Worlds Oldest Solar Device

During the sixth century BCE, Confucius wrote about the common use of curved mirrors shaped from shiny metal to concentrate the rays of the sun for making fire. These became known as yang-suis translating to solar ignitors, or burning mirrors.

According to the great philosopher, upon waking up the eldest son would attach a solar ignitor to his belt as he dressed for the day. It was his duty to focus the solar rays onto kindling to start the familys cooking fire.

According to another early text, the Zhouli, which describes rituals dating far back into Chinese antiquity, The Directors of the Sun Fire have the duty of transferring with burning mirrors the brilliant flames of the sun to torches for sacrifice.

Although scholars found over the years many ancient texts discussing solar ignitors, the discovery of an extant yang sui eluded them for centuries. Quite recently came the Eureka moment. Digging up a tomb that dated to about 3,000 years ago, a team of archaeologists found in the hand of a skeleton a bowl-shaped metal object. While the inner side could have passed for a wok, the exterior trough had a handle in its center. Thats what caught the eye of the two archaeologist in charge of the dig, Lu Demming and Zhai Keyong. They immediately brought the relic back to the local museum and ordered its specialists to make a mold from the original and then cast a copy in bronze.

After polishing its curved surface to a high degree of reflectance, the inquisitive archaeologists focused sunlight onto a piece of tinder just as the eldest son would have done so many years past, and in seconds the combustible material burst into flames. This verified without a doubt that the purpose of the artifact is to make fire, Lu and Zhai later wrote, assured of having found the oldest solar device in the history of humanity.

Now that the world could see what a real yang-sui looked like, museums retrospectively identified 20 more previously unclassified objects as solar ignitors. Multiple molds for turning out yang suislater found at a Bronze Age foundry in Shanxi province, close to the first find, suggest a mass market once existed for them. In fact, yang suis were probably as ubiquitous in early China as are matches and lighters today. The yang sui should be regarded as one of the great inventions of ancient Chinese history, remarked its discoverers, impressed by the ability of their forefathers to figure out the complex optics for such optimal performance so early in time.






Edited by Soheil, 25 May 2016 - 11:41 AM.

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#2 Soheil


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Posted 07 May 2016 - 11:33 PM

Part 2.
The Third Reich's game-ender, the Manned GEO Solar Concentrator WMD

Advantages: too high for fighter planes and anti-aircraft guns interception; virtually unlimited ammo; large coverage of the earth

Weakness: total lack of knowledge concerning space weather, earth radiation belts and magnetosphere; too massive; too long building time; requiring multiple launches; requiring rendezvous and docking prerequisites; manned crew in GEO irrealistic contrary to LEO; not stealthy launch centers, not stealthy once in space, giving Allied powers time to devise countermeasures; must be oriented within certain angle with the sun and the earth; sun rays blocked by cloud covers or burning city smokes

Secret Nazi plan to blow up cities, boil oceans with sun gun

April 03, 2013


IT may sound like a something a Bond villain would propose, but these amazing picture reveals the secret plans drawn up by the German army to create a mile-wide space gun powered by the sun.

The giant mirror could be used to focus the sun on a target - rather like the magnifying glasses often used by children to create fire. The pictures, from Life magazine in 1945, reveal to its readers how US Army technical experts came up with the astonishing fact that German scientists had seriously planned to build a sun gun.

The giant orbital mirror would focus the suns rays to a scorching point on the earths surface. The German army, readers were told, hoped to use such a mirror to burn an enemy city or to boil part of an ocean.
The idea is the brainchild of renowned rocket scientist Hermann Oberth, in 1923. With an estimated cost of three million marks and taking 15 years to construct, the original purpose of the space mirror was to provide the people of earth with sunshine on demand, anywhere on the globe. As late as 1957, he was still convinced that his space mirror would become a reality, but also described it as the ultimate weapon.

In 1945, when the victorious Allies began sifting through captured Nazi war plans, it emerged the Nazis had updated Oberths proposals and begun looked into the possibility of the Third Reich building a mirror weapon in geosynchronous orbit 22,236 miles above the Earth - which was then reported in Life Magazines 23 July 1945 issue.

My space mirror, he wrote, is like the hand mirrors that schoolboys use to flash circles of sunlight on the ceiling of their classroom. A sudden beam flashed on the teachers face may bring unpleasant reactions. I was a schoolteacher long enough to have collected certain data on the subject.
Although there were no official details of the construction of the project, Life magazine believed it would we put into orbit in preassembled sections.

The entire surface of the mirror-front, back and edges-would be mirrored, otherwise [the suns rays] would burn occupants of disk to death instantly, the magazine claimed.

The Life version of the mirror would also contain a manned space stations, with 30-foot holes in which supply rockets could dock, hydroponic gardens to provide oxygen and solar powered generators for electric power. Once in orbit, the master rocket for the project would unreel six long cables, each only 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches thick. Spinning the rocket on its axis would extend the cables radially, allowing construction to begin.


LIFE Magazine Jul 23, 1945

Third Reich's WMD in GEO focussing beam attack on New York State!

Third Reich's man-made satellite weaponry

Building of WMD; WMD with crew and resupply

Greenhouse producing oxygen supply for the crew

Solar electric generator and micro thrusters for attitude control assisting the targeting of the WMD

Centuries old of Archimedes hoax debunked

Relation between focal length and size of projected image at focal point

https://books.google...e mirror&f=true

Hint for future spacesuit's lineage

Watanzug pressure suit for the Horten IX

06 / Jan./ 2003

For illustration purpose only. Image taken circa February 1945

For illustration purpose only. Image taken circa February 1945

For illustration purpose only. Image taken circa February 1945


Human Spaceflight Bottleneck

Due to the severe space environment beyond the thermosphere LEO, mainly radiations from the solar activity, the existence of several radiation belts in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the weightlessness, the old phantasm of human presence in GEO and farther is thus facing a serious technological bottleneck. The new Space Age colonization era would eventually be unlocked by further development in biotechnologies such as 3D bioprinting, but only the following century.

Among the many radiations awaiting the would be spacemen above the mesosphere, natural Proton Beams can not be overlooked.

On a cosmic scale

Ordinary auroras are caused by electrons, which rain down on Earth's atmosphere from above. Atoms of oxygen and nitrogen, excited by the pitter-patter of electrons, form dynamic curtains of light. Protons have a different effect. For reasons not fully understood, protons normally trapped in our planet's ring current sometimes rain down on Earth's atmosphere during geomagnetic storms. En route, they excite a type of plasma wave called "EMIC"--short for electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The result is not a curtain, but rather a tight arc of light called Proton Arc as shown above.

On a more modest scale, the man-made laboratory artificial version of the phenomenon in the 1940s

Lawrence's 60-inch cyclotron, circa 1939, showing an external beam of accelerated ions (perhaps protons or deuterons) ionizing the surrounding air and causing an ionized-air glow. Due to the similar mechanism of production, the blue glow is thought to resemble the "blue flash" seen by witnesses of criticality accidents in uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction.

Subatomic size projectiles are not the smallest one to prevent any human or artificial presence in outer space.
Another serious danger hindering any human-made activities in orbit is the collisions with even larger coalesced structures, starting from the size of meteorids, produced yearlong by outgassing comets, in their passage in the inner solar system. Such collisions are known to puncture rocket stages and tanks.


A Geminid Meteor is captured from LEO as it entered the Earth's green air glow layer

The CZ-3C upper stage of the Chinese Chang'e 3 Lunar mission (2013-070B) was launched only two years ago on 2 December 2013. Observations during the summer months of 2015, up to 14 September 2015, suggested a stable flash period of about 423 seconds.
But somewhere between mid-September and late October 2015, things have changed.
The flash period had suddenly dropped, to 384 seconds on 24 October 2015, and has further dropped to 364 seconds on 6 December 2015. The most likely explanation is that the booster developed a fuel leak. A meteoroid impact can puncture the rocket stage and tanks. When this happens, fuel vapor escapes from the rocket stage, and acts as a mini rocket engine, giving the object some extra momentum. This can either speed up or slow down he tumbling speed of the object.
We have seen this happen a number of times with rocket stages in Low Earth Orbit as well, and there is no reason why this could not happen to a rocket stage in a trans-Lunar orbit.

An unmanned robotic version in LEO should lower the risks from radiations exposure.

The larger a solar concentrator, the higher the risk of being impacted. Multiple platforms should also increase the probability of the weapon system's survival as compared to a single orbiting platform. Loosing some of the platforms will not completely stop the weapon from functioning, but only reduce its total output power. Each smaller individual concentrators being used to focalize a solar beam simultaneously at a same ground target.

