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North Korean Space Program

North Korea NADA space program manned spaceflight Paektusan Unha Kwangmyongsong Sohae Tonghae Iran

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#1 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:48 PM

For the Hypothetical unified Third Reich and Nipponese Empire space program, see Alternate history: Hypothetical Axis victory in World War II.
For the Iranian space program, see TBD.

© A S☫heil presentation; First published 2015; Updated 2016-2017

Table of Contents


1. Table of Contents

2. North Korea's Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST) Past Activities
2.1. North Korean satellite already launched
2.2. Comparative Inter-Korean space race's launch failures
2.3. Inter-Korean space race's outcome
2.4. Current North Korean Space Activities Updated 17 MAY 2017

3.1. Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST) Updated 3 APR 2017
3.2. International Outer Space Treaty and the Registration Convention Updated 3 APR 2017
3.3.1. State Space Development Bureau Updated 6 APR 2017
3.3.2. National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA)
3.3.2.1. North Korea top ranks in reverse engineering Chinese technologies
3.4. DPRK NADA Joins International Astronautical Federation
3.5. New high-altitude weather observation systems
3.6. New Standard Time in Korea
3.7. Newly-built General Satellite Control Centre

4.1. New Lithium Atom-shaped Sci-Tech Complex
4.2. Hydrogen Atom-shaped Planetarium

5.1. North Korean Space Launch Sites Updated 24 APR 2017
5.2. North Korean first space launch center: Tonghae SLC
5.3. North Korean second space launch center: Sohae SLC Updated 24 APR 2017
5.4. North Korean overseas space tracking stations

6.1. Pre-Space Age Era Korean major milestones Updated 25 APR 2017
6.1.1. Earlier Korean development in rocketry Updated 25 APR 2017
6.1.2. Earlier Korean development in manned flight Updated 30 APR 2017

7. North Korean Space Launchers Updated 29 APR 2017
7.1. Paektusan LV Updated 11 APR 2017

8. Unha LV Updated 24 APR 2017

9. Unha LV's first stage Updated 17 MAY 2017

10. Unha LV's second stage Updated 17 MAY 2017
10.1. Unha LV's third stage Updated 17 MAY 2017
10.2. Unha LV's launch preparation Updated 17 MAY 2017

11. The Inter-Korean Deep Space Race Updated 24 APR 2017
11.1. South Korean Deep Space Exploration Program Updated 19 APR 2017
11.2. North Korean Deep Space Exploration Program Updated 12 APR 2017
11.2.1.1. North Korean lunar exploration program (NKLEP) Updated 11 APR 2017
11.2.1.2. North Korean lunar orbiter
11.2.1.3. North Korean lunar lander Updated 11 APR 2017
11.2.1.4. North Korean lunar launcher: Unha-9 Updated 19 APR 2017
11.2.2.1. North Korean Mars Exploration Program Updated 13 APR 2017
11.2.2.2. North Korean Deep Space launcher: Unha-20 Updated 22 MAY 2017

12. North Korean manned launcher: Unha-18 Updated 24 APR 2017
12.1. Iranian and North Korean manned space launchers
12.2. North Korean heavy space launcher as phantasized in the West

13. 80-ton thrust Paektusan-1 rocket engine Updated 24 APR 2017

14. The March 18 Revolution: 100-ton thrust Paektusan-1B rocket engine configuration Updated 20 MAY 2017
14.1. 100-ton thrust Paektusan-1B rocket engine configuration's static ground test Updated 20 MAY 2017
14.2. 100-ton thrust Paektusan-1B rocket engine configuration's flight test Updated 20 MAY 2017
14.3. Evolution of North Korean and Iranian LVs second stages Updated 12 APR 2017
14.4. Photogrammetric analysis Updated 14 APR 2017

15. 160-ton thrust Paektusan-2 rocket engine configuration Updated 14 APR 2017

16. North Korean manned spacecraft Updated 17 APR 2017

17.1.1. Chinese recoverable capsule Updated 3 APR 2017
17.1.2. North Korean reentry vehicle Updated 20 MAY 2017
17.1.3. Iranian recoverable capsule
17.2.1. Iran's manned orbital spacecraft
17.2.2. Unidentified Iranian orbital manned spacecrafts
17.2.3. Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft

18. North Korean international space cooperation Updated 11 APR 2017
18.1. North Korea-Chinese space cooperation Updated 12 APR 2017
18.2. North Korea-Iranian space cooperation Updated 19 APR 2017
18.3. International space cooperation

19. North Korean satellites already launched Updated 3 APR 2017
19.1. Kwangmyongsong-1 Updated 19 APR 2017

20. Kwangmyongsong-2#1 Updated 19 APR 2017

21. Kwangmyongsong-2#2 Part1 Updated 25 APR 2017

22. Kwangmyongsong-2#2 Part2 Updated 24 MAY 2017

23. Kwangmyongsong-3#1 Part1 Updated 19 APR 2017

24. Kwangmyongsong-3#1 Part2 Updated 19 APR 2017

25. Kwangmyongsong-3#2 Updated 25 APR 2017

26. Kwangmyongsong-4 Part1 Updated 1 APR 2017

27. Kwangmyongsong-4 Part2 Updated 10 MAY 2017

28. Kwangmyongsong-4 Part3 Updated 10 MAY 2017

29. Kwangmyongsong-4 Part4 Updated 10 MAY 2017

30. Kwangmyongsong-4 Part5 Updated 10 MAY 2017

31. North Korean disclosed satellite models Updated 3 APR 2017

32. Space launch forecast Updated 6 MAY 2017


Edited by Soheil, 23 May 2017 - 10:24 PM.

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#2 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:49 PM

North Korea's Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST) Past Activities

fb4a581ffe2345b929072a8cde444617.jpg

North Korean satellite already launched



╔═════════════╦══════════════════╦════════════════════╦════════════════╦══════════════╦═══════════════════════╗
║    Date     ║ Time (Pyongyang) ║     Satellite      ║    Launcher    ║ Space Center ║        Remarks        ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬════════════════╬══════════════╬═══════════════════════╣
║             ║                  ║                    ║                ║              ║ satellite malfunction ║
║ 12.DEC.2012 ║      12:07       ║ Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3#2 ║     Unha-3     ║    Sohae     ║   after successful    ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                ║              ║   orbital insertion   ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬════════════════╬══════════════╬═══════════════════════╣
║             ║                  ║                    ║ Kwangmyongsong ║              ║          SSO          ║
║ 7.FEB.2016  ║      09:00       ║  Kwangmyongsong-4  ║    (Unha-4)    ║    Sohae     ║   494.6 km x 500 km   ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                ║              ║    @ 97.4 degrees     ║
╚═════════════╩══════════════════╩════════════════════╩════════════════╩══════════════╩═══════════════════════╝
http://novosti-kosmo...message1057535/

Background: Inter-Korean space race

Comparative Inter-Korean space race's launch failures



╔═════════════╦══════════════════╦════════════════════╦═══════════════════╦══════════════╦═════════════════════════════╗
║    Date     ║ Time (Pyongyang) ║     Satellite      ║     Launcher      ║ Space Center ║     Origin of failures      ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║             ║                  ║                    ║                   ║              ║    satellite separation     ║
║ 31.AUG.1998 ║      12:07       ║  Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1  ║    Paektusan-1    ║   Tonghae    ║      with third stage       ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                   ║              ║           failure           ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║ 05.JUL.2006 ║       5:01       ║ Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2#1 ║      Unha-1       ║   Tonghae    ║   first and second stages   ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                   ║              ║     separation failure      ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║ 05.APR.2009 ║      11:20       ║ Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2#2 ║      Unha-2       ║   Tonghae    ║   second and third stages   ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                   ║              ║     separation failure      ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║ 25.AUG.2009 ║   17:00 (KST)    ║      STSAT-2A      ║ Naro-1#1 (KSLV-1) ║     Naro     ║ stages separation failure   ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║ 10.JUN.2010 ║   17:01 (KST)    ║      STSAT-2B      ║ Naro-1#2 (KSLV-1) ║     Naro     ║ fairings separation failure ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║             ║                  ║                    ║                   ║              ║   guidance system failure   ║
║ 13.APR.2012 ║     7:38:55      ║ Kwangmyongsong-3#1 ║      Unha-3       ║    Sohae     ║       launch abort by       ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                   ║              ║        self-destruct        ║
╚═════════════╩══════════════════╩════════════════════╩═══════════════════╩══════════════╩═════════════════════════════╝
http://novosti-kosmo...message1057535/


Inter-Korean space race's outcome




╔═════════════╦══════════════════╦════════════════════╦════════════════════════╦══════════════╦═════════════════════════════╗
║    Date     ║ Time (Pyongyang) ║     Satellite      ║        Launcher        ║ Space Center ║           Outcome           ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬════════════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║             ║                  ║                    ║                        ║              ║    satellite malfunction    ║
║ 12.DEC.2012 ║      12:07       ║ Kwangmyongsong-3#2 ║         Unha-3         ║    Sohae     ║      after successful       ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║                        ║              ║      orbital insertion      ║
╠═════════════╬══════════════════╬════════════════════╬════════════════════════╬══════════════╬═════════════════════════════╣
║ 30.JAN.2013 ║   16:00 (KST)    ║      STSAT-2C      ║   Naro-1#3 (KSLV-1)    ║     Naro     ║           success           ║
║             ║                  ║                    ║ (South Korea / Russia) ║              ║                             ║
╚═════════════╩══════════════════╩════════════════════╩════════════════════════╩══════════════╩═════════════════════════════╝
http://novosti-kosmo...message1057535/

North Korea Beats South in Space Race



Dec. 13, 2012

South Korea is suffering some embarrassment after repeatedly failing to put a satellite into orbit with homegrown rocket technology while North Korea succeeded. Some are detecting echoes of the Sputnik crisis in 1957, when the U.S. found itself bested by the Soviet Union's launch of the world's first satellite.

Seoul now lags behind Pyongyang in terms of rocket technology by at least six years, experts estimate.

http://english.chosu...2121301350.html


How North Korea Won the Rocket Race with the South



Jan. 31, 2013

North Korea became the 10th country to succeed in putting a satellite into orbit late last year after over a decade of strenuous efforts, during which the South hovered between developing its own rocket and importing technology and parts.

Pyongyang imported liquid-fueled ballistic missiles from China and Egypt in 1975 and began to fire its own ballistic missiles in 1984 by reverse-engineering the imports.

In 1998 the North secured core technologies for multi-stage rockets by firing a three-stage missile with a range of 2,500 km. Despite a series of failures since then, it continued to develop successors to the missile.

Prof. Jang Young-kun at Korea Aerospace University said the first and second stages of the latest rocket are the same as those as in 1998.

The South followed a similar path at the initial stage. In 1978, it succeeded in firing a missile with a range of 150 km, a copy of the U.S.' solid-fueled Nike-Hercules. But under an agreement with the U.S. that prevented it from using solid fuel engines on a space rocket that exceeds 1 million pounds in weight, Seoul shifted its attention to Russian rockets using liquid fuel.

As a result, it wasted over a decade and found itself outpaced by the impoverished North.

http://english.chosu...3013101206.html


Current North Korean Space Activities



The current Five-Years development plan covers space activities for 2012 to 2016. (Choson Sinbo, 12 December 2012)

The Second Space Development Five-Year Plan starting in 2017, will see more advanced space developments. In April 8, 2012, the general manager of Sohae SLC declared that North Korea "will launch a geostationary satellite in the near future", and that North Korea "will launch manned spacecrafts". To this end, Sohae was also designed to support very large 400t-class rockets. (Choson Sinbo, April 10, 2012 Press Release )

North Korean launch schedule

 

╔═══════════╦═══════════════════╦═══════════════════╦══════════╦══════════════╦═══════╦═══════════════════════════════╗
║   Date    ║ Payload           ║       Class       ║ Launcher ║ Space Center ║ Orbit ║            Remarks            ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2012-2016 ║ Kwangmyongsong-5  ║ Earth observation ║  Unha-5  ║    Sohae     ║  SSO  ║            Pending            ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║     LC-1     ║       ║                               ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2012-2016 ║ Kwangmyongsong-6  ║   Communication   ║  Unha-6  ║    Sohae     ║   ?   ║ First Communication satellite ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║     LC-1     ║       ║                               ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2012-2016 ║ Kwangmyongsong-7  ║   Communication   ║  Unha-7  ║    Sohae     ║   ?   ║                               ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║     LC-1     ║       ║                               ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2012-2016 ║ Kwangmyongsong-8  ║   Communication   ║  Unha-8  ║    Sohae     ║   ?   ║                               ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║     LC-1     ║       ║                               ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2012-2016 ║ Kwangmyongsong-9  ║   Lunar orbiter   ║  Unha-9  ║    Sohae     ║  LTO  ║      First Lunar Orbiter      ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║     LC-1     ║       ║            ~2018?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║           ║                   ║   Geostationary   ║          ║    Sohae     ║       ║      First GEO satellite      ║
║ 2017-2021 ║        TBD        ║   communication   ║   TBD    ║     LC-1     ║  GSO  ║             ~2018             ║
║           ║                   ║     satellite     ║          ║              ║       ║                               ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2017-2021 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║   First unmanned spacecraft   ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║            ~2021?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2017-2021 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║       First astronaut         ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║            ~2021?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║   First 2 astronauts flight   ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║            ~2021?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║   First 3 astronauts flight   ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║            ~2021?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║           First EVA           ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║            ~2025?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║   Lunar lander    ║   TBD    ║     TBD      ║  LTO  ║      First Lunar lander       ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║              ║       ║            ~2025?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║              ║       ║        First flight of        ║
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║        TBD        ║ Unha-20? ║     TBD      ║       ║     20t payload launcher      ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║              ║       ║            ~2026?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║   Mars orbiter    ║ Unha-20? ║     TBD      ║  MTO  ║      First Mars Orbiter       ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║              ║       ║            ~2026?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-20? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║      First spacelab/module    ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-X?     ║       ║            ~2025?             ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║   First unmanned rendez-vous  ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║       and docking ~2025?      ║
╠═══════════╬═══════════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═══════╬═══════════════════════════════╣
║ 2022-2026 ║        TBD        ║ Manned spacecraft ║ Unha-18? ║   Tonghae    ║  LEO  ║    First manned rendez-vous   ║
║           ║                   ║                   ║          ║    LC-3?     ║       ║       and docking ~2025?      ║
╚═══════════╩═══════════════════╩═══════════════════╩══════════╩══════════════╩═══════╩═══════════════════════════════╝

http://www.tongilnew...ml?idxno=101028


Edited by Soheil, 18 May 2017 - 05:29 PM.

