Exclusive geostrategic situation of North KoreaBrief History of North Korea
North Korea's rare earth deposithttp://img.mp.itc.cn...3647a8f_th.jpeg
The Stone Weapons Age
Korean nation originated in the Taedong River basin centering on Pyongyang in the primitive ages.
They date back to the Lower Palaeolithic era, or one million years ago. The primitive men lived in groups, forming a primitive community, the first social organizations.
The remains of "Ryokpho man", "Tokchon man" and "Hwadae man" who had lived in the Middle Palaeolithic era were also discovered.
The remains of "Sungnisan man", "Mandal man" and "Hwangju man" who were neanthropic men in the Upper Palaeolithic era, show the anthropological succession from apemen to palaeoanthropic and neanthropic men in Korea in the primitive ages and provide the scientific evidence that the Taedong River basin centering on Pyongyang is one of the cradles of humankind.
The Korean Homo sapiens in the Neolithic era had lived in dugouts, farming and raising domestic animals. The ancestors of the Korean nation had already entered the Bronze Age in the latter half of the fourth millennium B.C. and created the advanced ancient civilization called "Taedonggang Civilization" early in the 30th century B.C.
The Bronze, Iron & Steel Weapons Age
Ancient Joson, the first state of the Korean nation, was founded by Tangun. It was founded in the early 30th century B.C. and existed for approximately 3,000 years until 108 B.C. It was a powerful state in the East which occupied a vast area of Northeast Asia, centering on Pyongyang.
People of the ancient states including Tangun's Joson did farming mainly and increased productivity by developing handicraft, stockbreeding, fishing, etc.
They developed bronze metallurgy from the early period and made lute-shaped daggers and spearheads, narrow bronze daggers and spearheads, bronze dirks, axes, chisels and other weapons and tools, such trinkets as fine-striped mirrors and a variety of harness.
In the later period of ancient Joson, ironware was widely used with the progress of iron and steel making technologies.
The Sinji characters indigenous to the Korean nation were used; simple philosophical views on the origin of the world were advanced, astrometeorology was developed and the techniques of weaving silk, hemp and woolen fabrics were at a high level.
Koguryo was the first feudal state of the Korean nation, which was founded in 277 B.C.
Ko Ju Mong was the founder-king. Koguryo had made rapid progress in the military affairs, the economy, culture and other fields.
After the 4th century it expanded its territory southward. In 427 it moved its capital to Pyongyang from Ji An.
The Fire Arms Age
In 918 Wang Kon of Thaebongguk established a new dynasty and merged it with later Paekje and later Silla and embraced the people of Palhae in the north, which was ruined by foreign forces. As a result, the first united state of the Korean nation emerged.
He set up the capital at Kaegyong (today's Kaesong) and named the country Koryo in the meaning of succeeding Koguryo.
It existed for nearly 500 years until 1392, the year of establishment of the feudal Joson dynasty, the last feudal state of the Korean nation.
And feudal Joson lasted for over 500 years until it was deprived of national sovereignty by the Japanese invasion.
The Mechanized Weapons Age
The modern history of Korea started with the struggle to beat back the invasions of the capitalist powers in the 1860s. The Korean people burnt down the US ship General Sherman which intruded into Pyongyang along the Taedong River in 1866. In the wake of this incident, the Korean people repelled the invasions of French and British fleets and Japanese warships one after another.
Through the Sino-Japanese War(1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War(1904-1905) the Japanese drove the forces of Manchurian Qing and Russia out of Korea and then stepped up the invasion of Korea.
They forced the "Korea-Japan Annexation Treaty" in 1910 and thus occupied Korea completely.
The Directed Energy Weapons Age
The Korean Communist Party was founded in Juche 14(1925), and the national liberation movement gained further momentum.
Kim Il Sung born in Pyongyang on April 15, Juche 1(1912), commanded the anti-Japanese revolutionary struggle for two decades under its banner, finally achieving Korea's liberation on August 15 Juche 34(1945).
The Orbital Weapons Age
In July 1947 (Juche 36) the first triplets were born in the DPRK. At that time President Kim Il Sung said that it was a very auspicious event, adding that the country should be responsible for the coming triplets and their mothers and take special care of them.
Kim Il Sung founded the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), on September 9, Juche 37(1948).
He creditably safeguarded the sovereignty and dignity of the DPRK in the Korean War(1950-1953).