If the gigantic single piece concentrator is damaged, then it would need to be repaired. Smaller platforms when damaged or even destroyed can easily be replaced by another spared platform waiting in a bunker to be launched with a rapid reaction carrier rocket.
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#3 Soheil


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Posted 08 May 2016 - 01:13 AM

Part 3

The Empire of Japan's game-ender, the Near-space Directed Energy Airship WMD

According to the Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum (陸軍登戸研究所), opened in March 29, 2010, several secret weapons were devised since the 1930s. Microwaves are the most documented with a known anti-aircraft version. (Army Noborito Institute <secret war> of the world," Yamada low Meiji peace education Noborito Institute museum, Meiji University Publishing Association (Original March 20, 2012), first edition, p7, p94-98. ISBN 9784906811007;『陸軍登戸研究所<秘密戦>の世界』 山田朗・明治大学平和教育登戸研究所資料館、明治大学出版会(原著2012年3月20日)、初版、p7,p94-98。ISBN 9784906811007。)

Artificial lightning created by ionizing the air with beams of Ultraviolet rays have also been documented (Akira Sakai, Ochiai Kumaichi "ultimate secret weapon of the world File" Gakken (Original March 10, 2010), first edition, 150 pages. ISBN 9784054045170; 坂井明、おちあい熊一 『決定版世界の秘密兵器File』 学習研究社(原著2010年3月10日)、初版、150頁。ISBN 9784054045170。)

Any of these secret weapons could have been fitted aboard super-heavy airships cruising in near space (altitude ranging from 20 km to under 100 km). The existence of these future exotic super-heavy airships appears in some sources.

Directed energy weapons are extremely energy consuming, with a power output of probably several hundreds of kW or even better several MW. Land based anti-aircraft microwave stations are known to be powered by dedicated electric power plants. Furthermore, to produce the buoyancy of the super-heavy airships, the large volume of gas (hydrogen or helium) must be heated, at altitude where oxygen rate is too low to sustain a combustion. A solution for these two problems could be the harnessing of nuclear energy.

To maximize the separation of the crew from hazardous radiations, the airship total length would have to be stretched to maximum extend, or alternately, the nuclear electric power plant would have to be suspended by means of several hundreds of meters long tethers.

Advantages: too high for fighter planes and anti-aircraft guns interception; not dependent on solar illumination; can be activated 24/7

Weakness: very slow airships possibly powered by kites surfing on jet streams; takeoff of airship requires good weather; Near-space's field coverage narrower than with LEO or GEO; rays could be blocked by cloud covers; limited ammo as the rays generators are extremely energy consuming; must accommodate a large crew limiting the military payload; endurance limiting mission time and range, not expendable as with unmanned platforms

Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum


The defunct Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum for Education in Peace is a most important site for studying WWII and pre WWII Japanese military history. The Noborito Museum used to be a research facility that focused on ‘clandestine warfare’ – counter intelligence, espionage activities, clandestine strategy and propaganda – which means that Noborito’s activities display the less-discussed and hidden aspects of warfare.
  • Address
    1-1-1 Higashi-mita,
    Tama-ku, Kawasaki-shi,
    Kanagawa 214-8571
    (Located in Ikuta Campus)

The Japanese Army Unit 731 Museum examines the top-secret research base, established in 1935 as the center of Japan’s most secretive WMDs warfare in China and Southeast Asia.

At least 4,000 people, mostly Chinese civilians, but also Russians, Koreans, Mongolians and Manchurians died in the experiments between 1935 and 1945.

When the Soviet Union took Harbin, capital city of Heilongjiang province, in August 1945, the retreating Japanese forces destroyed most of the facilities.

The main building of the base is now a museum, with photos, sculptures and exhibits of the equipment used by the Japanese. There are extensive English captions, but inaccurates.

The 10,000-square-meter building is divided into six exhibition rooms, displaying 10,050 relics excavated from the remains of Unit 731’s headquarters.
  • Location:
    Japanese Army Unit 731 Museum, Xinjiang Dajie 25, Ping Fang district, Harbin city, Heilongjiang province, P.R. China

Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory activity timeline

║ Year ║ Month    ║ Milestone                                                                           ║
║ 1936 ║ December ║ Research on Microwave weapons(く号兵器) started                                    ║
║ 1938 ║ April    ║ Research on Lightning generator weapons(ら号兵器) started                          ║
║ 1941 ║ June     ║ Experiments conducted on live human subjects by Unit 731 in Manchuria;              ║
║      ║          ║ Note: this includes vacuum chamber for future space flight, directed energy weapons ║
║ 1943 ║ November ║ First stratospheric balloon(ふ号兵器)prototype completed                           ║
║ 1944 ║ February ║ Stratospheric balloon flight tested in Chiba Prefecture Ichinomiya coast            ║
║ 1944 ║ November ║ Start of stratospheric balloon bombing campaign on US mainland                      ║
(only in Japanese) http://www.meiji.ac....bout/index.html

Noborito Lab 9th Institute museum: some of the various directed energy weapons (microwave, UV, IR, Ultra sound, etc) and other automated/remote controlled platforms research

3.1. Directed energy weapons
3.1.1. EMF Weapons

Google translation

The research and development of special weapons, radio weapon was done here. By irradiating the sky with ultraviolet rays to produce lightning by ionization of the air had also been done in experiments


The magnetron, built and named by Albert W. Hull at General Electric in 1921 was a HF device, Hidetsugu Yagi was convinced that it could also be a generator of VHF or even UHF signals.

A leader in Japanese electronics research, Kinjiro OKABE invented in 1927 the split anode-type magnetron, significantly decreasing the operating wavelength of oscillations, and promoted the application of microwaves (3cm wavelength, 10GHz frequency).



During the Second World War, Dr. Tomonaga was interested in developing a theory of microwave systems. He solved the motion of electrons in the magnetron and also developed a unified theory of the systems consisting of wave guides and cavity resonators.


Nippon Radio Telegraph and Telephone Co., Ltd. developping in 1939 the world’s first cavity magnetron, with punched positive copper pole, 10cm wave length and 500W power.


Principle of EMF weapons: Air Ionization and breakup

A Study Of High Power Microwave Air Breakdown

23 December 1999


This paper presents the results of research on microwave breakdown in air, it includes the experimental study and the theoretical analysis. The experimental study has been done in a waveguide with a frequency of 9.37GHz, the peak power up to 200kW, pulse width from 0.3 to 2.0μs. The repetition rate of microwave source is from single pulse to 970 pulse per second. The process of the breakdown of repetition pulse has also been recorded for a burst of ten pulses. A theoretical model for breakdown threshold is presented also. The theoretical are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory ruins (第二海軍技術廠牛尾実験所遺跡)

Note: The site and all the concrete ruins have been removed circa February 28, 2015


34°51'23.8"N, 138°07'44.6"E
34.856607°N, 138.129065°E


Published on Aug 14, 2013

First excavation made at the site of a former Navy Laboratory "High intensity radio waves weapons". Finding was reported on August 14.

This experimental station, is located in Ushio mountain "Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory", Shizuoka Prefecture, Shimada city.

Experimental interceptions of enemy aircrafts were intended by irradiating a strong radio waves with a large dish.

At the end of the war, radio waves weapon could still not be put into practical use.

Research after the war, have unlocked applications such as a microwave oven.

Access to the Ushio mountain is planed to be closed because of the renovation of the Oi River flowing nearby.

Some voices claiming that the ruins represent an important part of the war asked for the recording of the site with drawings and photos.

However, locals have also called for the preservation of the historical site.

Ruin of WW2 microwave anti-aircraft platform used to shoot down Allied B-29, formerly housing a 10 meter parabola in Shizuoka Prefecture, Shimada Ushio


Shizuoka Prefecture Shimada Archaeological Report Vol. 49 "Second naval technology Factory"

March 20, 2015, pp.41-64

Shimada Laboratory was dedicated to research on "death ray" during the war.

After the Battle of Midway, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto advocated the need to develop new revolutionary weaponry.
The "death ray" project was launched around June to August 1942.
Construction work started around May 1943.
With staff member of 1,457 people and 60 researchers.

Original plan was first to increase the ouptut power of the ultra-high frequency from the kW to hundreds of kW.
Second, nuclear power generator was expected to be used.

The basic design has been completed in 1944 around September, but it did not reach the stage of practical application, with a high-frequency radio wave output of 50kW using a 10 meters diameter parabolic reflector.