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#3 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:52 PM

Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST; 조선우주공간기술위원회, 朝鮮宇宙空間技術委員會)



A Brief History of the DPRK's Space Program:

The DPRK's space program began in the 1980's with the creation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST). In the 1990s, North Korean scientists developed an experimental satellite, Kwangmyongsong-1 or Bright Star or Shining Star.

http://www.youngpion...a-space-program



International Outer Space Treaty and the Registration Convention


Mar 12. 2009 Juche 98

KCNA Report on DPRK's Accession to International Space Treaty and Convention

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
...
Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space.

www.kcna.co.jp/item/2009/200903/news12/20090312-11ee.html


State Space Development Bureau


DPRK SPA Decides to Set Up State Space Development Bureau

April 1. 2013 Juch 102

The decision of the Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) of the DPRK promulgated on Monday said:

... radically developing the space science and technology of the country and guide and manage all the space activities of the DPRK in a uniform way...

The DPRK State Space Development Bureau shall be set up.

The bureau is a state central institution which guides and manages the supervision and control over the working out of a space development program and its implementation and space development work in a uniform way.

http://kcna.co.jp/it...13-04-01ee.html


National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA; 朝鮮國家宇宙開發局, 국가우주개발국: Kukgaujugaebalkuk)


National Aerospace Development Administration of DPRK

March 31 , 2014

It was one year ago that the DPRK Law on Space Development was adopted at the Seventh Session of the 12th Supreme Peoples Assembly.

The National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA) is the countrys central guidance institution organizing all the space development projects.

The emblem of the NADA was recently instituted, which represents its character, mission, position and development prospects.

Seen in the lower part of the globe-shaped dark blue emblem are white-colored letters Kukgaujugaebalkuk (National Aerospace Development Administration) in Korean and in its upper part light blue-colored letters DPRK with the Great Bear above them. Printed in its middle are white-colored letters NADA in English.

Two light blue-colored rings intercrossing the emblem symbolize satellite orbits.

The Great Bear reflects the will of the space scientists of the DPRK to glorify Kim Il Sungs and Kim Jong Ils Korea as a space power.

The globe represents the DPRKs idea for peaceful development of the space and the rings show the DPRKs will to launch satellite into all orbits.

http://www.rodong.re...0016&chAction=T


North Korea top ranks in reverse engineering Chinese technologies

Let us start with some trivial examples:

In a nutshell, North Koreans can reverse-engineer any Chinese technology as they please.


nasda.gif

nada_nasa.png?w=580&h=247

Beidou_navigation_system.jpg

Various logos and acronyms of several foreign space agencies and their influence on North Korea's new space agency acronym and logo.


NASA + D = NASDA
NASDA - S = NADA
QED
Thus, the NADA acronym is a crossbreed of NASA with NASDA,
while the NADA logo is a crossbreed of NASA with BEIDOU.

Video showing plethoric other designs reverse-engineered in Korea


State Industrial Art Exhibition Opens in North Korea, April 2014: http://www.youtube.c...?v=_cYtQ2UKH-8t
NADA logo at 32 second

DPRK NADA Joins International Astronautical Federation

Oct. 16, 2015 Friday

The DPRK National Aerospace Development Administration's (NADA) admission to the International Astronautical Federation was decided at its 66th general meeting which opened in Israel on Oct. 12 and will last till Oct. 16.

http://www.rodong.re...2015-10-16-0004


NADA IAF membership void


16 October 2015

The General Assembly in its second session revoked its earlier resolution of Monday, October 12, 2015, relating to the approval of the DPR Koreas National Aerospace Development Administrations application for membership to the IAF, based on new information received and unknownrolling%20on%20the%20floor.gif to the General Assembly at its first session.

https://www.satnews....mber=1163841270


New high-altitude weather observation systems


May 5, 2015

Korea develops new high-altitude weather observation systems. The system consists of electronic radio detectors and high altitude weather radar. Weather balloons carrying electronic detectors can climb at altitudes up to 30,000 meters, measuring temperature and atmospheric pressure.

The system makes it possible to further raise the accuracy of weather forecast.

Source: KCNA


New Standard Time in Korea


Bell Tolls Standard Time in Korea at 00:00, August 15, 2015

August 15, 2015

The Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of the DPRK decided to set the standard time of the Republic with 127 degrees 30 minutes east longitude as a standard and to apply it from August 15.

The thirty minutes between 24:00, August 14 of the previous time and 00:00, August 15 of Pyongyang time will be taken off to set 00:00 of August 15 of the previous time as 00:30 and all clocks would be set as "00:00, August 15, Pyongyang time" at 00:30, August 15 of previous time.

At 00:00, the Pyongyang Bell tolled deep sound at state standard time 00:00 at the Pyongyang Astronomical Observatory,
...
scientists working on satellites to explore a new area of conquering space and all other people of the country set their clock and watches according to Pyongyang time

http://www.kcna.co.j...50815-08ee.html


Commentary

This new Pyongyang Time will definitely bring North Korea closer to Beijing and Tehran.

In addition, the synchronization with Iran is made much easier, as Tehran Time is UTC+03:30 and Pyongyang Time UTC+08:30 instead of the UTC+09:00. All this, to the benefit of both nations' space programs.

S☫heil_Esy


Newly-built General Satellite Control Centre


May. 4, 2015 Monday

The successful construction of the centre provided a solid springboard for continued launch of various working satellites essential for the country's sci-tech and economic development and national defence.

He went to the room for the education.

He noted that the main room for real-time display of satellite launch, auxiliary display and control room and optical observation room were built to meet the scientific and technological requirements and the visitor's room is very convenient to watching satellite launch.

E-library, lounge, conference room, offices, dinning room and bedrooms are well built to provide the scientists and technicians with enough conditions for their research and living.

He stressed the need to provide more cutting-edge facilities for the centre, build a base in which satellite test can be done.

Peaceful space development is an option taken.

Satellites of Korea will as ever be launched into outer space at the time and locations set by the Central Committee.

2015051135332440.jpg
http://www.jajusibo....51135332440.jpg
http://www.jajusibo....76&section=sc38


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http://ipic.su/img/i....1490709091.jpg
http://img1.ph.126.n...61420523585.jpg


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http://ipic.su/img/i....1490709150.jpg
http://img1.ph.126.n...88280992333.jpg


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http://ipic.su/img/i....1490709189.jpg
http://img1.ph.126.n...80699372464.jpg


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http://ipic.su/img/i....1490709217.jpg
http://img1.ph.126.n...00838896266.jpg


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http://ipic.su/img/i....1490709256.png
http://img0.ph.126.n...15629828901.png
http://liuqiankktt.b...201543112651403
Yellow: General Satellite Control Centre; Green: Senior cadres' residential area; Red: Supreme leaderships' residence



http://rodong.rep.kp...2015-05-04-0019



Satellite Control Centre Video

KimJongUnvisitsnewSCC.1449458497.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1449458497.jpg
Screen capture at t=171 seconds
From left to right: Kwangmyongsong-1, Kwangmyongsong-2, Kwangmyongsong-3



Kim Jong Un visits newly-built Satellite Control Centre: http://www.youtube.c...h?v=z9ak5-U6Lr8

Edited by Soheil, 19 May 2017 - 10:00 PM.

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#4 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:53 PM

New Lithium Atom-shaped Sci-Tech Complex :lol:


29 October 2015

The complex sprawling over an area of 106 600 square metres is a base for disseminating the achievements in latest science and technology
...
as a comprehensive e-library, as it has stored in its database in an all-round and systematic way the sci-tech books that have already been off press as well as achievements in latest science and technology of our country and advanced sci-tech data of different countries throughout the world
...
a building that can accommodate 500 guests

north-korea-science-technology.jpg
This seems to be the English library, with all the most essential topics for any good scientist: "Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell" and "Practical Astronomy"! :thumbup: :lol:

north-korea-science-technology.jpg

north-korea-science-technology.jpg

7290b67893c145fab312e2d892f00638.jpg

http://www.uriminzok...nglish&no=11686



Science-Technology Complex Video

NorthKoreaLunarMission.1449464756.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1449464756.jpg
Note: At t=666 seconds (11m06s), possibly the section dedicated to the future North Korean lunar exploration program (Unha-9), as disclosed back in 2012; Hint at future Phase Two with lunar lander.



Pyongyang Opens Science - Technology Complex: http://www.youtube.c...h?v=prJeylQ57x8

Hydrogen Atom-shaped Planetarium :lol:


11249259_723070377803049_2043083819_n.jp
imgp5889.jpg?w=918
*2015-10-16-p-02-1.jpg


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#5 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:54 PM

North Korean Space Launch Sites


North Korean first space center: Tonghae Satellite Launch Center (동해위성발사센터, 東海衛星發射中心, East Sea SLC)North Korean second space center: Sohae Satellite Launch Center (서해위성발사센터, 西海衛星發射中心, West Sea SLC)North Korean overseas space tracking stations


2012/12/13

Ahead of the [Kwangmyongsong-3#2 satellite] launch, [North Korea] had sent [space] scientists and equipment in late November to some Asian nations, like China, Mongolia and Indonesia, said a senior source in Seoul.

"It appears that the equipment set up in China and Mongolia is aimed at tracking the satellite," spokesman Kim said. "Because the satellite circles very fast, it briefly passes through North Korea. Therefore, several regions need antennas to track it."

http://english.yonha...005153315F.HTML


The Iranian Space Agency (ISA) operates 5 tracking stations: Karaj, Tabriz, Qeshm, Bushehr and Mashhad.
http://www.isa.ir/co...dn5WYMJXZ0VWbhJXYw9lZ8BEO0UDQ6QWStVGdp9lZ8BUM4ATMApDZJ52bpR3Yh9lZ

0304134mm7bh4uhfdb9uf8.1495060413.jpg
http://img.cjdby.com...h4uhfdb9uf8.jpg


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#6 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:55 PM

Pre-Space Age Era Korean major milestones

2016020129412358.jpg
https://www.jajusibo...20129412358.jpg
http://changesk.blog.../blog-post.html
1395 star map based on a Goguryeo Kingdom era (37 BC668 AD) sky map.


Earlier Korean development in rocketry


Successful reverse engineering of black powder in Korea

The Koreans had tried to acquire rockets and black powder and their production methods from China. The Chinese, however, regarded the technology of black powder as a state secret and restricted access to it and trade in its nitrous raw materials (which could only be found in China). The Koreans therefore sought to acquire the manufacturing secrets of black powder for themselves and, in 1374 (~1376), Choe Mu Son was able to bribe a Han Chinese merchant to obtain the secret formula for manufacturing black powder, as well as technical knowledge about Chinese firearm and cannon technology. He also successfully extracted potassium nitrate from the soil and rocks, and developed Korea's first black powder.

http://seer.snu.ac.kr/trip/anc-4.html


Choe Mu Son, Inventor of Powder Weapons

September 29. 2011 Juch 100

Pyongyang, September 29 (KCNA) -- Choe Mu Son (최무선, 崔茂宣) (1326-1395) invented powder and powder weapons for the first time in Korea.

Choe suffered from the Japanese invasion in his childhood. After a decade of strenuous efforts, he succeeded in inventing powder and powder weapons.

Among his inventions are cannons and shells of different shapes.

He reshaped vessels to be suitable for powder weapons.

He was also a famous military commander. Under his command, some 100 cannon-equipped vessels of Koryo, the first united state of Korea, won a big victory in a battle with 500 Japanese vessels in the sea off Jinpho in Aug. 1380.