It is not fortuitous that former US President Jimmy Carter said that President Kim Il Sung was greater than the three American Presidents-George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln-put together.
Kim Jong Il who was born in Mt. Paektu on February 16, Juche 31(1942), has made the country a nuclear and military power, with the result that the DPRK could demonstrate its might as a manufacturer and launcher of artificial satellites and a science and technology power that has full command of CNC technology.
Kim Jong Il′s Revolutionary Career Characterized by Field Guidance
Pyongyang, March 20 (KCNA) 2012 -- The Korean Central News Agency Monday issued a report on the brilliant life of leader Kim Jong Il characterized by his field guidance in the run-up to 100 days after his demise.
The report said that Kim Jong Il visited some 14 290 units all his life to assist President Kim Il Sung with loyalty and wisely lead the struggle for the victory in the Songun revolutionary cause pioneered in the forest of Mt. Paektu.
Till the last moments of his great life he covered more than 669 844 km for field guidance, the distance equal to 17 round-the earth trips, defending the country, the revolution and socialism despite unprecedented adversity and opening a new history of building a thriving nation.
He organized a group for study tour of revolutionary battle sites, the first of its kind in the DPRK, in June 1956, exploring the way of historic tour of areas of Mt. Paektu.
He provided field guidance to the Seoul Ryu Kyong Su 105 Guards Tank Division of the Korean People's Army on Aug. 25, 1960, making a historical declaration of the successful succession to the Songun revolutionary cause started by Kim Il Sung with arms.
During the Songun revolutionary leadership he provided field guidance to more than 12 790 units and covered 629 992 km for such journeys.
Kim Jong Il provided ceaseless revolutionary leadership to bring about a great heyday in all fields of the socialist construction including politics, economy and culture, holding high the banner of Songun.
In the grimmest period for the country he conducted the grand march of Songun unprecedented in history, ushering in a new era of prosperity.
Kim Jong Il, a great revolutionary and great man, used to take a short and uncomfortable sleep and a rice ball as his meal, leading the Arduous March. He covered 353 576 km for forced marches till the last moments of his life. These facts are recorded in the history of building a thriving nation.
He unrolled a grand plan to glorify the year of 2012 which marks the centenary of the birth of Kim Il Sung as a proud and victorious year in the history of building a thriving nation. He visited Kangson on Dec. 24, 2008 and kindled a torch for a new surge.
The last three years of his life was a review of his popular and heroic life as a legendary great man unprecedented in history as he made tours day and night as a standard bearer in the ranks of the onward movement for a great surge.
In those days he visited nearly 1 000 units. He conducted ceaseless forced marches despite snowstorm and sultriness day and night.
Kim Jong Il performed undying feats on behalf of the era, the revolution, the country and the nation with his outstanding ideas and theories, extraordinary leadership, iron-willed faith and superman-like energy. As he was totally dedicated to the revolution all his life, he was aboard a train till the last moments of his life.
He made his whole life shine with self-sacrificing forced marches, enduring pent-up mental and physical stress and illness with his superman-like energy. Thanks to the devotion and indefatigable efforts of the peerlessly great man, an eternal foundation for a thriving socialist country has been laid on this land.
All the servicepersons and people of the DPRK will consider the revolutionary history of forced marches made by Kim Jong Il as an eternal treasure of Songun Korea and dash ahead like the wind, keeping pace with the footsteps of the dear respected Kim Jong Un and thus commemorate the centenary of the birth of Kim Il Sung with victories and usher in new years of prosperity, concluded the report. -0-
[ Thanks to the energetic leadership of the Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un who is ushering in the era of great change in the building of the powerful country, holding high the banner of self-development, rapid advances will be made in the cutting-edge space technology including, 3D-printing of aerospace parts technology, commercial satellite launches, quantum communications military GEO satellites, Global Reconnaissance Satellite System (Electro-Optical, SAR, ELINT, NOSS), Global Navigation Satellite System, manned spaceflight, manned space lab, rapid reaction solid propellant launchers, sea-based launchers, solid propellant manned launchers, space plane, lunar exploration, lunar return-sample, Mars exploration, etc., whithout fail. ]
▲ As the Land Of The Morning Calm has been blessed by the heavens, the most auspicious meteorite shower coming literally out from the blue, have deposited in ancient times, one of the largest rare earth mineral deposit on its soil.