The whole project ended unfinished.

Parabolic reflector


Modern Japanese amateur speculative sketches

1/100 scale 3D Model at a recent exhibition


Feasibility of radio frequency ranged imagery

Through wall radio-imagery in the 10 GHz frequency band


This time I wanted to see indoor what could be seen in the 10 GHz band. Especially for this purpose I have developed a small panoramic radar, which can be moved from place to place. It turned out that radio imagery made indoor can not only see windows, but also outside these windows, from the neighboring houses to the satellites signals, as well as the sun.

Panoramic radio-imagery. Four windows. Well visible are the frame of the windows. In the third picture from left, the bottom of the roof of a neighboring house is clearly visible.

Radio-imagery of a person. On the left image, hands are lowered. In the second image, hands are placed horizontally. And on the right picture, hands are raised up.

Radio-imagery through the window. At the lower part of this picture, the roof of a neighboring house is visible. On the left, roughly in the middle, a signal from a satellite. On the right, another big bright spot, also a signal from a satellite. The wide arc of light running from left to right - are signals from satellites merged together due to the poor spatial resolution of the antenna used. The vertical bar on the right side of the radio-image is a window frame.

In interactions with matter, microwave radiation primarily acts to produce molecular rotation and torsion, and microwave absorption manifests itself by heat.

If electromagnetic energy is absorbed, but cannot eject electrons from the atoms of the material, then it is classified as non-ionizing radiation, and will typically just heat the material.
Thermal Mechanisms of Millimeter Wave Stimulation of Excitable Cells

June 2013

results suggest that [millimeter waves] MMW stimulation produces significant thermally mediated effects on excitable cells via basic thermodynamic mechanisms that must be taken into account in the study and use of MMW radiation in biological systems.


3.1.2. Uchūsen weapons (宇宙線兵器)


Cosmic rays were discovered [by Victor F. Hess with an ion chamber] in 1912 from the studies on the dark current of electricity (Nishina et al., Miehlnickel, 1938).
The dark current was discovered in 1785 by the discoverer of the law of electric force, C.A. Coulomb (1785). It was found when he was examining some leakage trouble experienced in the course of his experiment on the law of electric force with a new sensitive torsion balance invented by himself.


It was at that time that Victor Hess (1883-1964) managed to clear up the problem. A total of ten flights were taken by Hess (two in 1911, seven in 1912, and one in 1913). He made observations in an open cabin (gondola) with two other men on board a balloon; they sometimes had to breathe oxygen. During his most successful flight on August 7, 1912, he reached the height of 5,350 m above sea level and obtained unequivocal evidence of a rather strong ionisation speed-up beginning from the height of about 2,000 m ...

"The results of the present observations seem to be most readily explained on the assumption that radiation of very high penetrating power enters the atmosphere from above; even in its lower layers, this radiation produces a part of the ionisation observed in closed vessels..."



Yukawa’s meson exchange interaction for the nuclear force

March 2008

Heisenberg tried to explain the nuclear force in terms of the Heitler-London scheme, but was not successful.

Yukawa as of 1933 also struggled with this problem. Many difficult problems existed: how can a migrating real particle exist in nuclei? Is it a Bose electron? How can the interaction be short-ranged? How can proton + electron be a neutron?

Finally, in the fall of 1934 Yukawa arrived at the concept of a “virtual mediating particle” behind the strong nuclear force.

[Yoshio Nishina constructed a large cloud chamber with a very strong and homogeneous magnetic field to measure cosmic rays. The track of a new cosmic ray event taken on photography indicated a mass of 1/7 to 1/10 of the proton mass, leading to] the discovery of “mesotrons” (the name for Yukawa particles at that time, now called muons) in 1937, which was published in Phys. Rev.[ A paper of Nishina, Takeuchi and Ichimiya received by Physical Review on August 28, 1937, and was published on December 1 ], parallel to the well known two American groups (Neddermyer-Anderson and Street-Stevenson);


Masa Takeuchi graduated in 1931 and became a research member of the radioactivity measurement team at Nishina's laboratory.
One year later they successfully obtained the energy spectrum of cosmic rays.
By the summer of 1937, Takeuchi successfully obtained clear pictures of the track of meson from cosmic rays.
Takeuchi's achievements went further. By the end of 1938, he observed a single track that suggested the existence of an unknown particle that had about one half of the mass of a proton.
He reported his finding finding at a colloqium at the Riken, but unfortunately, never published his result. He believed that it was possibly the first evidence of K-mesons (or kaons).

https://books.google...ic rays&f=false

The existence of the meson made clear the behaviour of cosmic rays. The soft component consists of electrons and photons, while the hard component of high penetrablility is attributed to the meson.
Through reading this paper, I [Yataro Sekido] again became interested in the lifetime problem [of the meson] and sent a letter to Sakata, in which I suggested separating the meson decay from the nuclear beta-decay. This model was worked out successfully by Sakata (1940, 1941), that is, the meson decay should take place through a virtual pair of nucleons, the latter decaying into an electron and a neutrino by the Fermi interaction.
About a week later, I receive a copy of a paper by Yukawa and Sakata (1939) who had worked along the same line. Sakata presented the two-meson theory at Riken in 1942.

August 2013

The two-meson theory by Sakata and Yasutaka Tanikawa et al.
The prediction of μ and νμ in addition to π meson
This theory was extensively discussed at the MEISO-KAI (Wondering Meeting or Meson Club) in June 1942

In June 1940 Sakata and Yasutaka Tanikawa reported at the Semi-Annual Meeting of Riken that the neutral meson should decay into two or three gamma rays with very short lifetimes, depending on spin 0 or spin 1.
This provided a basis of my later contribution to the origin of the soft component.



Tomonaga completed his bachelor's degree in physics at Kyoto Imperial University in 1929, with one of his intimate friends. Dr. Hideki Yukawa. He was engaged in graduate work for three years at the same university and was then appointed a research associate by Dr. Yoshio Nishina at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo, where he started to work in a newly developed frontier of theoretical physics quantum electrodynamics - under the guidance of Dr. Nishina.
In 1940, Dr. Tomonaga directed his attention to the meson theory and developed the intermediate coupling theory in order to clarify the structure of the meson cloud around the nucleon.
It was in 1942 that he did his most famous work, when he first proposed the relativistically covariant formulation of the quantum field theory.

Hantaro Nagaoka proposed the Nagaoka model of the atom (predicting the existence of the nuclei) in 1903.
The atomic world is governed by quantum electrodynamics established by physicists including Sin-itiro Tomonaga and the nucleic world is ruled by the nuclear force described by Yukawa theory.

August 7, 2013

As for the Imperial Japanese Navy, it began a feasibility study under the direction of Captain Yōji Itō at the Navy Technical Research Institute around January 1942.

Itō assembled a panel of experts, designated the “Committee for Research on the Application of Nuclear Physics (B-Research),”and invited Nishina to serve as chair.

The committee met ten or more times until March 1943, when the panel of experts concluded that Japan could not develop a nuclear weapon in time for the war. Itō disbanded the committee and turned his attention to developing electronic weapons, including radar and a “death ray.”

The World Final Race Theory or Final War Theory, by Kanji Ishihara, published in 1941. A prophecy about the inevitability of the World War and that the world will then be unified.
The Final War will be conducted with annihilation strategy in a very short period of time that will rely on massive use of weapons of mass destruction and aircrafts.

Official Hint

1942 New National Anthem of Manchukuo

Introduced on 5 September 1942, and replacing the obsolete 1933 Anthem

Manchurian version: "With the Divine Light creating the Universe, the vast land strengthens the Emperor's rule" (神光開宇宙 表裏山河壯皇猷)

Japanese version: "Filling the world with Divine light" (大御光 天地に充ち)


  • "Kamikaze" (神風), or Divine Wind. Providential typhoons that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol invasion fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281. These were the first events where the typhoons were described as "divine wind" as much by their timing as by their force.
  • "Shenlong" (神龙), or Divine Dragon. Part of Project 863-706. China's space plane in development.
  • "Shentong" (神通), or Divine Communication. Military strategic communications satellite series. First unit Shentong-1 (ZX-20) launched on 15 November 2003 into GEO at 103.3° E longitude.
  • "Shenwei" (神威), or Divine Might. China's supercomputer developed by National Engineering Research Center in 1999. It is used by the National Meteorological Center.
  • "Shenzhou" (神舟) or Divine Ship. Part of Project 921 phase 1. China's first operational manned spacecraft. The first launch occured on November 19, 1999.