It was the first gun battle in the sea in the world, with such battle waged in Europe in 1571.

http://www.kcna.co.j...10929-41ee.html


Korean anti-ship ballistic weapon

Large-size guns for naval warfare with ASBW (대장군전) developed by Choe Mu Son

The Choson Dynasty missile was originally made from the concept of a big arrow. According to the 'Vernacular Explanation of the Technique of Using Firearms' (화포식언해, 火砲式諺解) published in the year 1335 (1635) after the Japanese invasion of Imjin War, the weapon was made from two years old wood, weighing about 33.7 kg. It is said to have reached about 1.6 km. He attached iron stabilizer fins, and iron bullets to the warhead.

After carrying out restoration work at the Naval Academy, it was reported that it could penetrated 80cm granite as a result of shooting experiments with actual gunpowder. It is believed that if this was the case, it would have been possible to sink a boat made of wood at the time of the Japanese invasion. At that time, there was a record that soldiers were confused by this Choson Dynasty weapon of terror.


37508FE854CF4C059BFEBD594510E05C.png
https://210.178.100....D594510E05C.png
http://210.178.100.3...&pageNo=3&cmd=2
ASBW developed by Choe Mu Son


2016122710291750951_3.jpg
https://cphoto.asiae...291750951_3.jpg
http://military.asia...122710291750951
Modern firing of an ASBW developed by Choe Mu Son


photo553797.png
https://www.hancinem...photo553797.png
http://www.hancinema...4fps-77679.html
https://namu.wiki/w/대장군전
"The Admiral: Roaring Currents" movie scene of an ASBW developed by Choe Mu Son


http://military.asia...122710291750951


The largest rocket weapon of the 15th century

2014.05.27

Dae Singijeon Rocket (대신기전, 大神機箭, Great Divine Weapon) with 2 km range and maximum 3 km range, a mass of 5 kg (3 kg of solid propellant), 102mm diameter, and a lenght of 5.6 meters developed in 1448 AD.

2015042701899_0.jpg
https://image.chosun...042701899_0.jpg
http://premium.chosu...5042701997.html



P1100423-1.1495060922.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495060922.jpg
https://cfile227.uf....74C4000D468B762
http://blog.daum.net/bae6607/7847795



http://blog.daum.net/haedod/15671566


Korea's 15th century first two stage rocket

2014.05.27

Sanhwa Singijeon Rocket (산화신기전, 散火神機箭, Fire Scattering Divine Weapon) with 2.4 km range and maximum 3.4 km range, 135mm diameter, and a lenght of 5.3 meters, developed in 1448 AD.
Korea's first two stage rocket, with iron fragmentation warhead. World's only second two stage rocket, after China's Huolong chushui (火龙出水) ~1403 AD (https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/火龍神器陣法 )


http://m.blog.daum.n...tegoryId=682439


Earlier Korean development in manned flight


Haneul daramjui (하늘다람쥐, 「天松鼠」: Sky Squirrel)

yamisora.jpg
https://www.tougewo-.../2/yamisora.jpg
http://www.tougewo-k.../momonga02.html
モモンガの特徴でもある移動手段が滑空です。通常は2030mの飛行距離ですが時折、50m以上もあるところから滑空してくることもあります。音も無く飛んできますがモモンガの目は、真剣です
Front cam view


original.jpg
https://photo1.ganre...8c/original.jpg
http://ganref.jp/m/t...1be3ac8cc8f408c
エゾモモンガの飛行シーン
Front cam view



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https://pds.exblog.j...819_2122293.jpg
http://yah55.exblog.jp/21557227/
フライング・モモ
Side cam view



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https://pds.exblog.j...15_20195788.jpg
http://troutinn.exblog.jp/24748009/
モモンガ滑空 (2015/08/01) の記事画像
Ground cam view



b0189415_1991587.jpg
https://pds.exblog.j...415_1991587.jpg
http://troutinn.exblog.jp/24846530/
エゾモモンガ (2015/09/01) の記事画像
Rear cam view



The endangered animal, designated as Natural Monument No. 328, is named "haneul daramjui," or "sky squirrel."

http://app.yonhapnew...150407028400341



Korea's 16th century flying vehicle

2010.07.16

Pikŏ, Flying Vehicle in Joseon Dynasty


Pikŏ (비거, 飛車; alternative romanization 'Bigeo') is a flying vehicle which is known to be produced by Jeong Pyeonggu in 1590s and can fly the sky like airplanes. The vehicle, which is recorded in ancient documents, is 300 years ahead of western countries who started developing airplanes in early 20 centuries. Bigeo had a large leather bag at the center of the body filled with compressed air, and when a cap under the bag was opened, can fly upward by the reactive force of the compressed air ejected through the hole.

P1100378.1495061230.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495061230.jpg
https://cfile222.uf....64C3FFEDA5F6256
http://blog.daum.net/bae6607/7847795



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http://ipic.su/img/i....1495061374.jpg
https://cfile233.uf....64C3FFEDB64A3E0
https://www.google.c.../sAEQ4ZQEdXD_kg
Pikŏ, Flying Vehicle during Joseon Dynasty, Gwacheon National Science Museum



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http://ipic.su/img/i....1495061467.jpg
https://cfile227.uf....64C3FFEDA61E5C2
http://blog.daum.net/bae6607/7847795



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http://ipic.su/img/i....1495061543.jpg
https://cfile204.uf....64C3FFEDA608054
http://blog.daum.net/bae6607/7847795



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http://ipic.su/img/i....1495061627.jpg
https://cfile223.uf....64C3FFEDB6309FC
http://blog.daum.net/bae6607/7847795



http://blog.daum.net/bae6607/7847795


2016/06/01

Pikŏ, which means flying vehicle, is a platform that Jung Pyung Gu (정평구, 鄭平九)(1566-1624), an inventor of the Joseon Dynasty, made and used during the Japanese invasion.

Pikŏ was a full-fledged flying vehicle, with a crew of two people, and capable of achieving a ~12 km controlled flight.

The maneuvering method is to pull string attached to the wing by hand and to press the foot plate attached to the tail wing.

It is made of bamboo and paper.

http://www.yonhapnew...1122600005.HTML


December 09, 2000

The first model of Korea's non-motorized aviation model, which is recorded in the literature, is displayed at the Air Force Academy Museum and is open to the general public.

The air force made a half-size model of the restoration (length 6.3, width 11.5, gross weight 32.5 kg) restored with materials such as bamboo, paper, etc,
The Air Force official said that although the existence of a blueprint is unclear, and not recognized as orthodoxy, but it unequivocality shows that the Korean people has used aircraft for military purposes more than 300 years before the Wright brothers.

http://www.munhwa.co...901032225025004


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#7 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:56 PM

North Korean space launchers


UH20clearPTS-1-2UH-1-2-3-9-18.1493428526
https://ipic.su/img/....1493428526.jpg
http://img2.ph.126.n...92535929739.jpg
http://keaver.blog.1...20092232816839/
From letft to right: Paektusan-1, Paektusan-2, Unha-1, Unha-2, Unha-3, and speculatives Unha-9, Unha-18, Unha-20.


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https://www.jajusibo...92633561419.png
http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38
May 2, 2015 photo from General Satellite Control Center's exhibition room.
From left to right: models of Paektusan-1, Unha-2, Unha-3 LVs.



Paektusan (백두산, 白头山: Mount Paektu) LV


Glossary

Mar 22, 2012

Kwangmyongsong (Korean for guiding light or Polar Star) refers to the late Kim Jong Il. The name was given by the members of the anti-Japanese guerrilla army when he was born at a secret camp on snow-covered Mt Paektu, expressing their desire that he would grow into a Korean "King David".

http://www.atimes.co...a/NC22Dg01.html


1e44ae5ab365839e7b77ce01b66881e6.jpg?ima
http://cms-bucket.no...thumbnail=550x0
http://news.163.com/....html#sns_weibo


http://www.dprktoday...type=2&no=19018



taep.png
https://gallery.mili.../10206/taep.png
http://www.military.ir/forums/topic/26851-گالری-نیروی-زمینی-کره-شمالی/page-2
1998 Paektusan-1 used to launch Kwangmyongsong-1, rear view on the four jet vanes of the first stage


Paektusan LV's Rodong first stage


Jun 12, 2009

A prototype ICBM was assembled by the end of the 1980s. Two prototype ICBMs were test-fired on May 29, 1993, with one splashing down off Honolulu and the other off Guam. The Kim Jong Il administration gave an advance notice to the US government of the long-range missile test.

http://www.atimes.co...a/KF12Dg01.html



Paektusan LV's third stage

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http://www.tongilnew..._52709_2240.jpg
http://www.tongilnew...ml?idxno=117961
Model of North Korea's first unsuccessful experimental satellite Kwangmyongsong-1 under its payload shroud as displayed at the Three Revolutions Exhibition Hall.

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#8 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:57 PM

Unha (은하, 銀河: Milky Way) LV




Glossary

Mar 22, 2012

Unha is the Korean word for the Milky Way, but also refers to present Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un as a heaven-sent statesman set to lead the ancestral Land of Morning Calm to millennium prosperity.

http://www.atimes.co...a/NC22Dg01.html




20170326-k1-02-2.jpg
https://www.dprktoda...326-k1-02-2.jpg

http://www.dprktoday...type=2&no=19066


2016021101683_0.jpg
https://image.chosun...021101683_0.jpg
http://photo.chosun....6021101770.html
February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4, side view


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https://www.chinaspa...75030118320.jpg
http://blog.wenxueci...2&postId=616071
February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4, side view


2015051137439063.jpg
https://www.jajusibo...51137439063.jpg
North Korean Unha-3 in the Sohae SLC's rocket assembly building, April 2012
http://www.jajusibo....76&section=sc38


1455175030137005.1491157320.jpg
https://www.chinaspa...75030137005.jpg
http://blog.wenxueci...2&postId=616071
February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4, bottom view


f-missile-b-20170419.1495061955.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495061955.jpg
https://www.japantim...-b-20170419.jpg
http://www.japantime...t/#.WPVOLdLythE
First, second and third stages of the Unha-3 space launch vehicle model, displayed at the Sci-Tech Complex in Pyongyang, on Apr 18, 2017.


f-missile-a-20170419.1495062094.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495062094.jpg
https://www.japantim...-a-20170419.jpg
http://www.japantime...t/#.WPVOLdLythE
First stage of the Unha-3 space launch vehicle model, displayed at the Sci-Tech Complex in Pyongyang, on Apr 18, 2017.

Edited by Soheil, 18 May 2017 - 05:38 PM.

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#9 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:58 PM

Unha LV's first stage


C7geX-sXQAAm32a.1491153328.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...X-sXQAAm32a.jpg
https://twitter.com/...458503574110214
Photogrammetric measurements of first stage from video of the February 2016's Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4



C7geZB1W0AAQx-c.1491153351.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...ZB1W0AAQx-c.jpg
https://twitter.com/...458503574110214
Photogrammetric measurements of first stage from video of the February 2016's Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4




2016/02/15


2016021550049428.jpg
February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4, bottom view.

There are four main engine nozzles, and four auxiliary engine nozzles painted white are arranged at regular intervals. The four main engines are fixed.
The four auxiliary vernier engines are designed to move up and down to 36 degrees, controlled by a gyro-stabilized autopilot.

The South Korean Ministry of National Defense estimated the thrust of one single Unha-3-2's main engine launched in 2012 to 27 tons, and the thrust of one single auxiliary vernier engine to 3 tons.
They estimated the thrust of the first stage to 120 tons, the thrust of the second stage to 30 tons, and the thrust of the third stage to less than 10 tons respectively.

However, the new Unha LV launched in 2016, is fitted with improved engines developing increased thrust, so the first stage has a thrust of 150 tons, the second stage has a thrust of 50 tons, and the third stage is estimated to produce 20 tons of thrust.

Stages are separated by Mild Detonating Fuze (MDF)

Six acceleration motors on the interstage section between stages 1 and 2 are used to boost stage 2, while four braking motors on stage 1 slow it slightly.

2016021552096365.jpg
https://www.jajusibo...21552096365.jpg
http://www.jajusibo.....html?uid=25927
February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4, interstage section between stages 1 and 2: interstage separation


http://www.jajusibo....n=sc38



2012-12-23 14:02

Two days after the lift-off, South Koreas Navy retrieved a large cylindrical fuel tank 7.6 meters long and 2.4 meters in diameter which is believed to be the upper part of the first-stage rocket that also included a fuel tank and a combustion chamber.

After examining the 3.2-ton wreckage with the sign Unha written in Korean on it, a team of 42 South Korean military, rocket and missile experts has concluded that the wreckage is an oxidizer container, which stored red fuming nitric acid, to fuel the rockets first-stage propellant.
...
The wreckage retrieved has four holes on the bottom, which are believed to be used to supply the oxidizer to the fuel tank
...
The rocket itself was made of an alloy of aluminum and magnesium, AlMg6, and was equipped with a camera tasked with monitoring engines, a propellant motor and fuel pipelines on its side, according to the report.
...
Poor welding and uneven surface shows that North Korea seems to have no advanced technology in that area, the report said.