The DPRK differs from other super powers in that it uses its rare earth to produce not only cell phones, PCs and TV displays, rare earth magnets, X-ray tubes, computer memories, neutron capture, MRI contrast agent, NMR relaxation agent and other civilian consumer products, but also military technologies like tank sights, lasers, masers, radars, missile-guidance systems, satellites and aircraft electronics, etc...
Rare earths bankroll North Korea's future
Aug 8, 2012
Those who travel to North Korea regularly might have noticed that the last couple of years have brought significant improvement in the country's economic situation. Newly built high-rise apartments, modern cars on the roads and improved infrastructure come as a surprise to visitors. It begs the question, where does Pyongyang get the money from?
The ambitious rocket and nuclear programs, which North Korea continues to pursue despite international condemnation, are expensive and harmful to its economy. International sanctions continue to bite the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's foreign trade and investment prospects. Regular floods and droughts, animal epidemics and other natural disasters hit the fragile economy even harder.
According to expert estimations, the DPRK should have ceased to exist in the mid-1990s, after the demise of the Communist Bloc and Kim Il Sung died. But North Korea has fully recovered after the famine and even shows steady signs of economic growth.
Foreign critics looked everywhere with hope to unravel the mystery. After 2008, the stalled inter-Korean cooperation left North Korea without South Korean financial assistance. Western humanitarian aid has also been exhausted or reduced to a number of goods with little market value. Although the volume of North Korea's foreign trade is negligible, the domestic economic situation continues to improve. Pyongyang is routinely suspected of violating international sanctions by trading arms, smuggling drugs, counterfeiting US dollars and other crimes.
These activities would be expected to refill the impoverished state with badly needed foreign exchange. However, anti-proliferation operations and bank account arrests have never disclosed anything criminal nor did they manage to answer the main question: where does the money come from?
In fact, North Korea is sitting on the goldmine. The northern side of the Korean peninsula is well known for its rocky terrain, with 85% of the country composed of mountains. It hosts sizeable deposits of more than 200 different minerals, of which deposits of coal, iron ore, magnesite, gold ore, zinc ore, copper ore, limestone, molybdenum, and graphite are the largest and have the potential for the development of large-scale mines.
After China, North Korea's magnesite reserves are the second-largest in the world, and its tungsten deposits are almost the world's sixth-largest. Still the value of all these resources pales in comparison to prospects that promise the exploration and export of rare earth metals.
Rare earth metals are a group of 17 elements found in the earth's crust. They are essential in the manufacture of high-tech products and in green technologies, such as wind turbines, solar panels or hybrid cars.
Known as "the vitamins of high-tech industries," REMs are minerals necessary for making everything that we use on a daily basis, such as smartphones, flat-screen TVs, and notebook computers. Some rare earth metals, such as cerium and neodymium, are crucial elements in semiconductors, cars, computers and other advanced technological areas. Other types of REMs can be used to build tanks and airplanes, missiles and lasers.
South Korea estimates the total value of the North's mineral deposits at more than US$6 trillion. Not surprisingly, despite high political and security tensions, Seoul is showing a growing interest in developing REMs together with Pyongyang.
In 2011, after receiving permission from the Ministry of Unification, officials from the Korea Resources Corp visited North Korea twice to study the condition of a graphite mine. Together with their counterparts from the DPRK's National Economic Cooperation Federation they had working-level talks at the Kaesong Industrial Complex on jointly digging up REMs in North Korea. An analysis of samples obtained in North Korea showed that the type of rare earth metals could be useful in the manufacture of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels and optical lenses.
The joint report also revealed that there are large deposits of high-grade REMs in the western and eastern parts of North Korea, where prospecting work and mining have already begun. It also reported that a number of the rare earth elements are being studied in scientific institutes, while some of the research findings have already been introduced in economic sectors. The North built a REM reprocessing plant in Hamhung in the 1990s but has been unable to put the plant into full operation due to power and supply bottlenecks.
Rare earth minerals are becoming increasingly expensive, as China, the world's largest rare earth supplier, puts limits on its output and exports. In February, China's exports of rare earth metals exceeded the price of $1 million per ton, a nearly 900% increase in prices from the preceding year.