Year 1942. Summer. The martians suddenly land somewhere in Siberia and attack the glorious people of Holy Mother Russia. It is a hard time for USSR as you might know from the history books if you ever attended school. The situation is really fucked up, so comrade Stalin takes the anti-ET military operation under his personal control. The operation is a top secret and virtually nobody knows about the fact of extraterrestial intervention.



In 1944, Sekido published a book under the same title, Uchusen (Cosmic Rays)
In Chapter 4, he attempted to illustrate a relationship between cosmic ray research and the war effort in five different areas: meteorology, geomagnetism, biology, the theory of matter and cosmology
For example, in his discussion of cosmic ray research and the theory of matter Sediko included a long discussion of meson theory.

In 1937, Dr. Nishina constructed the first cyclotron in Japan (the second in the world) at RIKEN and established the foundation of nuclear and elementary particle physics research. He also led pioneering research activities to apply radioisotopes to a wide variety of research fields, including nuclear chemistry, radiobiology and medicine.
Two types of radioisotopes, 24Na and 32P, produced by this cyclotron were used in the research on the metabolism of living organisms for the first time.



Nishina invited and encouraged biologists and medical doctors to use the cyclotron for their research. Biologist such as Murati, Hiromi Nakayama, Yoshihito Sinoto, and Duhei Sato as well as physicians such as Nakaidzuni, Taro Takemi, and Nobutane Mori accepted. They examined the effect of strong radioactivity on plant and animal physiology, especially on the genetic mutations, and also employed radioactive materials as tracers.
They unanimously praised Nishina for his farsightedness.



Like Bohr, Nishina was interested in collaborating with biologists. Nishina often talked with Bohr over the question of life, and he was also close to George Hevesy.
When Nishina's group first produced a beam from the 27-inch cyclotron, on April 3, 1937, Nishina asked Murati Koiti, a speciallist of radiobiology, to see the effect of the beam on an organism. Murati and others studied the effect of neutrons on guinea pigs.
Nishina delightedly wrote to Bohr, and reported that for the first time in Japan physicists and biologists were working hand in hand.
At the same time, the use of radioisotopic tracers in organisms started in the Nishina group. In May 1937, Nishina recruited Nakayama Hiromi, a graduate student in biology, who started replicating Hevesy's recent experiments.

https://books.google... Murati&f=false

Cooperation with biologist and medical men helped Nishina not only to prove the versality of cyclotron but also to extend his research network outside Riken. These two factors were crucial in expanding his support from the Japanese science community for the construction of his 60-inch cyclotron.

https://books.google... Murati&f=false

The Nishina lab by this time [1941] included a cosmic-ray experiment group, a cyclotron group, a theory group, and a biology group.

Besides RIKEN, Osaka and Kyoto Universities had also built cyclotrons. Seishi Kikuchi, originally from RIKEN, had moved to Osaka and also obtained funds for a cyclotron in 1935.



Nipponese developments in remote sensory transmissions

Since ancient times, humans have dream of distant lands. Hearing and seeing events occurring far away had not been possible for ordinary people, prompting at least a limited interest in clairvoyance or crystal ball gazing in various parts of the world. It was in the 19th century that the dreams of the tele(far off)-phone(to hear) and television(to see) started to be given thought from a scientific standpoint and to be considered subjects for technical proof.

About 1840, Samuel F.B. Morse of the United States invented a means of telegraphic communication that converted words into a code consisting of dots and dashes, which could be transmitted by simple electrical pulses.

The first successful radio waves wireless communications experiment was conducted by Guglielmo Marconi of Italy in 1895, when he transmitted a Morse code signal from a window in his house to a point 2.4 km distant.

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell of the United States invented the telephone, a device for converting the human voice into electricity and vice versa.

Kenjiro Takayanagi (1899-1990), who had dreamed of “wireless distance vision,” which could reproduce a scene from far away, succeeded in displaying the Japanese character “” on a Braun tube on December 25, 1926 (on a mechanical and electrical system with 40 scanning lines). This was also the day when Emperor Taisho passed away; thus, TV in Japan began its historical journey with the start of the Showa era.

First remote transmission of the character “イ” in 1926

When he was 10, Kenjiro Takayanagi happened to observe a demonstration of Morse code transmission by Japanese Imperial Navy officers in his primary school classroom.

In 1920, he learned that the first "radio station" was established in Pittsburgh,U.S.A., and that this new invention was attracting popular audience.

Now that voice transmission is possible by radio, there is no reason why pictures cannot be sent from one place to another by similar electronic devices.

Kenjiro Takayanagi had already begun studies on a television set using an electric device for both imaging and image reception by 1925.

His research progressed to the successful experimental TV transmission of an image of a person in 1928 (40 scanning lines, 14 frames/second)

At any rate, Takayanagi and his team continued their research and experiment, and, in May, 1930, the Emperor visited his laboratory to observe his invention. By this time, his television could transmit more complex letters as well as human face vaguely. With the success of experiment in front of Imperial family, Takayanagi's invention was officially encouraged by the government, and he was given a small independent research institute for the development of television with a dozen of staff and ample budget.

This was followed by the invention of an image pickup tube iconoscope by Zworykin of the United States in 1931, a development which shocked the world. Immediately afterwards, Takayanagi’s team test manufactured an iconoscope by themselves (220 scanning lines, 20 frames/second), and completed in 1936 an all-electric TV system with 245 scanning lines, interlaced scanning, and 30 frames per second transmission.

Further improvements were made by Takayanagi’s team, and in 1937, they fabricated TV set with 441 scanning lines at 30 frames per second, which at the time was the world’s best.



Pre-WWI Nipponese neuroscience research

Japanese ophthalmologist Tatsuji Inouye who created the first relatively accurate map of the primary visual cortex; the map was based on his correlational observations of visual field defects following penetrating injuries to the occipital cortex during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904



Mapping the Visual Cortex

The first steps in the mapping of the visual cortex came about through the tragic circumstances of war. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, many Japanese soldiers sustained bullet wounds that penetrated through the posterior part of their brains. Because of the higher muzzle velocity and the smaller bullet size of rifles developed in the late nineteenth century, these weapons tended to produce more localized brain injuries than were inflicted in earlier wars, and improved care of the wounded also resulted in higher rates of survival. Many of the wounded soldiers were partially blinded by these injuries, and Tatsuji Inouye, an ophthalmologist, was asked by the Japanese government to evaluate the extent of their blindness as a means to determine their pension benefits. Inouye found that the parts of the visual field in which these soldiers were blind corresponded to the locations of their brain injuries as determined by the sites of the bullet's entry and exit through the head.
By combining the visual field deficits from different soldiers he was able to deduce the topographic organization of the primary visual cortex. Inouye's map revealed that much more cortex was devoted to the representation of the central part of the retina than to the periphery. This is the portion of the retina with the highest acuity, and it is our most important means for probing our environment for information, and the part you are using to read this book. Inouye's map of the primary visual cortex has been confirmed by modern brain-imaging techniques.



Nipponese neuroscience research on the human central nervous system in the 1940s


Dr. Taro Takemi built the first portable electrocardiograph in 1937, and was also known for his invention of the vectorcardiograph in 1939.

In the late 19th century, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Johannes Peter Müller, and Hermann von Helmholtz showed neurons were electrically excitable and that their activity predictably affected the electrical state of adjacent neurons.

We now know that these are the sodium, potassium and other ions which are responsible for electric membrane phenomena in excitable cells.


History of neuroscience - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Andrey Iskanov's Philosophy of a Knife (2008) is a Russian documentary representing artistic thus crude and gory but inaccurate reconstitution of Lieutenant-General Shiro Ishii's Unit 731 of the Kwantung Army most notorious experiments on live human subjects.

Of special interest are two scenes of pioneering experiments:
  • In the first scene, the early phase in neuroscience experiments, the subject's response to pain stimuli is monitored with electrophysiological recordings.

    The stated aim of the experiment is to discover and quantify the threshold in human beings of bearable pain before unconsciousness.
  • Then in the second scene, a more advanced phase in neuroscience experiments, external electrical stimuli are applied with the aid of needle electrodes to the spinal cord, inducing muscular contractions in the subject, and also monitored with electrophysiological recordings.