Some components, including a compression sensor and electric wires, were identified as imported, the report said, but there were no materials that have violated the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

http://nwww.koreaher...1223000184&dt=2



2016.02.03

North Korea's rocket engines are connected to turbopumps that are powered by high-temperature high-pressure gas generated when kerosene, which is used in aviation, and nitric acid, which is an oxidizer, are combined.

http://www.ohmynews....1&CMPT_CD=T0016



2017-03-20

Vernier engine debris from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016, indicates it burnes Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) / kerosene propellants.

http://view.inews.qq...0170320A0AZKV00



2016.04.27

Anti-corrosion fluorine component added to the fuel of Kwangmyongsong LV in February 2016, not present in the 2012 wreckage.

http://photo.chosun....6042702788.html


a37apf6t3cqycz8ibzer.jpg
https://upload.tehra...cqycz8ibzer.jpg
http://forum.zeyroon.com/topic/737-گالری-تصاویر-ماهواره-بر-سفیر-2-سيمرغ/
Some difference between Unha-3-1 and Unha-3-2 first stage engine bay, as well as their position on launch pad.



sfyyxrpsy5jrr0p5vbfa.jpg
https://upload.tehra...5jrr0p5vbfa.jpg
http://forum.zeyroon.com/topic/737-گالری-تصاویر-ماهواره-بر-سفیر-2-سيمرغ/
Unha-3-2 first stage engine bay, and position on launch pad.




896e7985.jpg
https://livedoor.blo.../9/896e7985.jpg
http://bandoalpha.bl...2016-02-15.html
Interstage skirt from Unha-3's first/second stage and rodong engine as captured by S. Korea on 23 December 2013
S. Korean estimation: first stage: 15 meters; second stage: 9.3 meters; third stage: 3.7 meters; payload fairings: 2 meters; total lenght: 30 meters, mass: 91 tons.


20130121124508083.jpg
https://i2.media.dau...21124508083.jpg
http://wetgeo.com/we....php?webID=4069
Interstage skirt from Unha-3's first/second stage and rodong engine as captured by S. Korea on 23 December 2013
First stage powered by four rodong main engines, and steered by four verniers.
S. Korean estimation: first stage: 15 meters; second stage: 9.3 meters; third stage: 3.7 meters; payload fairings: 2 meters; total lenght: 30 meters, mass: 91 tons.



*B1D7B8B26.1495388063.png
https://mblogthumb1....
http://m.blog.naver....64/100187313821
Oxidizer flow controler, vernier engine debris from Kwangmyongsong-3#2's first stage as captured by S. Korea on December 2012




00123f3112a81235115d25.jpg
https://images.china...81235115d25.jpg
http://www.china.com...nt_27417020.htm
Part of first stage of Unha-3 as captured by S. Korea on 14 December 2012 at 430 km from launch site, by 80 meters deep: 7.6 meters lenght, 2.4 meters diameter.


00123f3112a81235115e26.jpg
https://images.china...81235115e26.jpg
http://www.china.com..._27417020_2.htm
Part of first stage of Unha-3 as captured by S. Korea on 14 December 2012


00123f3112a81235115e27.jpg
https://images.china...81235115e27.jpg
http://www.china.com..._27417020_3.htm
Part of first stage of Unha-3 as captured by S. Korea on 14 December 2012


00123f3112a81235115e28.jpg
https://images.china...81235115e28.jpg
http://www.hinews.cn...015242082.shtml
Part of first stage of Unha-3 as captured by S. Korea on 14 December 2012



xes_ead440859c62fd647ab3b45cb1aaa47a.jpg
https://y1.ifengimg....45cb1aaa47a.jpg
http://news.ifeng.co...4sobiaoqian#p=1
Rodong engine from Unha-3's first stage as captured by S. Korea on 27 December 2012



2016042702704_0.jpg
https://image.chosun...042702704_0.jpg
http://photo.chosun....6042702788.html
Four Rodong engines from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016
Anti-corrosion fluorine component added to the fuel in February 2016, not present in the 2012 wreckage.


2016042702704_1.jpg
https://image.chosun...042702704_1.jpg
http://photo.chosun....6042702788.html
Single Rodong engines from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016



2016042702704_2.jpg
https://image.chosun...042702704_2.jpg
http://photo.chosun....6042702788.html
Interstage skirt from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016



2016042702704_3.jpg
https://image.chosun...042702704_3.jpg
http://photo.chosun....6042702788.html
White paint over a blue 3 (present in 2012's Unha-3) itself covering the letter 성 (from Kwangmyongsong광명성), on fuel tank from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016



2016042702704_4.jpg
https://image.chosun...042702704_4.jpg
http://photo.chosun....6042702788.html
Turbopump debris from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016




20170320A0AZKV00.1495062574.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495062574.jpg
https://inews.gtimg..../0/1287367182/0
http://view.inews.qq...0170320A0AZKV00
Vernier engine debris from Kwangmyongsong LV's first stage as captured by S. Korea on February 2016
Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) / kerosene propellant vernier engine.




xes_b22edecd45a6752a5af309856db896f7.jpg
https://y1.ifengimg....9856db896f7.jpg
http://news.ifeng.co...4sobiaoqian#p=4
Gas tanks from Unha-3's first stage as captured by S. Korea on 23 December 2012



F9C647A41AA17E1E4BF5D45FC8CD8E5F.jpeg
https://img003.21cni...5FC8CD8E5F.jpeg
http://www.takefoto....ews-676651.html
Interstage skirt from Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4)'s first/second stage and rodong engine as captured by S. Korea on 11 January 2016


0EB07E9C737468014967EE976EC59A4D.jpeg
https://img001.21cni...976EC59A4D.jpeg
http://www.takefoto....ews-676651.html
Rodong engine from Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) as captured by S. Korea on 11 January 2016


C3BA1455469D49DA949D25EFCEEFB3C3.jpeg
https://img001.21cni...EFCEEFB3C3.jpeg
http://www.takefoto....ews-676651.html
Interstage skirt from Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4)'s first/second stage and rodong engine as captured by S. Korea on 11 January 2016

Edited by Soheil, 23 May 2017 - 10:13 PM.

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#10 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 04:59 PM

Unha LV's second stage


2016/02/15

The South Korean Ministry of National Defense estimated the thrust of the Unha-3-2 main engine launched in 2012 to 27 tons, and the thrust of one single auxiliary vernier engine to 3 tons.
They estimated the thrust of the first stage to 120 tons, the thrust of the second stage to 30 tons, and the thrust of the third stage to less than 10 tons respectively.

However, the new Unha LV launched in 2016, is fitted with improved engines developing increased thrust, so the first stage has a thrust of 150 tons, the second stage has a thrust of 50 tons, and the third stage is estimated to produce 20 tons of thrust.


http://www.jajusibo....n=sc38


C7SsJ01VoAACX6K.1491153538.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...J01VoAACX6K.jpg
https://twitter.com/...488616189906946
Photogrammetric speculations on the second stage from video of the February 2016's Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4


Cupc70fVYAAl0PO.1491155197.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...70fVYAAl0PO.jpg
https://twitter.com/...544108965797888
Other speculations about the Unha-3-2's second stage: "More likely a main engine with 4 verniers"


6525d3a8-2284-4944-80b6-3f28c44027ed.jpg
https://pds.joins.co...f28c44027ed.jpg
http://news.joins.com/article/21396891
Schematic showing a rocket stage powered by a new Rodong engine with 4 verniers, taken aboard the North Korean "Kuwol Mountain" cargo ship captured in 1999.


201021799.jpg
https://img.sbs.co.k...9/201021799.jpg
https://gokoreans.co...sbs&wr_id=17009
Separation rockets not yet installed on the interstage skirt, first and second stages of the Unha-3 LV



umu5i5iazk8nu31j0.jpg
https://upload.tehra...iazk8nu31j0.jpg
http://forum.zeyroon.com/topic/737-گالری-تصاویر-ماهواره-بر-سفیر-2-سيمرغ/
Separation rockets without covers on the interstage skirt and second stage of Unha-3



muemtlyl4it8c6cmbkrk.jpg
https://upload.tehra...it8c6cmbkrk.jpg
http://forum.zeyroon.com/topic/737-گالری-تصاویر-ماهواره-بر-سفیر-2-سيمرغ/
Separation rockets without covers on the interstage skirt and first stage of Unha-3




ixtf8v5pqf91hzjdca.jpg
https://upload.tehra...pqf91hzjdca.jpg
http://forum.zeyroon.com/topic/737-گالری-تصاویر-ماهواره-بر-سفیر-2-سيمرغ/
Separation rockets without covers on the interstage skirt and first stage of Unha-3




Unha LV's third stage


2016/02/15


2016021558459351.jpg
https://www.jajusibo...21558459351.jpg


2016021559476542.jpg
https://www.jajusibo...21559476542.jpg
http://www.jajusibo.....html?uid=25927
February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4: third stage, just before satellite separation



Payload fairing size

2016021555447345.jpg
https://www.jajusibo...21555447345.jpg

The South Korean Ministry of National Defense estimated the captured payload fairing of the Unha LV used to launched Kwangmyongsong-4 in 2016, to have a a height of 1m95cm, a diameter of 1m25cm.


Payload capability

it is estimated that the Kwangmyongsong LV (Unha-4 launched in 2016) has a payload capacity of 1,000kg.

http://www.jajusibo....n=sc38


CuuMwhiUAAArvbg.1491154756.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...whiUAAArvbg.jpg
https://twitter.com/...877426101911552
Unha-2's third stage: Kwangmyongsong-2 satellite inside the Unha-2 from a poster at the Pyongyang Space Museum


ClI5BUFUoAUy8tj.1491156137.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...BUFUoAUy8tj.jpg
https://twitter.com/...719588542582786
Unha-3-2's payload fairing


ClI4KoNVYAAxdxJ.1491156248.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...KoNVYAAxdxJ.jpg
https://twitter.com/...718648397725697
Unha-3-2's payload fairing



Unha LV's launch preparation


February 2, 2016

In Sohae SLC, when the Unha LV on the mobile transfer structure is moved 150m to the gantry tower, the process of injecting liquid fuel into the first and second stage can start.
The Unha LV is injected with liquid fuel in the first stage and second stage, and the solid fuel is charged in the third stage.

Liquid fuel is injected from an automated underground fuel injection facility.

It can be done quickly within 24 hours. Before this modern fueling facility was built, fuel injection took three days.

The liquid fuel injected into the Unha LV is divided into propulsion fuel and starting fuel. Propellant fuel is used to propel the Unha LV to earth orbit and starter fuel is used to ignite the rocket engine at launch. The propellant is injected 48 hours before the launch time, and the starter fuel is injected 24 hours before the launch time.

Unha LV are launched with low humidity and low wind speed to avoid the danger of malfunction due to the generation of static electricity in various electronic devices installed in the propulsion module. Considering these weather conditions, we set the launch time first, then inject the starter fuel 24 hours before the launch time.

All satellites are launched when the sky is sunny. Therefore satellites can receive the maximum amount of solar energy. If the satellite that entered the earth's orbit is flying in the shadow of the earth and can not receive solar energy, it will consume too much electricity of its onboard battery and shorten its service life.

In some case, the movable assembly structure can be moved 48 hours after the Unha LV is assembled on the launch pad, meaning that a launch can occur two days after a LV is mounted.

Final order to launch a rocket can be issued with a 2 hours notice as in December 12, 2012 (order at 8:00, launch at 10:00).


http://changesk.blog.../blog-post.html


Edited by Soheil, 18 May 2017 - 05:51 PM.