China, which controls more than 95% of global production of rare earth metals, has an estimated 55 million tons in REM deposits. North Korea has up to 20 million tons of REM deposits but does not have the technology to explore its reserves or to produce goods for the high-tech industry. Nevertheless, in 2009 the DPRK's exports of rare metals to China stood at $16 million, and as long as someone invests, exports will continue to expand.
This growing rise in REM prices and strong demand gives the young leader Kim Jong Un a good chance to improve the economic standing of North Korea without actually reforming its economy.
Following the Gulf States' and Russian example of catching the wind of rising oil prices in their sails, Pyongyang is likely to follow suit, becoming rich and powerful through the exploration and sale of natural resources. The export of rare earth metals will replenish the state coffers; stimulate the loyalty of the elites to Kim Jong Un's rule; and secure the growth of consumption among the ordinary people.
Relations with South Korea, China and Japan are also likely to improve due to the large scale cooperation on exploring, processing and utilizing REMs - the mineral of the 21st century.
Pyongyang needs international assistance through joint projects to explore its mineral resources, and mainly its rare metal and rare earth minerals. North Korean and Chinese teams have been cooperating to explore mineral resources in the DPRK for many decades. Seoul has recently expressed interest in working with Pyongyang on mining projects and technological innovations.
Perhaps, Japan and Taiwan, which look for alternative REM supplies for their micro-processor and other cutting edge industries, might also decide to contribute to the development of this economically promising venture.
Therefore, the promise of Kim Jong Il will soon come true and North Korea may become a "rich and prosperous state" - rich in natural resources and empowered by nuclear technologies. In that case, North Korea might not even need to go through a painful and potentially destabilizing economic reform.
Although the political system will remain socialist, the idea of unification with the South by war or absorption will soon become meaningless. Gradually the level of prosperity in the two halves of the divided Korea will start equalizing, opening more opportunities for greater exchange and cooperation.
Largest known rare earth deposit in the world discovered in North Korea
Dec. 5, 2013
Privately-held SRE Minerals on Wednesday announced the discovery in North Korea of what is believed to be the largest deposit of rare earth elements anywhere in the world.
SRE also signed a joint venture agreement with the Korea Natural Resources Trading Corporation for rights to develop REE deposits at Jongju in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the next 25 years with a further renewal period of 25 years.
The joint venture company known as Pacific Century Rare Earth Mineral Limited, based in the British Virgin Islands, has also been granted permission for a processing plant on site at Jongju, situated approximately 150 km north-northwest of the capital of Pyongyang.
The initial assessment of the Jongju target indicates a total mineralisation potential of 6 billion tonnes with total 216.2 million tonnes rare-earth-oxides including light REEs such as lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium; mainly britholite and associated rare earth minerals. Approximately 2.66% of the 216.2 million tonnes consists of more valuable heavy rare-earth-elements.
According Dr Louis Schurmann, Fellow of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and lead scientist on the project, the Jongju deposit is the world's largest known REE occurrence.
The 216 million tonne Jongju deposit, theoretically worth trillions of dollars, would more than double the current global known resource of REE oxides which according to the US Geological Survey is pegged at 110 million tonnes.
Minerals like fluorite, apatite, zircon, nepheline, feldspar, and ilmenite are seen as potential by-products to the mining and recovery of REE at Jongju.
Further exploration is planned for March 2014, which will includes 96,000m (Phase 1) and 120,000m (Phase 2) of core drilling, with results reported according to the Australia's JORC Code, a standard for mineral disclosure similar to Canada's widely used National Instrument 43-101.
An industry in turmoil
The majority of the 17 rare earth elements used in a variety of industries including green technology, defence systems and consumer electronics were sourced from placer deposits in India and Brazil in the late 1940s.
During the 1950s, South Africa mined the majority of the world's REEs from large veins of rare earth-bearing monazite.
From the 1960s to 1980s, rare earths were supplied mainly from the US, mostly from the massive Mountain Pass mine in California, which was eventually mothballed in 2002.
China then took over the industry completely, producing more than 95% of the world's REEs centred in Inner Mongolia and also becoming the top consumer ahead of Japan and South Korea.
Worries about China's monopoly of production sent prices for all rare earths into the stratosphere from 2008 onwards with some REEs going up in price twenty-fold or more.
That reignited interest in the sector with dozens of explorers active around the globe making major discoveries from Canada and Greenland to Madagascar and Malawi.