Feasibility of studying the ionizing radiation effect on the human central nervous system

South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

The Earth is surrounded by a pair of concentric donut-shaped clouds called the Van Allen radiation belts which, like magnetic bottle, store and trap charged particles from the solar wind. They are aligned with the magnetic axis of the Earth, which is tilted by 11 degrees from the rotation axis of the Earth, and are not symmetrically placed with respect to the Earth's surface. Although the inner surface is 1200 - 1300 kilometers from the Earth's surface on one side of the Earth, on the other they dip down to 200 - 800 kilometers. Above South America, about 200 - 300 kilometers off the coast of Brazil, and extending over much of South America, the nearby portion of the Van Allen Belt forms what is called the South Atlantic Anomaly. Satellites and other spacecraft passing through this region of space actually enter the Van Allen radiation belt and are bombarded by protons exceeding energies of 10 million electron volts at a rate of 3000 'hits' per square centimeter per second. This can produce 'glitches' in astronomical data, problems with the operation of on-board electronic systems, and premature aging of computer, detector and other spacecraft components.

The Hubble Space Telescope passes through the 'SAA' for 10 successive orbits each day, and spends nearly 15 percent of its time in this hostile region. Astronauts are also affected by this region which is said to be the cause of peculiar 'shooting stars' seen in the visual field of astronauts.

Earth's magnetic field in June 2014 as observed by the Swarm constellation, released on June 19, 2014


By 1935, Nishina had acquired sufficient funding to build a cyclotron of his own.
With advice from Lawrence and the experience gained by his assistants, Yasaki and Sagane, whom he had sent to Berkeley, it was brought into operation by April 1937 – the first outside the US - a remarkable achievement considering how well established all the European laboratories were.
as experiments began he was already ordering parts for a 60-inch cyclotron, just as Lawrence was in Berkeley.
This came into operation for the first time in 1939 producing 9-MeV protons, a world record for a brief period, though with very low beam intensity.
In fact, some major redesign was needed, ... that the intensity was raised to 4 μA, and then quickly to 180 μA of protons and 350 μA of deuterons, enabling a full experimental program to begin.



Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA-Shield)


Brief Summary

Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA-Shield) provides an assessment of the radiation environment inside the ISS.

Experiment/Payload Description

Research Summary

Astronauts in orbit are exposed to cosmic radiation that is of sufficient frequency and intensity to cause effects on the central nervous system. Radiation exposure represents one of the greatest risks to humans traveling on exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).

ALTEA-Shield is part of the ALTEA program, a multidisciplinary research project which aims at obtaining a better understanding of the light flash phenomenon, and more generally the interaction between cosmic rays and brain functions. Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space.

The Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA-Shield) experiment, developed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), will measure the particle flux in the U.S. Laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS), being able to discriminate the type of particles, to measure their trajectories and the delivered energies.


Radiation effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The use of the ALTEA instrument is proposed to improve the understanding of the effect of ionizing radiation on the CNS functions. The experimental program makes use of the ALTEA detectors to perform a radiation survey on board ISS.

Experimental model for retinal interaction



Nipponese study of ionizing radiation effect on the human central nervous system in the 1940s

Bed used to record the subject's reaction
http://www.bordenins...thics-ch-16.pdf Airborne field particle accelerator

In order to be able to weaponize an airborne particle accelerator, Riken should have unlocked the next level in particle accelerator energy, reaching the threshold of >300 MeV to 500 MeV for protons/deuterons beam, needed to produce the first usefull electron-decaying particles.
Moreover, the overall size and mass of the cyclotron, with the electromagnet alone weighting 220 tons, should have imperatively needed to be shrinked.
A more compact design, while able to reach even higher energy level could have been possible with the replacement of the single massive electromagnet at the core of Nishina's cyclotron, with several smaller and more powerfull magnets for bending the particle beams, while acceleration would have been produced by radiofrequency cavities.

In this regard, the development of rare earth magnets are certainly in the right direction.

In July 1927, the geologist Ding Daoheng discovered the resources at Bayan Obo which is now known as the rare earth capital of the world. Although he is now upheld as a national hero for identifying what is still thought by some to be the world’s largest rare earth deposit, he was part of a group within the expedition that was entirely focused on identifying iron resources to provision German, Russian, and nascent Chinese industry.


Main Mods unlocked by Riken

Due to the inherent specificity of high penetrability of the hard component attributed to the meson, applications unlocked by Riken's researches lead to three main mods.
  • Mod.1. Requiring only a single platform, this is the most basic to field. Like directed energy counterparts, used to disrupt, degrade or destroy targets, depending on the charge and output level, by producing a hot spot or "plasma ball". Like microwaves, able to penetrate some layers of clouds and light building structures; but totally outmatching EMF, against hardened building structures, armored metal targets and even some underground depth (possibly shallower than 500 meters).
  • Mod.2. Requiring multiple pairings of platforms, where spacing and alignments are necessary to keep the whole array in working formation.
    Each pairing of platforms made of one signal source and one signal receptor. A single signal source can be paired with more than one signal receptor, globally increasing both the scanning area and number of tracked targets.
    With lower energy output level than the first mod. Non offensive class asset.
    Used for intelligence only, in the most stealthy covert operations.
    Can perform reconnaissance as well as eavesdropping on enemy personnel, hardware and communications.
    Provides real-time ultra-high resolution structural imagery scanning.
    Can directly tap into electrical sensors such a cameras, telephones, radios, sonars, radars, etc.
    When targeting living organisms, can directly record live sensory perception representations of the environment in various channels, including IR, various visible bands, UV, light polarization, magnetic fields, electric fields, pressure waves, various vibrations, infrasounds, audible sounds, ultrasounds, temperature, accelerations, various type of molecular detections, etc, depending on the organisms' abilities.

  • Mod.3. Upgraded version of the second mod. With variable and higher energy output level than the second mod. Offensive class asset. Used for electronic countermeasure warfare, to jam and neutralise detection systems (radar, sonar, anti-aircraft searchlight, etc.) or any enemy electrical assets. Used in more broader 5D electrical warfare to disrupt, deny, deceive, and even dominate (control) thus allowing destruction of enemy targets, including engines, communication apparatus, but also larger structures such as power plants, factories and aircraft carriers. Any living entities relying on electrical charges at the molecular level to function constitutes also good soft targets, including yeast, beehives, crops, cattle, homing pigeons, war dogs, military personnel and civilians alike.

Edited by Soheil, 25 May 2016 - 11:59 AM.

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#4 Soheil


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Posted 08 May 2016 - 02:27 AM

3.2. Hint at Nipponese attempt to develop nuclear power plants


During the war, as Japan's supreme authority of atomic physics, Nishina led one of the principal wartime nuclear power projects.
The Japanese did not get far enough to have to decide whether to build a bomb or a reactor; therefore "nuclear power project" is more appropriate for their endeavor.


Collaboration in Nishina's group crossed disciplinary boundaries, too. Nishina's first disciple, Takeuchi Masa, was in fact trained as an applied chemist at Tokyo Higher Technical School, and knew little about physics. The collaboration between the Nishina group and Kimura Kenjiro's group of chemists at Tokyo University produced eight papers between 1938 and 1942 on Uranium. Kimura another Copenhagen alumnus, had already worked with Nishina in Copenhagen on the dependance of the x-ray spectrum on chemical binding. The most important result of their collaboration in Tokyo was the discovery of uranium-237, made possible by a combination of physical technique (illumination of fast neutrons generated by the lithium-deuterium reaction and the 27-inch cyclotron constructed by Riken) and chemical technique (chemical separation of non-uranium elements).

https://books.google... Murati&f=false
march 2008

Yoshio Nishina made the discovery of symmetric fission phenomena by fast neutron irradiation of uranium (1939 - 40), published in Phys. Rev. and Nature;


Fission studies were also carried out at the [Nishina lab by this time in [1941]] by physicists such as Kenjiro Kimura.
The aim was to seperate uranium 235 by gaseous thermal diffusion method.

August 7, 2013

Meanwhile, technical officers in another division of the navy's research organization, the Bureau of Ships, also began a preliminary investigation of nuclear fission for military purposes.

In the manufacture of these highly volatile chemicals, the electrolytic process yielded small amounts of heavy water(i.e. deuterium oxide) as a by-product.
Long after the war, some seized on the presence of heavy water at the NZ plant as evidence of Japan's nuclear research at Hungnam

Heavy water is but one of many components that can be used in the construction of a nuclear reactor, but it is not essential.
Nishina, the civilian scientist in charge of nuclear research for the army at the Riken, once entertained the idea of constructing a type of nuclear heat engine, that would have used a mixture of light water and enriched uranium
It is well documented in Japanese and U.S. sources that, during the war, both the Japanese army and navy made efforts to locate uranium-bearing ores in Korea. Sometime around spring 1943, the army sent an officer to Korea to examine the Kikune mine near Seoul.