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#11 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:00 PM

The Inter-Korean Deep Space Race



╔═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                                                                  Past Korean launch vehicles                                                                  ║
╠════════╦════════════════╦═══════════════════╦════════════╦════════╦════════╦══════════╦══════════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦══════════╣
║ Agency ║ Launch Vehicle ║ First launch date ║   Thrust   ║ Stages ║ Total  ║ Maximum  ║   Total Length   ║ Payload LEO ║ Payload GEO ║ Payload LTO ║  Status  ║
║        ║                ║    (Pyongyang)    ║            ║        ║  Mass  ║ Diameter ║                  ║             ║             ║             ║          ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬══════════╣
║  KCST  ║  Paektusan-1   ║    31 AUG 1998    ║   ~32t f   ║   3    ║  ~21t  ║  1.25 m  ║       ~24 m      ║  ~25-40 kg  ║             ║             ║ launched ║
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║                  ║   @250 km   ║             ║             ║          ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬══════════╣
║  KCST  ║     Unha-3     ║    12 DEC 2012    ║ 4 x ~32t f ║   3    ║  ~91t  ║   2.4 m  ║       ~30 m      ║   ~100 kg   ║             ║             ║ success  ║
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║                  ║ @500km SSO  ║             ║             ║          ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬══════════╣
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║      33.5 m:     ║    100 kg   ║             ║             ║          ║
║  KARI  ║     KSLV-1     ║    30 JAN 2013    ║ 170-ton f  ║   2    ║  140t  ║   2.9 m  ║ 1st stage: 25.8m ║   @300 km   ║             ║             ║ success  ║
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║ 2nd stage: 7.7m  ║             ║             ║             ║          ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬══════════╣
║  NADA  ║ Kwangmyongsong ║    7 FEB 2016     ║ 4 x ~37t f ║   3    ║  ~91t  ║   2.4 m  ║       ~30 m      ║   ~250 kg   ║             ║             ║ success  ║
║        ║    (Unha-4)    ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║                  ║ @500 km SSO ║             ║             ║          ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬══════════╣
║  KARI  ║   KSLV-2-II    ║    ~ Dec 2018     ║  75-ton f  ║   2    ║        ║          ║       26 m       ║             ║             ║             ║   TBD    ║
╚════════╩════════════════╩═══════════════════╩════════════╩════════╩════════╩══════════╩══════════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩══════════╝

╔═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                                                              Korean lunar launch vehicles                                                               ║
╠════════╦════════════════╦═══════════════════╦════════════╦════════╦════════╦══════════╦══════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦════════╣
║ Agency ║ Launch Vehicle ║ First launch date ║   Thrust   ║ Stages ║ Total  ║ Maximum  ║ Total Length ║ Payload LEO ║ Payload GEO ║ Payload LTO ║ Status ║
║        ║                ║    (Pyongyang)    ║            ║        ║  Mass  ║ Diameter ║              ║             ║             ║             ║        ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬════════╣
║  NADA  ║     Unha-9     ║       ~2018       ║ ~4 x 80t f ║   3    ║ ~200t  ║   ~3 m   ║     ~50 m    ║     ~2t     ║     ~1t     ║   ~500 kg   ║  TBD   ║
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║              ║   @500 km   ║    @GSO     ║    @LTO     ║        ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬══════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬════════╣
║  KARI  ║   KSLV-2-III   ║       2021        ║ 4 x 75t f  ║   3    ║  200t  ║   3.5 m  ║    47.2 m    ║   1,500kg   ║             ║   ~350 kg   ║  TBD   ║
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║              ║ @600-800 km ║             ║    @LTO     ║        ║
╚════════╩════════════════╩═══════════════════╩════════════╩════════╩════════╩══════════╩══════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩════════╝

╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                                                             Korean manned launch vehicles                                                              ║
╠════════╦════════════════╦═══════════════════╦════════════╦════════╦════════╦══════════╦════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╣
║ Agency ║ Launch Vehicle ║ First launch date ║   Thrust   ║ Stages ║ Total  ║ Maximum  ║ Total  ║ Payload LEO ║ Payload GEO ║ Payload LTO ║   Status    ║
║        ║                ║    (Pyongyang)    ║            ║        ║  Mass  ║ Diameter ║ Length ║             ║             ║             ║             ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╣
║        ║                ║                   ║   Core:    ║        ║        ║          ║        ║             ║             ║             ║             ║
║  NADA  ║   Unha-18(?)   ║       ~2021       ║ ~4 x 80t f ║   3    ║ ~400t  ║  ~3.5 m  ║  ~50 m ║     ~8t     ║     ~4t     ║             ║ speculative ║
║        ║                ║                   ║ Boosters:  ║        ║        ║          ║        ║    @LEO     ║    @GSO     ║             ║  manned LV  ║
║        ║                ║                   ║ 4 x 80t f  ║        ║        ║          ║        ║             ║             ║             ║             ║
╠════════╬════════════════╬═══════════════════╬════════════╬════════╬════════╬══════════╬════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╣
║  KARI  ║     KSLV-3     ║     2023-2030     ║ 9 x 75t f  ║   3    ║  570t  ║   4.4 m  ║  61 m  ║     8t      ║     ~3t     ║    ~1.5t    ║  unmanned   ║
║        ║                ║                   ║            ║        ║        ║          ║        ║    @LEO     ║    @GSO     ║    @LTO     ║     LV      ║
╚════════╩════════════════╩═══════════════════╩════════════╩════════╩════════╩══════════╩════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╝

╔══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                                                            Korean deep space launch vehicles                                                             ║
╠════════╦═════════╦═══════════════════╦═════════════════╦════════╦═══════════╦══════════╦═════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════╣
║ Agency ║ Launch  ║ First launch date ║     Thrust      ║ Stages ║   Total   ║ Maximum  ║  Total  ║ Payload LEO ║ Payload GEO ║ Payload LTO ║   Status    ║
║        ║ Vehicle ║    (Pyongyang)    ║                 ║        ║   Mass    ║ Diameter ║ Length  ║             ║             ║             ║             ║
╠════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬═════════════════╬════════╬═══════════╬══════════╬═════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╣
║  NADA  ║ Unha-20 ║       ~2026       ║   ~2000t f(?)   ║   3    ║ ~1200t(?) ║  ~5 m(?) ║ ~50 m(?)║    ~20t     ║    ~10t     ║     ~5t     ║ speculative ║
║        ║         ║                   ║                 ║        ║           ║          ║         ║    @LEO     ║    @GSO     ║    @LTO     ║     LV      ║
╠════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬═════════════════╬════════╬═══════════╬══════════╬═════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════╣
║        ║         ║                   ║      Core:      ║        ║           ║          ║         ║             ║             ║             ║             ║
║  KARI  ║ KSLV-4  ║     2028-2040     ║    9 x 75t f    ║   3    ║   1700t   ║   4.4 m  ║   47 m  ║     20t     ║     6t      ║     3t      ║             ║
║        ║         ║                   ║    Boosters:    ║        ║           ║          ║         ║    @LEO     ║    @GSO     ║    @LTO     ║             ║
║        ║         ║                   ║ 2 x (9 x 75t f) ║        ║           ║          ║         ║             ║             ║             ║             ║
╚════════╩═════════╩═══════════════════╩═════════════════╩════════╩═══════════╩══════════╩═════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════╝
https://www.kari.re..../sub03_03_02.dohttps://www.kari.re..../sub03_03_01.do


South Korean Deep Space Exploration Program



2014.11.12


C7D1B1B9C7FCB9DFBBE7C3BC1.1493504376.jpg
https://ipic.su/img/....1493504376.jpg
http://blog.naver.co...
http://blog.naver.co...rue&from=search



ss_05.1495063669.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495063669.jpg
https://cfile25.uf.t...7546313C736E33D
http://emptydream.tistory.com/3581
South Korean road map: KSLV launchers family evolution.



IE001920514_STD.JPG
https://ojsfile.ohmy...1920514_STD.JPG
http://www.ohmynews....1&CMPT_CD=T0016
South Korean 3 stages KSLVII lunar launcher by 2020 (with Naro and Unha-3 LVs).



ss_04.1495063796.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495063796.jpg
https://cfile21.uf.t...D54631361206CF4
http://emptydream.tistory.com/3581
South Korean road map: Lunar (KLEP), Marsian and Asteroid exploration.



http://emptydream.ti...31D103E58F7.pdf

http://emptydream.tistory.com/3581



53542014.1.jpg
https://dimg.donga.c.../53542014.1.jpg
http://news.donga.co...0308/53542026/1
South Korean Lunar Exploration Program: KLEP lunar lander by 2025, and relay satellite by 2023.




North Korean Deep Space Exploration Program


North Korean Lunar Exploration Program (조선달탐사: NKLEP)


North Korean lunar orbiter



March 28. 2012 Juch 101

South Korean internet paper Jaju Minbo carried an article on Mar. 23
...
He said the north is likely to launch a lunar explorer satellite.

http://www.kcna.co.j...12-03-28ee.html


North Korean lunar lander



Aug. 4, 2016

In an interview with The Associated Press, a senior official said that he hopes to see the North Korean flag on the moon within the next 10 years.

"our aerospace scientists will conquer space and definitely plant the flag of the DPRK on the moon," said Hyon Kwang Il, director of the scientific research department of North Korea's National Aerospace Development Administration.

http://bigstory.ap.o...plant-flag-moon



2016/09/26

The North Koreans will start designing lunar orbiter and lunar lander immediately after launching a GEO communication satellite as planned in the Second Space Development Five-Year Plan.
The development and completion of the Paektusan-1 rocket engine was an epoch-making event that advanced the moon exploration plan.

http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38



North Korean Lunar Mission Video

Published on Oct 28, 2015

NorthKoreaLunarMission.1449464756.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1449464756.jpg
Note: At t=666 seconds (11m06s), possibly the section dedicated to the future North Korean lunar exploration program (Unha-9), as disclosed back in 2012; Hint at future Phase Two with lunar lander.



Pyongyang Opens Science - Technology Complex: http://www.youtube.c...h?v=prJeylQ57x8


North Korean lunar launcher: Unha-9 (은하9호, 銀河九號: Milky Way-9)




Lucky and Unlucky the Korea Way

  • The number 9 in East Asia

    Since Nine, the highest single-digit number in base ten, stands for completeness and eternity, many emperors in the ancient China love the number a lot. Nine Continents is used to describe the large territory of an empire. The emperors wore Nine-dragon Imperial Robes, ordered to construct Nine-dragon Walls and other buildings with relationship with number 9 in the imperial palaces, to show their great power, hope for longevity, and eternal reign of their empire.

    C9gMf9gU0AEVJ3z.jpg
    https://pbs.twimg.co...f9gU0AEVJ3z.jpg
    https://twitter.com/...445883261669378
    Ultimate evolution of the Long March space launch vehicle family, the CZ-9, for Moon landing, with 140 T LEO capability. April 15, 2017 CGI.


  • The number 9 in North Korea

    The North Korean Supreme leadership and the number nine.

    It all started at the time of Korea's liberation from Japanese occupation, when there were eight shamans representing the eight provinces of Korea. Out of these, the strongest shaman was thought to be the one from Pyongan-do. He is said to have told Kim Il Sung that the destiny of his bloodline was aligned with the ninth number, which is considered auspicious in East Asia.

    Perhaps it was because of this that Kim Il Sung declared the founding date of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to be 9 September. Although there were five provinces at the time, he increased the number to nine. The Supreme Guard Command, Kim Il Sun's personal bodyguard corps, was named Unit 963 (double nine is an especially lucky combination).

    The Supreme leadership has its own food chain, also using the number nine. Throughout North Korea you will find so-called No 9 farms and No 9 work details, specially assigned by the central party's financial administration department. Their produce is used to feed the supreme leadership, and these meals are called No 9 products.

    Kim Jong Il is said to have repeatedly stressed the fact that his birthday fell on 16 February (1+6+2=9). He decreed that the numberplates of his vehicles should read 2.16; and then, so as to disguise his personal vehicles, assigned this as a common numberplate for all of North Korea's inner elite.

    Kim Jong Il was appointed to the highest military post on 24 December (2+4+1+2=9). His appointment as party secretary, which effectively formalised his powers, was made three years and three months after the death of his father, Kim Il Sung.

    Applying this to recent North Korean history, we note that Kim Jong Il gave his son, Kim Jong Un, his first public role as general of the Korean People's Army on 27 September 2010 (2+7=9, plus the 9th month, equals double nine). On 11 April (20)12 (1+1+4+1+2=9) Kim Jong Un was appointed first secretary of the Korean Workers' party. Then on 18 July 2012, he was appointed to the rank of marshal.

    When North Korea makes international news with an impending rocket launch or nuclear test, outside analysts often cite recent birthdays of the Kims, or other state anniversaries, as influencing the choice of date. But a closer look suggests it has more to do with the number nine.

    The country's first nuclear test took place on 9 October 2006. The second space launch was on 5 April 2009 (5+4=9 and nine of 2009, double nine). Another one was successfully launched on 12 December 2012 (1+2+1+2+1+2=9). There was a nuclear test on 12 February (20)13 (1+2+2+1+3=9). A recent North Korean video released on YouTube, in which the first North Korean manned spaceship is launched, features a rocket labelled Unha-9.


    1167d7f1d14c39e18224b62f3076a88e.jpg?136
    https://cdn2-techban....jpg?1362131793
    http://www.techbang....oto-flow?page=2
    Unha-9 as depicted in the lobby of the Koryo Hotel in Pyongyang back in October 2013.




    http://www.zimbabweo...r-the-guardian/


https://www.travelch...cky-number9.htm



12/31/2012 10:41:53

The North Korean lunar exploration program will use a new Unha-9 launcher, made of three stages, exceeding 40 meters total long. The first stage diameter will be about 3 meters.

http://www.tongilnew...ml?idxno=101028



July 23, 2015

North Korea is working hard to test the rocket engine, the source said,

I am not at liberty to discuss the timing and number of attempts, but North Korea conducted at least two engine combustion tests during the first half of this year, the official said.
Taking into account the scope of the tests, the new rocket will be larger than Unha-3

The South Korean intelligence authorities said the rocket engine tests took place at an arms research institute in Sanum-dong of Ryongsong District in northern Pyongyang and the Tongchang-ri Space Launch Facility near the Chinese border.

An engine combustion test takes place on the ground to confirm the operation of a booster for a rocket, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies had earlier said the North conducted four engine combustion tests last year.

South Korean authorities suspect North Korea is preparing a launch of a rocket upgraded from the Unha-3.

After its successful launch of the Unha-3, the state media said the country would continue to bolster its capability by building more rockets under the slogan, Go for Unha-9 at one burst! Photos of a model of the Unha-9 were featured in the Norths state-run newspaper.

http://koreajoongang...spx?aid=3006964



Aug. 21, 2015

North Korea carried out at least one test of a rocket engine in early August.