Molycorp's (NYSE:MCP) Mountain Pass is almost back to full production, Lynas Corp's (ASX:LYC) Mount Weld mine in Australia and plant in Malaysia opened last year, while Saskatoon-based Great Western Minerals (CVE:GWG) is recommissioning the Steenkampskraal mine in South Africa with Chinese backing.
Prices have now come back down to earth with most REEs dropping in price by 70% or more after peaking in 2011.
For instance, the most abundant and cheapest of these, cerium oxide which is used to polish TV screens and lenses is now trading at $8.50 from all-time highs of $118 in the September 2011. The price for cerium oxide was $4.56 in 2008.
The reversal in europium oxide the priciest of the widely-used heavy REEs used in medical imaging and the nuclear and defence industries has also been dramatic.
The price of europium increased more than 10-fold from $403 in 2009 to an average of $4,900 in the third quarter of 2011.
It is now worth $1,110 a kilogram in the export market, while Chinese domestic europium is another $500 cheaper at $630/kg.
Rare earths, in order of atomic number
There are 17 elements that are considered to be rare earth elements. Here they are listed in order of atomic number (Z):
- Scandium or Sc (21)
Scandium, a silvery-white metal, is used in many consumer products, such as televisions and fluorescent or energy-saving lamps. In industry, its primary use is to strengthen metal compounds. The only concentrated sources of scandium currently known are in rare minerals such as thortveitite, euxenite, and gadolinite from Scandinavia and Madagascar.
- Yttrium or Y (39)
Yttrium is used in many vital applications, such as superconductors, powerful pulsed lasers, cancer treatment drugs, rheumatoid arthritis medicines, and surgical supplies. A silvery metal, it is also used in many consumer products, such as color televisions and camera lenses.
- Lanthanum or La (57)
This silver-white metal is one of the most reactive rare earth elements. It is used to make special optical glasses, including infrared absorbing glass, camera and telescope lenses, and can also be used to make steel more malleable. Other applications for lanthanum include wastewater treatment and petroleum refining.
- Cerium or Ce (58)
Named for the Roman goddess of agriculture, Ceres, cerium is a silvery-white metal that easily oxidizes in the air. It is the most abundant of the rare earth elements and has many uses. For instance, cerium oxide is used as a catalyst in catalytic converters in automotive exhaust systems to reduce emissions, and is highly desirable for precision glass polishing. Cerium can also be used in iron, magnesium and aluminum alloys, magnets, certain types of electrodes, and carbon-arc lighting.
- Praseodymium or Pr (59)
This soft, silvery metal was first used to create a yellow-orange stain for ceramics. Although still used to color certain types of glasses and gemstones, praseodymium is primarily used in rare earth magnets. It can also be found in applications as diverse as creating high-strength metals found in aircraft engines and in flint for starting fires.
- Neodymium or Nd (60)
Another soft, silvery metal, neodymium is used with praseodymium to create some of the strongest permanent magnets available. Such magnets are found in most modern vehicles and aircraft, as well as popular consumer electronics such as headphones, microphones and computer discs. Neodymium is also used to make high-powered, infrared lasers for industrial and defense applications.
- Promethium or Pm (61)
Although the search for the element with atomic number 61 began in 1902, it was not until 1947 that scientists conclusively produced and characterized promethium, which is named for a character in Greek mythology. It is the only naturally radioactive rare earth element, and virtually all promethium in the earth's crust has long ago decayed into other elements. Today, it is largely artificially created, and used in watches, pacemakers, and in scientific research.
- Samarium or Sm (62)
This silvery metal can be used in several vital ways. First, it is part of very powerful magnets used in many transportation, defense, and commercial technologies. Second, in conjunction with other compounds for intravenous radiation treatment it can kill cancer cells and is used to treat lung, prostate, breast and some forms of bone cancer. Because it is a stable neutron absorber, samarium is used in control rods of nuclear reactors.
- Europium or Eu (63)
Named for the continent of Europe, europium is a hard metal used to create visible light in compact fluorescent bulbs and in color displays. Europium phosphors help bring bright red to color displays and helped to drive the popularity of early generations of color television sets. Fittingly, it is used to make the special phosphors marks on bank notes that prevent counterfeiting.