The army also sent orders to its field commanders in Manchukuo (i.e. Manchuria), China, and in the South Sea Islands to find uranium. Research expeditions were even sent to Mongolia and as far away as Burma. Some uranium-bearing ores were located in Manchuria, but their uranium content was very low, and they were never shipped to Japan.
Only a heavily industrialized site such as Hungnam with its connection to the great hydroelectric generating plants could have supported a viable effort to enrich uranium on a large-scale.

Nearly a year later, U.S. military intelligence officials in occupied Japan also began to hear rumors that the Soviets were engaged in surveying and mining uranium bearing ores in northern Korea.

Just four months after the outbreak of the Korean War, the Times reported that a South Korean Army unit had captured what appeared to be a uranium ore processing plant in Hungnam
What the documents revealed was actually Nishina's design for something akin to a crude nuclear reactor

Largest known rare earth deposit discovered in north Korea

a total mineralisation potential of 6 billion tonnes with total 216.2 million tonnes rare-earth-oxides including light rare earth elements (REEs)

Uranium in north Korea is commonly found in monazite, a phosphate mineral that also contains thorium.


Monazite deposits are mined for their rare earth and thorium content.



Feasibility of airborne nuclear electric power plant

Soviet Nuclear Bomber

Aviation Week, December 1, 1958, p28

to provide containment shielding for neutron radiation and ... protecting the crew quarters from gamma radiation.
The extreme length of the aircraft fuselage also would be aimed at maximum separation of crew from radiations ...

http://aviationweek....lear Bomber.pdf

Resuscitating the Atomic Airplane in America: Flying on a Wing and an Isotope

December 5, 2008

No matter how well shielded, crew and passengers would still run a high risk of exposure to radiations.
What's more, the planes would have to be so largeabout twice the size of a 747.

Soviet airborne nuclear power plant

February 2, 2015


The TU-95LAL. Behind the pilots cabin there was a very thick layer of radiation protection installed. However the outer walls were not that thick and radiation could go on the sides.


This is how they were removing and installing the reactor from/into the plane.


3.3. Nipponese Near Space Airships

Nipponese unmanned stratospheric airship

Kamikaze (神風), or Divine Wind are Providential typhoons capable of turning the tide of an already lost war, and said to have saved Japan from two devastating Mongol invasion fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281. These were the first events where the typhoons were described as "divine wind" as much by their timing as by their force.

Japanese boats boarding a Mongol ship in Hakata Bay, 1281, size of ships is simulated from archeological remains


Discovery of Kamikaze Divine Wind stratospheric current


World War I interrupted Japans plan to start upper-air observations.
Wasaburo Ooishi, founded Japans first upper-air observatory at Tateno, in 1920.
Observation at Tateno began in April 1921. By late 1921, records were routinely archived;
On 2 December 1924, Ooishi awoke to clear skies over Tateno. A cold front had passed over the city on the previous day.

Ooishi launched a 120-g balloon (~ 1 m-diameter) on 2 December (10 A.M., LST) and followed it with the single theodolite.
With a nominal ascent rate of 300 m/min, the balloon reached the 9-km level in ~ 30 min.

Analysis of the data from this launch revealed a west wind of 72 m/s (~ 140 kts) just below the 10-km level (~ 33,000 ft).

Ooishi discovered that the strong westerly wind he observed in December 1924 was not unusual, at least not for the active weather season (late fallearly spring).

Pilot balloon launch


Nipponese space weather in the 1940s


In 1940, Nishina and his laboratory studied the influence of typhoons on cosmic-ray intensities, greater emphasis was placed on research considered useful in understanding high-altitude atmospheric conditions. Part of the project would entail making very precise cosmic-ray counters, which would incorporate Geiger-Muller counters.

Nov 10, 2014

The unusual increase of cosmic rays was observed on March 7, 1942 (increase following exceptionally large solar flare as it was later discovered)
Tamaki analyzed the transport of cosmic rays in the atmosphere


https://books.google...y 1942&f=false

3.3.1 Nipponese unmanned stratospheric airship

Nipponese developments in remote controlled platforms


The Imperial Japanese Army Nagayama radio controlled prototype tank

The IJ Army's radio controlled tank development started under the direction of Captain Nagayama in the 1920s.

First transmitter and receiver set produced on March 1927.

Production of the first tank prototype succeeded in March 13, 1930.

Nagayama radio-controlled tank, ("Poplar Science" August 1930)



4 Sept. 1945

Japanese guided missiles

To date the "I-go" series A and B is the only flyable result of pilotless missles found in JAPAN, and this was an army-sponsored program.
It included the most elementary radio and auto-pilot control system.
about 150 missiles were constructed, and a total of about 17 missiles actually test-flown
about 70% to 80% were considered effective hits.
In July 1944, a radio controlled flying bomb design was started.
By the end of October 1944 the first model of "I-go" B was ready for test.
The first "I-go" A was built and dropped at the end of November 1944.

A jet unit was provided in both "I-go" A and B for additional speed which operated for about eighty seconds.
The jet motor was designed by Mitsubishi engine laboratory and delivered 10 ton-second thrust using hydrogen peroxid and a catalyst.
The people concerned were emphatic in their assertions that no information on German guided missile was ever available to them.

Description of "I-go"
Type "I-go" A "I-go" B
Span 6 m 4 m
Weight 1500 kg 750 kg
Warhead 800 kg 300 kg
Thrust of Jet 300 kg 150 kg
Speed 550 km/h 550 km/h
Range 11 km 11 km
Mother plane Ki-48 Ki-67

Ki-147 I-Go-1A ASM

http://www.fischer-t...Report 0-02.pdf
Fūsen bakudan

The program is known as Fu-Go (ふ号兵器), and "balloon bomb" as fūsen bakudan (風船爆弾). The etymology of the Japanese word for "balloon" used in fūsen bakudan, is "windly vessel". Note that the common word kikyū (気球), and often designating hot air balloon is not used on purpose. This is to stress the novelty of this new platform's propulsion mode.

To have an idea on how to surf the powerful jet streams (250 hPa | ~10,500 m, jet stream) and above, a visualization of global weather conditions forecast by supercomputers here: http://earth.nullsch...80.40,90.01,339

Noborito Lab 9th Institute museum: first version of unmanned robotic intercontinental strategic stratospheric platform; hinting at future manned larger versions


Jul 25, 2015

The fūsen bakudan (or fu-gō, as they were commonly called) were high-altitude explosive and incendiary devices that were sent over the Pacific toward North America. With no targeting system, they landed at random.

Their development was centered at the Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory, located in the hills of Kawasaki southwest of Tokyo on land in Kanagawa Prefecture that now belongs to Meiji University. Known for its links to the military Unit 731, which experimented on human subjects in Harbin, the lab was charged with developing secret weapons and techniques.
In response to the April 1942 Doolittle Raid on Tokyo the first U.S. attack on Honshu Japan wanted to hit back by any means possible. The army considered initial plans to load high-flying balloons with the rinderpest virus, but this was ultimately abandoned for fear of a terrible retaliation by the U.S. which came anyway in the form of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What made the balloons ingenious was their design and deployment. The main part was a hydrogen-filled balloon up to 10 meters wide that would carry explosives and incendiaries far across the Pacific to enemy territory 10,000 km away.
For a military weapon, the papermaking technique may have been crude but it kept the hydrogen gas from escaping, even at very high altitudes with low air pressure.
It was a weapon that could soar far above the land and sea, using a force of nature that had never been exploited before. In the 1920s, Japanese meteorologist Wasaburo Oishi conducted a series of experiments with pilot balloons launched from various locations in Japan. His accurate recordings from Tsukuba, northeast of Tokyo, led him to conclude that there were persistent, high-altitude winds blowing from the west, at least during the winter and spring in Japan. When the military gained control of his aerological observatory in the 1930s, Oishis data was instrumental in planning the balloon bomb program
Japan may have lacked the B-29 Superfortresses that would level its cities, but it had a new way to attack its foe: the jet stream.
In many ways, it was the first intercontinental weapons system, The mechanism that kept the balloon at the appropriate altitude so that it kept travelling in the jet stream and that, ultimately, released the incendiary and high-explosive bombs had to work in a hostile, high-altitude environment, with very low temperatures and low air pressure.
About 7 to 10 percent of the 9,300 bombs sent toward North America are believed to have survived the transpacific crossing and about 300 are confirmed to have landed.