In satellite photos taken late last week, scorch marks measuring 60 m in length and 27 m in width were spotted south of the launch pad at the site's vertical engine test stand. A photo of the same location taken last month showed the area covered with foliage.

2015082100745_0.jpg

Extensive new construction work is under way at the facility, with new buildings likely holding rocket fuel and oxidiser future tests.

"When complete, they will provide more than double the storage capacity of the existing structures, suggesting that the North Koreans are developing a capability to test larger, more capable engines".

http://english.chosu...5082100801.html



CswVvQTXEAEdTCF.1491975344.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...vQTXEAEdTCF.jpg
https://twitter.com/...534120641003520
The name of the new SLV engine, which was tested by North Korea is "Paektusan-based XXL Liquid Rocket"? It is expected to be shown in the Milky Way-9 rocket (pictured at the Moran Bong Stadium)



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http://news.kbs.co.k...3349474_aXC.jpg
http://mn.kbs.co.kr/....do?ncd=3349474
Paektusan-1 engine and the North Korean Lunar rocket



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https://pbs.twimg.co...k8JUkAApJ-I.jpg
https://twitter.com/...775463967600642
Speculations on a 2.2 meters diameter second stage of a future LV's through photogrammetric measurements of the vertical gantry tower from video of February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4.



CvJLED6UsAAfS-V.1491154353.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...ED6UsAAfS-V.jpg
https://twitter.com/...775463967600642
Speculations on a 2.2 meters diameter second stage of a future LV through photogrammetric measurements of the vertical gantry tower from video of February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4.


Commentary

33667839040_0d52f66cc6_b.jpg
https://c1.staticfli...d52f66cc6_b.jpg
https://www.flickr.c...ok/33667839040/
April 15, 2017 picture. Center: notice an Unha-3 represented left of a huge (meaning at least twice the size) Unha-9 model!


Rough estimations:

Unha-3 first stage is ~8 pixel in diameter, for a known 2.4 meters

Unha-3 third stage is ~4 pixel in diameter, for a known 1.25 meters


Unha-9 first stage is ~9 pixel in diameter, therefore ~2.7 meters

Unha-9 third stage is ~6 pixel in diameter, therefore ~1.9 meters

Conclusion this artistic representation suggests a ~3 meters diameter first stage and ~2 meters diameter third stage, perfectly fitting the previous assessments for the Unha-9.

S☫heil



12 Oct 2015

2841_219037_201876.jpg
https://www.sinaimg....9037_201876.jpg
http://slide.news.si..._28824.html#p=2
Left:Unha-9 model; Right: Unha-3 models


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http://img.yonhapnew...100315_01_i.jpg
https://www.bktv.co....d.html?uid=3149
Left: Pukguksong-1; Center: Unha-3; Right: Unha-9. There is no big difference between the height of the Unha-3 and the height of Unha-9. Instead, the diameters are different.


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https://scontent-fra...1ODM5OTM0ODM4.2
https://www.instagra...m/p/zxGVPeACV2/
Left: Unha-2; Center: Unha-3; Right: Unha-9 with obvious larger first stage diameter


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Unha-9.jpg

http://www.b14643.de...lery/Unha-9.jpg
http://www.b14643.de...ption/Frame.htm
German space enthusiast's Unha-9 with first stage diameter wrongly represented



North Korean Mars Exploration Program



Aug. 4, 2016

Hyon Kwang Il, director of the scientific research department of North Korea's National Aerospace Development Administration,... said that North Korea also intends "to do manned spaceflight and scientific experiments in space, make a flight to the moon and moon exploration and also exploration to other planets."

http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38
http://bigstory.ap.o...plant-flag-moon



First hint for a Mars exploration program in a March 9, 2017 video.
Very brief, last second sequence.

Mar 9, 2017 Video

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Video published Mar 9, 2017 figuring Lunar and Mars exploration: https://www.youtube....h?v=I-40y8aIPTU
At T=2m21s: the Moon and at T=2m22s: Mars as next destination.



North Korean Deep Space launcher: Unha-20 (은하20호, 銀河二十號: Milky Way-20)

Very premature speculative assessment on the future CZ-5-class North Korean heavy launcher, able to put 20 tons in LEO, to reach Mars and beyond.

Hinted for the first time in circa April 15, 2017. Assuming that "20" refers to 20 tons payload.

Taking into consideration that the Kwangmyongsong-21 had previously been associated with some manned space shuttle back in February 2013.

Claiming that a heavy launcher's core booster could be 9 meters in diameter simply doesn't take into consideration that North Korea's rail delivery from the rocket factory to the launch center, limits the absolute maximum diameter to ~ 4 meters.

Thus the need to cluster several boosters in parallel, in order to increase the total first stage thrust.

To overcome this diameter upper limit, an alternative strategy would be to develop delivery by sea, since both Sohae SLC and Tonghae SLC are built with a seashore, thus unlocking larger diameters of 5 meters core boosters.

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https://c1.staticfli...d52f66cc6_b.jpg
https://www.flickr.c...ok/33667839040/
April 15, 2017 picture. Left and Right: pillars decorated as Unha-20 launchers, easily dwarfing the Unha-3 and Unha-9 painted on the wall!

Edited by Soheil, 23 May 2017 - 10:15 PM.

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#12 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:02 PM

North Korean manned launcher: Unha-18(?) (은하18호, 銀河十八號: Milky Way-18)



Numerological Analysis by Master S☫heil from Sohae, DPRK.

The first lucky number is already assigned to the future lunar exploration rocket Unha-9, with a lift-off mass of ~200t, a lift-off thrust of ~4 x 80tf and a LEO payload capacity of ~2t @500km.
The next known North Korean launcher is designated Unha-20, with a LEO payload capacity of ~20t.

Any manned launcher would need increased reliability thus, extra luck. The next lucky number after 9 and before 20 is 18 (1+8=9).
Therefore any manned launcher could safely be named Unha-18, thus providing extra safety to all future crews!

ef4c39dcd17aefe2a1d2402a2ee4eb.png

Master S☫heil



April 8, 2012

Mr. Jang Myong Jin noted that the DPRK plans to launch a 400 metric tonnes booster in the future


http://www.wetgeo.co....php?webID=1116


Choson Sinbo, April 10, 2012 Press Release

The Second Space Development Five-Year Plan starting in 2017, will see more advanced space developments. In April 8, 2012, the general manager of Sohae SLC declared that North Korea "will launch a geostationary satellite in the near future", and that North Korea "will launch manned spacecrafts". To this end, Sohae was also designed to support very large 400t-class rockets.

http://www.tongilnew...ml?idxno=101028


07-03-2012

The Iranian satellite carrier Safir-2A is the first version of Safir-2 with the name of Simorgh [Korean name: Unha]. Its length is 26 m, its diameter is around 2.5m and its weight is around 86 tons. Its thrust is around 143 tons. It can put 100 kg satellites into 500 km altitude orbits.

The next step is Safir-3A or Sepehr [unknown Korean name: Puktusong?] and Safir-3B or Sarir that can put 1,000 kg satellites into 1,000km altitude orbits. By adding micro thrusters and several side boosters, the Sarir heavy launcher can put payloads into 36,000 km altitude orbits. It is expected to be build during the fifth development program of the country.

Source: "Sorayya" weekly TV program, 90 MB in 3gp format and around 70 minutes.
Download: http://parsaspace.co...0464884/?c=1138


http://www.skyscrape...1367661&page=34



Older Korean artistic depiction of a future heavy launcher

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https://www.wetgeo.c...fa091598820.jpg
http://www.wetgeo.co....php?webID=1066
Artistic conception of a larger North Korean rocket, unknown creation date, published on the internet circa before April 2012.


New official artistic depiction of a future heavy launcher

Picture from 2009 Arirang Mass Games showing probably for the first time ever an unknown uprated launcher with four strap-on rocket boosters!

Seemingly a future man-rated heavy launcher, as a launch abort escape tower is clearly visible atop the launcher.

The length of the strap-on rocket boosters are less than a third of the total rocket length. Rocket possibly made of 3 stages; alternately made of two stages plus a manned spacecraft with Re-entry Vehicle, Service Module and Orbital Module in shroud.

Videos also show the rear bottom part of the launcher, revealing the exact number of rocket engines in the first stage...

In a nutshell, this new launcher might be very similar in conception and performance with the Chinese CZ-2F.

According to past practice, where [liquid propellant] ballistic missiles are named after Mars (Hwasong), submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) [and other solid propellant ballistic missiles] after Polaris (Pukguksong), anti-ship missiles (ASM) after Venus (Kumsong), and space launchers after famous mountain [also refering to supreme leaders] (Paektusan) or the Milky Way (Unha), one can speculate that a future heavy launcher could be named after some bright celestial objects like notable constellations, such as Ursa Major. Thus Puktusong (북두성; 北斗星), instead of the obviously unlikely Unha-X. Alternately, Aurora seems to be one of the most popular name among spacefaring powers (Dawn, Shuguang, Fajr, Zarya), therefore Saepyek (새벽; 曙光) would be a well inspired choice, even suitable for any future Korean spacecraft or satellite!


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https://farm7.static...48b670118_z.jpg
http://sujinyan.com/...-dprk-in-space/
Picture from 2009 Arirang Mass Games


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https://img.gawkeras...pg/original.jpg
http://www.ali213.ne...7/109400_4.html
Korean artistic depiction of Chinese spaceflight as a role model, circa before 2008.


 

04 Feb 2013

From Uriminzokkiri video chanel, "Riding Unha-9" featuring the Kwangmyongsong-21 spaceship

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https://himg2.huanqi...05092123333.jpg
http://mil.huanqiu.c.../2682390_3.html
04 Feb 2013. From Uriminzokkiri video chanel, "Riding Unha-9"



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https://himg2.huanqi...05092124878.jpg
http://mil.huanqiu.c.../2682390_6.html
04 Feb 2013. From Uriminzokkiri video chanel, "Unha-9 LV and Kwangmyongsong-21 spaceship separation"



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https://himg2.huanqi...05092121236.jpg
http://mil.huanqiu.c...02/2682390.html
04 Feb 2013. From Uriminzokkiri video chanel, "Kwangmyongsong-21 spaceship "



http://mil.huanqiu.c...02/2682390.html



20170407135115_ff8957ede4e26f33fe2e41533
https://07.imgmini.e...31af14d5_4.jpeg
http://mil.eastday.c...35115386-2.html
Starting from 2013, generic depiction of North Korean [future] launcher widely spread in Chinese media.




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https://ipic.su/img/....1450141573.jpg
Screen capture from Arirang Mass Games 2013, emphasising new rocket evolutionary path, toward horizontal parallel clustering of strap-on boosters, in opposition with all previous mediatic representations of longilineal rockets, made only of vertically stacked stages.
Very stylized shorter and thickset 2 stages launcher, with 4 strap-on boosters, thus consistent with previous assessment on a Chinese CZ-2F-type convergent evolution.


Iranian Safir-class manned space launchers family and North Korean manned space launcher


A man-rated Safir-1D could be a further development of the Safir-1 class, by increasing its reliability through the addition of redundancy of various critical sub-systems.

A Safir-2D could be based on the Safir-2A first stage core, powered by four 37 tons thrust liquid fuel engines and 4 vernier engines.
An addition of a total of four 37 tons thrust strap-on boosters would double its lift-off thrust.
Each strap-on booster might be powered by a single liquid fuel Shahab-3/Rodong uprated engine of 37-tons thrust.
This launcher could be adapted to support a manned orbital E1 mission, as the Safir-2D, similar to the Chinese Shuguang-1 and CZ-2A, with only a few orbits and a single astronaut.

A Safir-3D could be based on the Safir-3A first stage core, powered by four 80 tons thrust Paektusan-1 liquid fuel engines and 4 vernier engines.
An addition of a total of four 80 tons thrust Paektusan-1 strap-on boosters would double its lift-off thrust.
The second stage could be powered by a single modified 80 tons thrust Paektusan-1B engine and four vernier engines.
The Safir-3D could easily launch the two seaters E2 spacecraft made of two modules, the propulsion module of 2.5 tons and the Reentry module of 2.5 tons, as well as a speculative three seaters E3 spacecraft, augmented with another orbital module, similar to the Shenzhou spacecraft.

The name of the North Korean Safir-3-class LV is currently unknown.


safir-1D-2D-2D-UH-18.1495064413.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495064413.jpg
Safir-class manned LV family evolution: Safir-1D with sub-orbital E1 spacecraft; speculative manned Safir-2D with orbital E1 spacecraft; speculative manned Safir-3D with orbital E2/E3 spacecrafts, or Unha-18(?) North Korean version.