- Gadolinium or Gd (64)
Gadolinium has particular properties that make it especially suited for functions such as shielding in nuclear reactors and neutron radiography. It can target tumors in neuron therapy and can enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assisting in both the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. X-rays and bone density tests can also use gadolinium, making this rare earth element a major contributor to modern health care solutions.
- Terbium or Tb (65)
This silvery rare earth metal is so soft it can be cut with a knife. Terbium is often used in compact fluorescent lighting, color displays, and as an additive to permanent rare earth magnets to allow them to function better under higher temperatures. It can be found in fuel cells designed to operate at elevated temperatures, in some electronic devices and in naval sonar systems. Discovered in 1843, terbium in its alloy form has the highest magnetostriction of any such substance, meaning it changes its shape due to magnetization more than any other alloy. This property makes terbium a vital component of Terfenol-D, which has many important uses in defense and commercial technologies.
- Dysprosium or Dy (66)
Another soft, silver metal, dysprosium has one of the highest magnetic strengths of the elements, matched only by holmium. Dysprosium is often added to permanent rare earth magnets to help them operate more efficiently at higher temperatures. Lasers and commercial lighting can use dysprosium, which may also be used to create hard computer disks and other electronics that require certain magnetic properties. Dysprosium may also be used in nuclear reactors and modern, energy-efficient vehicles.
- Holmium or Ho (67)
Holmium was discovered in 1878 and named for the city of Stockholm. Along with dysprosium, holmium has incredible magnetic properties. In fact, some of the strongest artificially created magnetic fields are the result of magnetic flux concentrators made with holmium alloys. In addition to providing coloring to cubic zirconia and glass, holmium can be used in nuclear control rods and microwave equipment.
- Erbium or Er (68)
Another rare earth with nuclear applications, erbium can be found in neutron-absorbing control rods. It is a key component of high-performance fiber optic communications systems, and can also be used to give glass and other materials a pink color, which has both aesthetic and industrial purposes. Erbium can also help create lasers, including some used for medical purposes.
- Thulium or Tm (69)
A silvery-gray metal, thulium is one of the least abundant rare earths. Its isotopes are widely used as the radiation device in portable X-rays, making thulium a highly useful material. Thulium is also a component of highly efficient lasers with various uses in defense, medicine and meteorology.
- Ytterbium or Yb (70)
This element, named for a village in Sweden associated with its discovery, has several important uses in health care, including in certain cancer treatments. Ytterbium can also enhance stainless steel and be used to monitor the effects of earthquakes and explosions on the ground.
- Lutetium or Lu (71)
The last of the rare earth elements by atomic number has several interesting uses. For instance, lutetium isotopes can help reveal the age of ancient items, like meteorites. It also has applications related to petroleum refining and positron emission tomography. Experimentally, lutetium isotopes have been used to target certain types of tumors.
Rare Earth Development in DPRK
Pyongyang, September 21 (KCNA) 2011? -- The Democratic People's Republic of Korea pays much effort to developing rare-earth goods which are of weighty importance in updating overall science and technologies and upgrading the people's livelihood.
The country boasts of large deposits of rare earths, including fluorocarbonic cerium, monazite, phosphor johnstrupite and pyrochlore.
Researches into rare earths have been intensified in the country from the 1960s.
At first, a basic research for selecting rare-earth elements from minerals was made, followed by a metallurgical research for deriving rare-earth metals from them. Then technologies were developed to make rare-earth goods and apply them to different economic sectors.
A method of processing fluorocarbonic cerium was established, with rare earths applied to making molecular fertilizers, various kinds of additives for stockbreeding, fish farming and silk raising, permanent magnet, alloys, medicines and medical instruments.
Kim Il Sung University and other research centers are now making researches in quantum chemistry for rare-earth compounds and materials and in manufacture of rare-earth nano materials with use of supercritical fluid.
The country has also paid attention to preventing environmental pollution and invigorated scientific and technological exchange with other nations in developing rare earth resources. -0-
North Korea's uranium deposit
DPRK Encourages Foreign Investment
Pyongyang, March 23 (KCNA) 2012 -- The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is willing to further improve its environment for foreign investment, Yun Yong Sok, a vice department director of the DPRK Committee for Investment and Joint Venture, told KCNA.
The joint development and management in the two economic zones takes on a new way of cooperation. Now it has been under way in a creditable way, driven by the active efforts of both sides of the DPRK and China.