A tree snags a balloon bomb in Kansas on Feb. 23, 1945. | KYODO


High-altitude jet stream weather radiosondes were first introduced in 1944, onboard the Fūsen intercontinental ballons. Wireless transmitters could send back to Japanese shortwave ground stations, data collected by onboard pressure, temperature and humidity sensors.


3.3.2. Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric airship

For illustration purpose only. "When attacking enemy fortress, it is best to first reconnoiter enemy troops deployment with the use of Kongming Vehicles, -Three Kingdoms: Fate of the Dragon"

Speculative depiction of Nipponese "death defying" Special Commando Unit, inserted into US mainland by air and conducting nuclear "radiological bomb" suicide attacks

Nipponese space medicine in the 1940s
  • Andrey Iskanov's Philosophy of a Knife (2008) is a Russian documentary representing artistic thus crude and gory but inaccurate reconstitution of Lieutenant-General Shiro Ishii's Unit 731 of the Kwantung Army most notorious experiments on live human subjects.

    Of special interest is the last experiment of the film, involving a vacuum pressure chamber in order to study the effect of decompression on the human organism.

    The purpose was to discover how much time a man would have, before complete loss of consciousness, if it was to be a breakdown high in the sky.

    At one second the pressure in the chamber containing a man was lowered from 192 to less than 2.
  • Several other scenes show human subjects being exposed to x-ray for hours, to study the characteristic types of radiation damage associated with ionizing radiation.

    Since the quantum energies of x-ray photons are much too high to be absorbed in electron transitions between states for most atoms, they can interact with an electron only by knocking it completely out of the atom. That is, all x-rays are classified as ionizing radiation.

    In interactions with matter, x-rays are ionizing radiation and produce physiological effects which are not observed with any exposure of non-ionizing radiation, such as the risk of mutations or cancer in tissue.
  • Bonus hint: Man Behind the Sun is another historical war series movies dedicated to the reconstitution of Unit 731's human experimentations.

    There is only one experiment worthy to be mentioned, in the second opus, known as Maruta 2: Laboratory of the Devil (1992) and directed by Godfrey Ho.

    An experiment that involved the use of minus 200 degrees liquid nitrogen, allowing cryogenic temperature to be tested on humans, conditions hinting at preparation for space missions.

    Quote: "human bones immersed into liquid nitrogen at minus two hundred become very brittle"
Key data: Harbin Unit 731 Japanese Warfare Museum - modern but inaccurate depiction of vacuum pressure chamber experiments in preparation for manned space missions

Japanese Army Unit 731: the first cryogenic experimentations were conducted in this building completed in 1940.

Vol 14 No 178 Post Register 1945-06-04

Japanese propagandists predicted Monday the United States would be attacked in "the near future by bomb carrying stratosphere balloons manned by death defying Japanese pilots." The broadcast, by Japanese Domei news agency and recorded by the federal communications commission, said Lt. Col. Shozo Nakajima, propaganda spokesman of the Nipponese armed services, made the prediction. Nakajima said the pilotless balloon attacks, recently disclosed by the U. S. army, were launched against America last March 10, Japanese army day, and that hundreds of them had been released from Japan every day since. "The spokesman pointed out," Domei added, "that thus far these attacks have been on an experimental scale and he predicted that when actual results of the experiment have been obtained, large scale attacks with death defying airmen manning the balloons will be launched." The dispatch, dated Singapore added: "The balloon bomb is one of Japan's unique originations and it is specially significant in that by the use of this method of bombing we can attack the enemy mainland directly from Japan something that the enemy cannot boast of.


Feasibility of manned stratospheric flight


Manhigh balloon gondola. Gross mass: 747 kg

A manned balloon flight was one of the best ways of testing such improvements and of finding out if man is capable, physically and psychologically, of extended travel at space-equivalent altitude.
All agreed that a twenty-four-hour manned flight at about 115,000 feet was feasible.
Meanwhile, the Holloman program could also profit from knowledge and experience available at Wright Field, especially in the field of high-altitude parachute systems
In its early stages, the Holloman manned-balloon program was called Project Daedalus, a name later changed to Man-High.
The prospects included both new flights with the existing Man-High capsule, which was perfectly reusable, and the development of even bigger and better "floating scientific laboratories." As early as April 1957, Winzen Research, Incorporated submitted an "unsolicited proposal" for a balloon-borne "Satelorb" research platform capable of weeklong flights with five or more men at 100,000 feet.
A two-man version of the Man-High capsule, with room for a pilot and a full-time scientific observer, was another alternative less elaborate than "Satelorb" but easier to obtain on short notice.72 And, of course, the ultimate outgrowth of the manned balloon capsule could be only one thing: a manned satellite.


Human spaceflight bottleneck

Radiation levels peak at the entrance to the stratosphere in a broad region called the "Pfotzer Maximum." This peak is named after physicist George Pfotzer who discovered it using balloons and Geiger tubes in the 1930s. Radiation levels there are more than 80x sea level.

Note that the bottom of the Pfotzer Maximim is near 55,000 ft. This means that some high-flying aircraft are not far from the zone of maximum radiation.

A plane flying at 45,000 feet is exposed to 2.79 uSv/hr. At that rate, a passenger would absorb about one dental X-ray's worth of radiation in about 5 hours.

The radiation sensors onboard helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.


February 28, 2002

Cosmic radiation presents the most serious challenge for space exploration.

People in Yangjiang, China, live with radiation levels three times the world average but have below-average cancer levels.

In fact, research shows that a gene responsible for the production of white blood cells and so-called "natural killer cells" that attack tumors was more strongly expressed among the population.


Recruiting airship crew from populations already used to dealing with more exposure to radiation than most of the rest of Nipponese, from Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, region controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army, could help both breaking the spaceflight bottleneck, and the nuclear power plant radiations challenge as well.
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#5 Soheil


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Posted 08 May 2016 - 03:20 AM

Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric super-heavy airship

Napoleonic airborne UK landing operation concept circa 1802

Large JPG image
For illustration purpose only. Another poster, released in 1804, showed huge troop movements across the Channel not only by balloon and boat but also through the tunnel. http://gallica.bnf.f...8/btv1b8413295f

Large JPG image
For illustration purpose only. Published 8 July 1803. Proposed in Year 6, La Thiloriere was intended to carry up to 3,000 men, horses and cannons of the forefront invading army. http://gallica.bnf.f...8/btv1b8509550q

The Class Struggle Period in Victorian era's Literature

For illustration purpose only. George Griffiths The Angel of the Revolution (1893)

For illustration purpose only. George Griffiths The Angel of the Revolution (1893) tells the story of a group of revolutionaries who conquer the world using airship technology. They create a Brotherhood of freedom establishing a pax aeronautica over the earth.
This melodramatic fantasy of air warfare and the socialist message influenced H G Wells and foreshadowed the air battles of World War I. In novels like The War in the Air (1908), H G Wells emphasised the importance of the aircraft. http://www.bl.uk/rom...ear-of-invasion

January-February 1968

Shimuzu Rikuro, a former press attache of the Japanese Embassy in Argentina and manager of the Domei News Agency in that country, stated that the balloons were a "prelude to something big."


Japanese navy continued with balloon research under a new concept which consisted of balloons capable of carrying a crew to effect some flight control.
A model test was conducted at the Fujikura Industries Company in Tokyo, but never went beyond the testing stage before the war ended. Other exotic ideas were brought up, but never materialized.


Feasibility of controlled Divine Wind navigation

For illustration purpose only.

Speculative addition of gigantic kites to effect some flight control while surfing the jet stream. This would also allow airships to stay high above the air currents, far from enemy interceptors and flak.

Feasibility of manned stratospheric super-heavy airship

To increase the payload of an airship, a simple technological evolution would be the clustering of multiple airships, similar to rocketry development, instead of developing a totally new heavier airship.

Dec. 7th, 2010

Able to rise to 25,000-30,000 meters, accelerate to 700-800 mph - and release the shuttle

as a platform for the launch of "Buran", with suspended cables.

Total Structure / Landing Systems Mass of Buran: 42,000 kg
Functional Systems and Propulsion of Buran: 33,000 kg
Maximum Payload of Buran: 30,000 kg
Total Mass of Buran: 105,000 kg


For illustration purpose only. Myasishchev V-90 airship project




3.4. Nipponese stealth super-heavy airship

By applying a ferrite-based coating on the metallic fuselage of the airship, where radiowaves are the most reflected could have significantly reduced its radar signature.
But coating the entire envelope of the airship would have increased the overall mass. A solution would have been to coat only the lower half of a lens-shaped rather than cylindrical envelope.
In addition, the dark hue of the coating would have also reduced the risk of flaring in the visual band, allowing a stealthy ingress into the American continent.