North Korean heavy space launcher as phantasized in the West


German space enthusiast's speculations

2015, Oct. 07


img_0_m.1495064652.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495064652.jpg
https://blogs.c.yimg..._0_m?1453965877
http://pastelists58....85/all_p16.html




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https://www.b14643.d...Unha-X_spec.jpg
http://www.b14643.de...ption/Frame.htm



http://www.b14643.de...ption/Frame.htm


US space website's speculation

2013

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https://www.wetgeo.c...c89700f9f40.jpg


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https://www.wetgeo.c...8c8577295f0.jpg


http://www.wetgeo.co....php?webID=9079



Other US space website's speculative Unha-X video


Speculative Unha-X: http://www.youtube.c...h?v=C02ZzszeLmQ
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#13 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:03 PM

80-ton thrust Paektusan-1 (백두산-1을, 白头山一號: Mount Paektu-1) rocket engine



Iran Plans to Start Work on Two New Engines for Satellite Carrier Rockets

Date and Time:
15:53 | 2013-02-11

The Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology approved two major national projects in the fields of research and technology, which include designing and developing two new engines for the countrys satellite carrier rockets.

Two macro-scale national projects have been added to the 38 major national projects already underway in the country and the executive operations for these two plans are being carried out now, Deputy Minister of Science, Research and Technology for Research Affairs Mohammad Mahdinejad Nouri told reporters on Monday.

He said the projects include manufacturing engines for satellite carrier rockets and devising a paradigm for the governing system.

As regards the new rocket engines, Mahdinejad Nouri said Iranian universities, including Sharif, Amirkabir, Tabriz and Mashhads Ferdowsi University will participate in the 5-year project.

http://english.farsn...p?nn=9107143648
http://bbs.9ifly.cn/...hread&tid=11215



Ballistic Missile Procurement for Iran

1/17/2016

Navid Composite was contracting with Asia-based entities to procure a carbon fiber production line in order to produce carbon fiber probably suitable for use in ballistic missile components.

The Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group (SHIG) also coordinates KOMID shipments to Iran. The shipments have included valves, electronics, and measuring equipment suitable for use in ground testing of liquid propellant ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles. Within the past several years, Iranian missile technicians from SHIG traveled to North Korea to work on an 80-ton rocket booster being developed by the North Korean government.

Farahi and Nooshin have been critical to the development of the 80-ton rocket booster, and both traveled to Pyongyang during contract negotiations.

https://www.treasury...ges/jl0322.aspx


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page_article_markEN.PNG

Sep. 20, Juche 105 (2016) Tuesday

Kim Jong Un Guides Ground Jet Test of New-type High-Power Engine of Carrier Rocket for Geo-stationary Satellite


Kim Jong Un, chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea, chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the DPRK and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, visited the Sohae Space Center to guide the ground jet test of a new type high-power engine of a carrier rocket for the geo-stationary satellite.

The newly developed high-power engine is a single engine whose thrust is 80 tf.

The test was aimed to make a final confirmation of the feature of combustion chamber, operation accuracy of valves and control systems and structural reliability of the engine during 200 seconds-long working time.

Kim Jong Un issued an order to conduct the test.

The moment the engine spewed out huge flames with deafening sound.

The test showed that thrust and other technological indexes of the engine accurately reached the estimated values and the feature values of all systems of the engine remained stable throughout the working time.

The successful manufacture of the engine provided a firm scientific and technological guarantee for developing and completing the carrier rocket for geo-stationary satellite during the 5-year program for national aerospace development and made it possible to acquire sufficient carrier capability for launching various kinds of satellites including earth observation satellite at a world level.

He expressed great satisfaction over the results of the test and highly praised the officials and scientists and technicians of the National Aerospace Development Administration for having successfully and devotedly carried out the task given by the Party in a short span of time.

The space science and technology and the space industry are an important barometer for estimating the national power, he said, calling for more dynamically paving the avenue to space conquest by conducting in real earnest the work for developing the space in order to fulfill the 5-year program for national aerospace development.

The development and use of space are an important policy of our Party and an important work for which the state should make sustained efforts, he said, adding that the National Aerospace Development Administration should carry out the space development with a main emphasis on the satellite development and manufacture and launch more satellites for different uses by indigenous efforts and technology and thus turn our country into a possessor of geostationary satellites in a couple of years to come.


Political News Team


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http://rodong.rep.kp...2016-09-20-0002


Official KCTV Video


Censored:33.gifhttp://www.youtube.c...h?v=LePG8pfbUOQ


Uncensored Emergency Video


KCTV DPRK North Korea Ground test of new high-power rocket engineتست زمینی موتور موشک با قدرت بالا : http://www.youtube.c...h?v=LePG8pfbUOQ


5c368db22391f235c2314440330295c3_origina



2016/09/26


On that day, a table was placed at the observation station installed near the static test stand, and a large explanatory drawing was spread on the table. As you can see in <Picture 1>, the commentary was titled "Paektusan 80 tf liquid rocket". The title of the commentary shows that the new high-power liquid rocket engine developed and completed by North Korea is a liquid rocket engine of the Paektusan series. Here, the term predicts that other high-power liquid rocket engines with improved performance, named Paektusan, will be developed in sequence.

In this regard, it can be seen that the high-power liquid rocket engine developed and completed by North Korea is the first liquid rocket engine of the Paektusan series, and its name is Paektusan-1 according to the North Korean naming practice. If we develop a modified version of the Paektusan-type liquid rocket engine, which will further improve the performance of the aerospace industry, it will be called Paektusan-2.

The Korean engine is neither related to the Russian R-27 design technology, nor R-29 design technology.
Raising the Chinese connection theory and the Iranian connection theory is nonsense.

2016092612548924.png
https://www.jajusibo...92612548924.png
The photo shows a table used by Supreme leader Kim Jong Un, who was placed at the observing station installed near the static test stand.
"Paektusan 80 tf liquid rocket" is written in red.
The title of the explanatory note indicates that the high-power liquid rocket engine developed and completed at this time is 80 ton-force liquid rocket engine. © Ju Shobo and Han Ho Seok



...
If 80 tonnes force is converted to kilo Newton, it is 784.5kN.
The thrust referred to in this article refers to the thrust generated when the rocket engine is operated on the ground (not operating in a vacuum of outer space).
...
since the thrust of Paektusan-1 is 784.5KN, if you build a rocket by attaching 4 rocket engines, you get total thrust of 3,138kN. The 3,138 kN is a tremendous force enough to bring large, heavy payloads of up to 6,000 kilograms into a low earth orbit.
...
It is noted that the burne time of Chinese YF-20B is 128 seconds and the burne time of Russian RD-117 is 118 seconds, whereas the burne time of Paeksutsan-1 is 200 seconds. This indicates that the Paektusan-1 has a much longer burne time than the other two by comparison. It can be seen that the new type of satellite carrier rocket to be fitted with the Paektusan-1 is a satellite carrier rocket flying farther over the earth's orbit. It is predicted that the new satellite carrier rocket to be fitted with Paektusan-1 will send a satellite to a GEO of 35,786 km.

 

╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                        Liquid rocket engines comparison                        ║
╠════════════════════════╦══════════╦═════════════╦═══════════════════╦══════════╣
║ Rocket engine (Nation) ║  Thrust  ║ Burne time  ║     Diameter      ║   Mass   ║
╠════════════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║   Paektusan-1 (DPRK)   ║ 784.5 kN ║ 200 seconds ║ 90 cm (estimated) ║  Unknown ║
╠════════════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║     YF-20B (China)     ║  814 kN  ║ 128 seconds ║       84 cm       ║ 2,850 kg ║
╠════════════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║    RD-117 (Russia)     ║ 838.5 kN ║ 118 seconds ║      268 cm       ║ 3,800 kg ║
╚════════════════════════╩══════════╩═════════════╩═══════════════════╩══════════╝
2016092635563611.png
https://www.jajusibo...92635563611.png
http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38
May 2, 2015 photo from General Satellite Control Center's exhibition room.
"I emphasize it is my wish to solve the communications problems by developing geostationary satellites."
It is the will of the forerunner of Chairman Kim Jong Il that North Korea launches geostationary satellites.


On April 17, 2015, Russia's ITAR-TASS news agency quoted Park Kyung Su, the chief of the Korean space agency, as saying, "Now the Korean researchers are engaged in the production of Earth observation satellites and GEO communication satellites ".
...
The aerospace industry will not only launch GEO communication satellites, but will also produce more powerful GEO military satellites.
...
According to a July 22, 2015 report, the height of the Sohae launch pad vertical gantry tower, which was enlarged by North Korea, is 67 meters. This suggests that it is possible to launch a large satellite-carrier rocket with a length of more than 50 meters.


http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38


2017-03-20

The biggest achievement made by North Korea was to replace the Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA)/kerosene propellants of the Rodong engines with RFNA/UDMH propellants in the Paektusan-1 engine.

But in this test, it still fails to show progress in thrust vector control (TVC) technologies

http://view.inews.qq...0170320A0AZKV00


2016/02/15

The fact that North Korea is developing geostationary satellites means that it is building a communication satellite with a mass of 2,500kg and it means that the new launcher is about 50m in length and 3.5m in diameter.

http://www.jajusibo....n=sc38


Commentary

With four 80-ton-thrust Paektusan-1 main engines, 1 four chambers steering engine, and four additional 80-ton-thrust Paektusan-1 strap-on boosters, the first stage of a future Korean manned space launcher could easily develop more than 640 tons of thrust at liftoff, enough for a 400 tons launcher.

In comparison, the Chinese CZ-2F has a mass of about 498.4 tons and its four 75-ton-thrust main engines and four 75-ton-thrust strap-on boosters develop a total of 592.3-ton-thrust at liftoff, able to put a 8.60 tons spacecraft into LEO.


S☫heil

zy_thumb.gif

International reactions



2016-9-20 15:52

This 80-ton-thrust engine has surpassed the Chinese CZ-2 class' engines and also the future South Korean 75-ton-thrust engine.
What a slap in the face!

http://lt.cjdby.net/...29&pid=70272278


kim_jung_un_clapping.gif

Edited by Soheil, 19 May 2017 - 10:06 PM.

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#14 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:03 PM

The March 18 Revolution: 100-ton thrust Paektusan-1B(?) rocket engine configuration


Paektusan-1B(?) rocket engine configuration static ground test



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Mar. 20, Juche 106 (2017) Monday

Kim Jong Un Observed the Ground Jet Test of a New High-Thrust Rocket Engine


Kim Jong Un, chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea, chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the DPRK and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, watched the ground jet test of Korean-style high-thrust engine newly developed by the Academy of the National Defence Science. After being told about the production of the new-type high-thrust engine, he personally visited the Sohae Satellite Launching Ground at dawn to learn in detail about the technical specifications of the engine and preparations for the test and guided it. The test was conducted to confirm the overall technical indices of the engine such as features of thrust power in the combustion chamber, accurate movement of turbine pump, control system and various valves and their structural safety and reliability. He mounted an observation post and gave an order to start the test. The results of the test confirmed the stable maintenance of technical indices of all systems such as starting and stopping features of a new-type high-thrust engine of Korean style designed and manufactured by the defense scientists and technicians by their own efforts and with indigenous technology, the features of the thrust power in the combustion chamber, turbine pump, control systems in the whole course of engine operation after accurately reaching the expected values, and the perfect guarantee of their structural reliability. . He noted that the success made in the current test marked a great event of historic significance as it declared a new birth of the Juche-based rocket industry which has radically turned into a development-and creation-oriented industry both in name and in reality by completely doing away with dogmatism, conservatism and formalism left in the field of rocket industry and the dependence on the technology of other countries. He emphasized that the whole world will soon witness what eventful significance the great victory won today carries. The development and completion of a new-type high-thrust engine would help consolidate the scientific and technological foundation to match the world-level satellite delivery capability in the field of outer space development, he noted, adding with pleasure that today when a great leaping forward has been made in the development of the rocket industry is the day to be always remembered, a historic day which can be called "March 18 revolution". He said that the field of munitions industry made a series of unprecedented successes this year as it did last year, instilling dynamism into the grand revolutionary advance of all the service personnel and people. Then he had a significant photo session with the officials, scientists and technicians in the field of defense science who took part in the test. He was accompanied by Ri Pyong Chol, Kim Jong Sik and other leading officials of the C.C. the WPK and scientists and technicians in the field of rocket research.

Rodong News Team


C7Q9XtTU4AEO3Ov.1490977131.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...XtTU4AEO3Ov.jpg
https://twitter.com/...366837572198400
Screen capture KCTV video


C7R5MP8VAAAXKDm.1490977167.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...MP8VAAAXKDm.jpg
https://twitter.com/...432303476928513
KCNA image


C7R5MP8VsAMa_zC.1490977228.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...MP8VsAMa_zC.jpg
https://twitter.com/...432303476928513
KCNA image


C7R5MP_VsAAHkVm.1490977282.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...MP_VsAAHkVm.jpg
https://twitter.com/...432303476928513
KCNA image



http://rodong.rep.kp...2017-03-20-0001



Paektusan-1B(?) rocket engine configuration flight test



First flight-tested in Hwasong-12's first stage configuration

May. 15, Juche 106 (2017) Monday

According to the order of Kim Jong Un, the new rocket Hwasong-12 was launched at 04:58 on Sunday.

The rocket accurately hit the targeted open waters 787km away after flying to the maximum altitude of 2 111.5km along its planned flight orbit.

The test-fire proved to the full all the technical specifications of the rocket, which was newly designed in a Korean-style by defence scientists and technicians, like guidance and stabilization systems, structural system and pressurization, inspection and launching systems and reconfirmed the reliability of new rocket engine under the practical flight circumstances.