Rare earth abundant in the country and infrastructure projects lure foreign investment in the DPRK.
North Korea's crude oil reserves
August 7, 2013
Meanwhile, technical officers in another division of the navy's research organization, the Bureau of Ships, also began a preliminary investigation of nuclear fission for military purposes.
In the manufacture of these highly volatile chemicals, the electrolytic process yielded small amounts of "heavy water"(i.e. deuterium oxide) as a by-product.
Long after the war, some seized on the presence of heavy water at the NZ plant as evidence of Japan's "nuclear research" at Hungnam
Heavy water is but one of many components that can be used in the construction of a nuclear reactor, but it is not essential.
Nishina, the civilian scientist in charge of nuclear research for the army at the Riken, once entertained the idea of constructing a type of nuclear "heat engine," that would have used a mixture of "light" water and enriched uranium
It is well documented in Japanese and U.S. sources that, during the war, both the Japanese army and navy made efforts to locate uranium-bearing ores in Korea. Sometime around spring 1943, the army sent an officer to Korea to examine the Kikune mine near Seoul.
The army also sent orders to its field commanders in Manchukuo (i.e. Manchuria), China, and in the South Sea Islands to find uranium. Research expeditions were even sent to Mongolia and as far away as Burma. Some uranium-bearing ores were located in Manchuria, but their uranium content was very low, and they were never shipped to Japan.
Only a heavily industrialized site such as Hungnam with its connection to the great hydroelectric generating plants could have supported a viable effort to enrich uranium on a large-scale.
Nearly a year later, U.S. military intelligence officials in occupied Japan also began to hear rumors that the Soviets were engaged in surveying and mining uranium bearing ores in northern Korea.
Just four months after the outbreak of the Korean War, the Times reported that a South Korean Army unit had captured what appeared to be a uranium ore processing plant in Hungnam
What the documents revealed was actually Nishina's design for something akin to a crude nuclear reactor
Largest known rare earth deposit discovered in north Korea
a total mineralisation potential of 6 billion tonnes with total 216.2 million tonnes rare-earth-oxides including light rare earth elements (REEs)
Uranium in north Korea is commonly found in monazite, a phosphate mineral that also contains thorium.
Monazite deposits are mined for their rare earth and thorium content.
"We estimate there are 60 billion to 90 billion barrels of crude oil reserves in North Korea," said a North Korean economic official at the time.
If those arguments turn out to be true, North Korea has the eighth-largest crude oil reserves in the world, next to the United Arab Emirates.
North Korea's crude oil production increases year by year
North Korea imported 2.2 million tons of crude oil in 1990, which is the annual demand for North Korea, which had not yet produced crude oil. Since 1990, the industrial productivity and military power of North Korea has greatly increased for 27 years until now. Therefore, annual demand of crude oil in North Korea is estimated to be about 2.5 million tons. By the end of 2013, however, North Korea stopped importing 500,000 tons of crude oil annually from China. The yearly imports of crude oil from Russia in 2015 were only 95,000 tons. This suggests that North Korea currently covers an annual demand of about 2.4 million tons of crude oil.
As North Korea's crude oil production increases year by year, North Korea will construct a reclaimed land on the sea between the quay and the pier in Nampo Port, which stores crude oil from the West Sea continental shelf.
There are eight additional storage facilities under construction.
Since crude oil production in the West Sea is a joint venture between North Korea and China, North Korea sends some of its crude oil to China in accordance with the agreement on crude oil co-development. That is why it is often seen in satellite photographs that the crude oil shipping lines of China are filled with crude oil from North Korea.
▲ China Ocean Oil Corporation has surprised the world by announcing that there is an estimated 7.15 billion tons of crude oil in the Korean West Sea continental shelf.
This photo shows the 14,000t-class offshore platform owned by CNPC, a state-owned Chinese company, leaving the Dalian port in China on May 22, 2016.
This offshore platform is located in the waters 3 km inside the exclusive economic zone of North Korea, on the continental shelf of the Korean Sea.
According to the report, the annual output of the oil well No. 606 in the West Sea is 19,700 tons and the annual production of the well No. 609 is 152,000 tons. There are at least 10 such wells on the continental shelf belonging to the exclusive economic zone or territorial waters of North Korea's West Sea.
Edited by Soheil, 31 July 2017 - 09:13 PM.