The world's first ferrite magnet – discovered by accident

The world's first ferrite magnet was discovered in 1930 by Dr. Yogoro Kato and Dr. Takeshi Takei, two professors at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Dr. Takei, a student of Dr. Kato, was investigating how lowering zinc yield during the zinc refining process affected the physical properties of ferrite when he happened upon ferrite with high magnetism levels. Up to that point, magnets had almost always been composed of metal, but Dr. Takei made the monumental discovery that like iron rust, ferrite's primary component was ferric oxide, making it a viable magnet material.

At the time, as it was yet unclear whether “ferrite” would have a future or not. As a result of joint research by the Tokyo Institute of Technology and TDK, a product called “ferrite core” was produced and applied for the first time worldwide in 1937 in a number of Japanese wireless communication units and radios. By the end of the World War II, as many as 5 million units had been shipped by TDK.



July 1988

Absorbent coverings first came to public notice in January 1982, when the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo called TDK company, a well-known manufacturer of electronic equipment, with a strange request. The Embassy wanted to buy one gallon of paint. So strange were the events surrounding the request that it took until August for Japan's Ministry of Trade and Industry to give an OK.
The paint, it turned out, had been developed to stop leaks from microwave ovens. It contained ferrites -- iron containing compounds -- and was apparently of interest to U.S. researchers who were trying to design radar-absorvtive coatings for planes. Because Japan bans the export of defense-related technology, and ferrite paint was apparently wanted for stealth project, the Ministry took the matter under advisement.
It turned out that another Japanese company -- Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) had also developed a similar paint that had been used to coat towers and buildings in sensitive locations to eliminate TV ghosts and scattering of unwanted radio waves. NEC had worked out a technique using two layers of the ferrite material separated by a dielectric -- an insulator. Such an electronic sandwich, researchers found, could absorb much microwave energy striking it over a frequency range of 3.5 to 20 gigaherz. And, most significantly, most military and commercial radars operate in the 10- to 30-gigaherz range.
https://books.google...lth ww2&f=false


Fictitious 1945 INSF Admiral logbook

Dec. 15, 2015

Unlike normal grey-white clouds, which hug Earth's surface at altitudes of only 5 to 10 km, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) float through the stratosphere (25 km) and they are fantastically colorful.

Also known as "nacreous" or "mother of pearl" clouds, the icy structures form in the lower stratosphere when temperatures drop to around minus 85ºC. Sunlight shining through tiny ice particles ~10µm across produce the characteristic bright iridescent colors by diffraction and interference. Once thought to be mere curiosities, some PSCs are now known to be associated with the destruction of ozone.

"Nacreous clouds far outshine and have much more vivid colours than ordinary iridescent clouds.

They are seen mostly during winter at high latitudes. Elsewhere their appearance is often associated with severe tropospheric winds and storms.

Fictitious 1945 INSF Admiral logbook: "Sighting of most auspicious Nacreous Clouds from 25 km altitude in the stratosphere, far above enemy flak and interceptors, while cruising stealthily the Divine Wind safely at 200 km/h top speed, via the polar route toward the final waypoints, North America's East Coast capital cities. This bodes well for our first ever wintertime and maiden voyage, which should also be our ultimate mission. From our success will depend the fate of our Empire. Innumerable are the civilian foes who will lose their lives, but this will eventually bring an end to the Greater East Asian War. As virtuous warriors, true to the Bushidō, we will do our duties with daring and indomitable spirit to ensure that the honour of the Tennō shall be preserved. By prosecuting the War of Great East Asia to its final conclusion, the unconditional surrender of the Allied should soon reward the Shōwa-Tennō."


Part 4
4.1. The Germano-Nipponese game-ender, the Orbital Directed Energy WMD

Using the remote Manchukuo hinterland as space launch center, thus out of reach from Allied bombers, and providing cover from enemy prying eyes. Using Third Reich A-4 rocket engines in clusters in the first stage of a heavy space launchers, and orbiting smaller space platforms containing energy generators modules, directed energy weapon section, communication, control and targeting sections.

Robotic unmanned version could be placed in LEO or higher.

Advantages: faster development; fast launch and deployment; worldwide coverage with LEO; more stealthy to deploy than large solar concentrator in GEO; expendable if unmanned

Weakness: limited ammo as it consumes electricity unless nuclear powered, in this case might not be crewed; need replacement parts unlike solar concentrators


For illustration purpose only. Baicheng Space Launch Site, located in the heart of Manchukuo and bordering Inner Mongolia, was Asia's first sounding rocket launch site. Strategically situated, not too close to the Soviet Union's border, thus preserving the secrecy of its activities. Perfect for monitoring any rocket's first stage launch before its flying over the Mainland Japan.

For illustration purpose only. Launched on 15 May 1987, from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 250, Polyus would have been the core module of the new MIR-2 (Peace-2) Soviet space station. The Polyus military testbed was the first disclosed orbital directed energy platform, fitted with a megawatt-class carbon-dioxide laser.
Polyus was covered by an optically black shroud and it was suspected that this may have been radar absorptive as well.

For illustration purpose only. From "Orbital Eunuchs Sniper" video game

Feasibility of upgraded A-4 engines

The German engineers at Zentralwerke had already begun development of an improved V-2 engine in 1945. Through relatively simple measures the thrust was increased to 30 metric tons. Glushko then found that by using 96% alcohol fuel in place of the V-2's 75%, the basic engine would deliver 37 metric tons thrust.
The increased-thrust engine allowed the rocket to be stretched, with a lift-off mass 50% greater than the V-2.


4.2. Bonus strategy: Post 1945 Axis victory with Trojan horse in outer space

A last ditch attempt to avert the foreseen defeat, by strategically planning and offering a feigned surrender, thus turning the tide of the war to finally achieve a late post 1945 Axis victory. Pivotal to this stratagem is the capture by both Allied and Comintern forces of the Axis game-ender as "victory trophy".

Playing the divide between the ex-war-allies, and the restart of hostilities between the Allied and the Comintern.

By carefully splitting the scientific and military personnel as well as the hardware and facilities to be "captured" in order to equalize the probability of success by both antagonistic sides in the upcoming "game-ender space race".
By doing so, the Axis would be able to force the two superpowers to rush in crash space programs, thus leaving room for vulnerabilities: blind and total reliance on Axis specialists' technical expertise.

Once the game-ender Mod-3 is completed and placed into LEO by any of the two superpowers, taking the control by activating the hidden secret codes. Then turning the WMD against both the Allied and Comintern. First to be neutralised are the highest in hierarchy in the WMD program. Then in always broader circles, sweeping worldwide the scientific community, military leaders, political establishments, academic circles, prominent clericals, without sparing the most influential figures from the civilian society.

Finally, official announcement of the end of WW2, and claiming total victory for the Axis. New World Order superseding a century of Pax Britannica, with the 70th meridian east longitude fixed as Military Demarcation Line, between the spheres of interest of the Axis powers. Humankind entering the Age of Globalization.

For illustration purpose only. The Earth as photographed from Space on Oct. 24, 1946.

For illustration purpose only. "The Matrix" (Katakana:マトリックス)


Earliest Tongue in 1942

In April 1953 the first man-made V particles were reported at the Cosmotron.

In his conclusion at the conference in July 1953 held at Bagneres, near the Pic-du-Midi laboratory, Cecil Powell said, 'We have been invaded ... the accelerators are here.'



Trans-orbital lobotomy: Mass Lobotomy Project

on schizophrenic patients[targets]
upon discharge, the patients[targets] have a couple of weeks of indolence, some confusion, and forgetfulness, followed by a more protracted echo period of irritability, defiance and perhapse resurgence of complaints.
loss in intelligence, memory and other measureable abilities
the best results produced little more than inertia, inattentiveness, lack of initiative, blunted affect, docility,
In that tumultuous decade, rumors floated around that lobotomies were being considered to change political attitudes, quell student protests, and quiet racial conflicts.
The public also was getting a glimpse at the role of lobotomy-like procedures in a future technologically totalitarian society in novels such as The invisible Man (1952) and Limbo (1952), and in films such as A Clockwork Orange.



To capture the enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the supreme of excellence. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.
-Sun Tzu, Wu general, military strategist and philosopher, "The Art of War", 512 BC

To be continued...




Edited by Soheil, 25 May 2016 - 12:01 PM.

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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: Empire of Japan, Third Reich, game-ender, Weapons of mass destruction, World War II, Manchukuo, Republic of China, spaceflight, airship, directed energy weaponries

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