2017051539168409.jpg
http://www.jajusibo....51539168409.jpg
http://jajusibo.com/...n=sc3&section2=
Hwasong-12 first test launch, 14 May 2017.



2017051550403491.jpg
http://www.jajusibo....51550403491.jpg
http://jajusibo.com/...n=sc3&section2=
Hwasong-12 first test launch, 14 May 2017.



http://rodong.rep.kp...2017-05-15-0001



May 17,2017


the ballistic missile re-entry vehicle escaped and successfully re-entered the atmosphere, according to analysis of data communication with the North Koreas ground control center during the most recent intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) launch by North Korea on Sunday.

soared to an altitude of 2,111.5 kilometers along its planned trajectory.

with a total flight time of 30 minutes and 11 seconds.


http://koreajoongang...spx?aid=3033467



2017/05/20

Aeronautics Professor Jang Young Keun, a rocket specialist, commented that the Hwasong-12 first tested on 14 May 2017, was a massive rocket with a thrust close to 100 tons.
And he went on:
"Actually, when I saw the video footage of the launch, it was very fast and it disappeared in only 36-seconds.
The Hwasong-7 aka Scud ER, tested in 4 consecutive launches, took about two minutes to disappear.
It is highly likely that North Korean engineers have applied the multi-staged combustion cycle method to drive the turbopump and thus dramatically improve the fuel efficiency.

In this test, North Korea announced that it had finished verification of the pressurization system. The more the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber at a higher pressure, the higher the propellant force. The turbopump is operated to increase the pressure.

And the fuel that was driving this turbo pump is sent to the combustion chamber again, to be burned and increasing the thrust. It is called the multi-stage combustion system.

When it was first disclosed on March 18, 2017, Western experts said it would take 2-3 years to apply it to a missile. North Korea succeeded in launching it in less than two months."


http://jajusibo.com/...n=sc3&section2=


Evolution of North Korean and Iranian LVs second stages

The Safir-1 LV's second stage disclosed in 2008 is designed with two vernier engines.

The second stage of the Safir-2A disclosed in 2015 is powered by four vernier engines, developing a total of 7.2 tons of thrust.
The Unha-3's second stage as revealed in a February 2016 video is more likely made of one (or even two) main engines with 4 verniers.

The second stage of a Safir-3/[Unha-9?] could be powered by a single modified 100 tons thrust Paektusan-1B engine and four vernier engines, all feeded by a single common turbopump.
The single longer exhaust pipe is also fitted with its own expansion nozzle to further increase the overall thrust, feature first introduced in 2010 on the Safir-1B's second stage, and present in all follow-up LVs such as the 2015 Safir-2A's second stage.


b3b97e4af7f5.jpg
http://i060.radikal....3b97e4af7f5.jpg
http://lt.cjdby.net/...320617-2-1.html
Safir-1 LV second stage evolution.


26.jpg
http://gallery.milit...cs/10333/26.jpg
http://www.military.ir/forums/topic/21289-پیگیری-اخبار-مرتبط-با-پرتاب-ماهواره-طلوع-و-پرتاب/page-28
Safir-2 LV second stage.


C7SsJ01VoAACX6K.1491153538.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...J01VoAACX6K.jpg
https://twitter.com/...488616189906946
Photogrammetric speculations on the second stage of the February 2016's Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4:"More likely a main engine with 4 verniers"


North Korea has spent nearly 20 years to develop this engine

2017.03.23

According to a North Korean 1999 rocket engine schematic, which was captured on July 22, the turbo pump, which compresses and distributes fuel, including four engines and auxiliary engines, is shown as in the test of March 18, 2017. This schematic was found on the North Korean cargo ship Kuwolsan, which was suspected of carrying missile parts in June 1999 and was detained in India.
Considering that North Korea had already obtained the design in the mid-90s, before the schematic was captured, it means that it took North Koreans at least 20 years to develop the engine.

By clustering four [Rodong] engines, the output may be unstable and the engine efficiency is low," thus "To overcome these shortcomings, North Korea developed the new [Paektusan-1] engine."

6525d3a8-2284-4944-80b6-3f28c44027ed.jpg
https://pds.joins.co...f28c44027ed.jpg
http://news.joins.com/article/21396891
Schematic showing a rocket stage powered by a new Rodong engine with 4 verniers, taken aboard the North Korean "Kuwol Mountain" cargo ship captured in 1999.



http://news.joins.com/article/21396891


Photogrammetric analysis

C7WpQuuU8AEE5Fn.1490977332.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...QuuU8AEE5Fn.jpg
https://twitter.com/...766906033123329
High resolution image


C7R6XX6VsAA8pCU.1490977369.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...XX6VsAA8pCU.jpg
https://twitter.com/...433884008116224
Close up


C7R6m-JU8AAab0R.1490977403.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...m-JU8AAab0R.jpg
https://twitter.com/...433884008116224
Close up


C7XcDc0VoAAn2Fj.1490977438.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...Dc0VoAAn2Fj.jpg
https://twitter.com/...822649646096384
Size comparison with previous 80 tons thrust engine from the September 2016 test


C7YGvrTV0AARomu.1490977465.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...vrTV0AARomu.jpg
https://twitter.com/...870753699188736
Photogrammetric nozzle size estimation



C7SJ1h-VoAMCZlv.1490977538.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...1h-VoAMCZlv.jpg
https://twitter.com/...450611664277504
Engine might have run 150s or 300s, depending on different time unit.


Commentary

sohaestaticteststandestimation.149215246
https://ipic.su/img/....1492152463.jpg
Measurement of Sohae static test stand with Google Earth


Rough measurement of the Eastern/Western facade of the first level of the Sohae static test stand, using Google Earth indicates a lenght of about ~12.64 meters.

The Eastern/Western facade balustrade is made of 6 distinct assembled parts, each subdivided in 12 vertical rectangles by 11 balusters (a vertical member used between railing and tread or floor, adding safety, support and stability to the balustrade).

C7WpQuuU8AEE5Fn.1490977332.jpg
https://ipic.su/img/....1490977332.jpg

The engine nozzle spans about 4 balusters, thus has a ~70 cm diameter, obviously larger than a Rodong engine! QED
Estimation more consistent with the ~90 cm measured by South Korean media (http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38)

The rocket's 2nd stage spans about 10 balusters and has a ~1.75 cm diameter
By using the South Korean 90 cm engine diameter estimation, then the rocket stage would be 2.25 cm, consistant with the speculations on a 2.2 meters diameter second stage of a future LV's through photogrammetric measurements of the vertical gantry tower from video of February 2016 Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) used to launch Kwangmyongsong-4.

CvJJk8JUkAApJ-I.1491154324.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...k8JUkAApJ-I.jpg
https://twitter.com/...775463967600642


S☫heil


KCTV Video


Kim Jong Un Observed the Ground Jet Test of a New High-Thrust Rocket Engine: https://www.youtube....h?v=6OCsNUaxIf8


kimunji_clapping-150x150.png

Edited by Soheil, 20 May 2017 - 10:57 PM.

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#15 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:04 PM

160-ton thrust Paektusan-2(?) (백두산-2을, 白头山二號: Mount Paektu-2) rocket engine configuration

Speculations from some media on Russian-type engine clustering and designation:



2017년 03월 20일 18:00

Paektusan series liquid engines uses UDMH which is highly toxic as fuel, and nitric acid, nitric oxide and the like as oxidizer for supplying the oxygen. Unlike liquid oxygen, it can be injected several months in advance.

The new engine developed by North Korea has a thrust of 80 tons. When two engines are combined, the thrust is 160t.

When 4 engines are combined the thrust is 320t.

http://www.dongascie...s.php?idx=17187


Feasible by connecting a second 80-ton-thrust gimbaled chamber to the same turbopump, provided the turbopump is designed to support the pressure generated by a 160-ton-thrust combustor.

pg32pc04.jpg
https://engine.aviap...cs/pg32pc04.jpg
http://engine.aviapo.../75/page32.html
Illustration of a Soviet era rocket engine with two gimbaled chambers and common turbopump


0_b21c8_6e8a6c64_XXL.1495065042.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1495065042.jpg
https://img-fotki.ya...c8_6e8a6c64_XXL
https://medium.com/@...es-4a0a4e0d29ea
Illustration of a Soviet era rocket engine with two gimbaled chambers and common turbopump


Thus, two 160-ton thrust engines could power the first stage of a new Unha-9 LV. But still not enough for the 400-tons class LV.

Edited by Soheil, 20 May 2017 - 07:28 PM.

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#16 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:06 PM

North Korean manned spacecraft

WEBBOARD-116a1353150.jpg
https://www.wetgeo.c...116a1353150.jpg
http://www.wetgeo.co....php?webID=9489
Older depiction of Korean astronaut performing space walk


5157127595_621f486b87_b.jpg
https://c1.staticfli...21f486b87_b.jpg
https://www.flickr.c...57628202040649/
Artist's depiction of future Korean manned spaceflight. Taken on May 5, 2010 Space exploration - Samjiyon children's palace North Korea



post-119945-0-19176600-1490265546.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ytfOw.jpg
http://www.americasp...uts-425x280.jpg
http://www.americaspace.com/?p=17476
http://bbs.9ifly.cn/...1215&pid=239148
Soldiers depicting North Korean astronauts marched in one April 2012 Pyongyang parade.



NK-Astronaut-1-1024x580.jpg
https://www.youngpio...-1-1024x580.jpg
http://www.youngpion...a-space-program
Undated but more recent depiction: Pyongyang International Football School featuring a North Korean astronaut, 2017


20130205092121236.jpg
https://himg2.huanqi...05092121236.jpg
http://mil.huanqiu.c...02/2682390.html
04 Feb 2013. From Uriminzokkiri video chanel, "Riding Unha-9" featuring the Kwangmyongsong-21 spaceship





New hint from the November 30, 2015 Third ASEAN Regional Forum Workshop on Space Security

post-119945-0-20462000-1490266172.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ypLeP.jpg
http://a4.peoplecdn....a7ef229e.jpg@1l
Third ASEAN Regional Forum Workshop on Space Security Inaugurated in Beijing, on November 30, 2015
Left: Chinese Shenzhou-8 manned return module


post-119945-0-16395400-1490266203.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ypLeQ.jpg
http://a4.peoplecdn....a8d7fb00.jpg@1l

Third ASEAN Regional Forum Workshop on Space Security Inaugurated in Beijing, on November 30, 2015
http://m2.people.cn/...7883224-15.html
Two North Korean delegates conducting on-the-spot field inspection, closely studying the Chinese Shenzhou-8 manned return module



Identity of the man on the right:
post-119945-0-38328000-1490266237.jpg
https://imgs.vietnam...412112848_5.jpg
http://vietnamnet.vn...trieu-tien.html
Back in circa 12 April 2012, Paek Chang Ho head of the General Satellite Control Center


Identity of the man on the left:
131514165_61n.jpg
https://news.mydrive...40909364189.jpg
http://news.mydriver.../224/224055.htm
Back in April 8, 2012, at Sohae Satellite Launch Station, simply presented as a scientist and briefing foreign journalists on the upcoming Kwangmyongsong-3#1 launch mission



1027571_99e3497eff3da76d11b5bd584119b8d3
https://blogfile.ife...d584119b8d3.jpg
http://blog.travel.i...e/17255069.html
Side view



post-119945-0-86739400-1490265656.jpg
https://ipic.su/7yrhrT.jpg
http://www.uriminzok...2016-02-07t.jpg
February 2016 illustration of a Korean manned spacecraft showing for the first time a Chinese Shenzhou-style double pairs of solar panels




Possibly second occurence of an official depiction of the North Korean 3-modules manned orbital spacecraft (first revealed in February 2016), on the occasion of the 21st Annual Kimjongilia Festival, held at the Kimilsungia-Kimjongilia Exhibition House in Pyongyang, on February 14-21, 2017.

Previous Annual Kimjongilia Festivals have been notorious for the exhibition of scale models ranging from the Kwangmyongsong-2, Unha-3, Unha-9, Hwasong-13 and Pukguksong-1, with most of them being effectively launched a few years later.

This new spacecraft shows obvious similarities with the Chinese Project 921 Shenzhou spacecraft with a pair of solar power panels on both the service module and the orbital module.

post-119945-0-76562600-1490265939.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ytepD.jpg
https://c1.staticfli...fb50aac03_b.jpg
https://www.flickr.c...ri/32772293282/
Depiction of a North Korean 3-modules manned orbital spacecraft at the 2017 Kimjongilia Festival



First animated depiction in a March 9, 2017 video of a manned orbital 3-modules spacecraft, with one pair of solar panels on the service module, similar to the Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft.
Very brief, fuzzy and stealthy four seconds only sequence.

Mar 9, 2017 Video


Video published on Mar 9, 2017 showing manned spacecraft and 8 more unknown satellite models: https://www.youtube....h?v=I-40y8aIPTU
At T=15s to T=19s: manned orbital 3-modules spacecraft, with one pair of solar panels on the service module, similar to the Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft.



Possibly fourth occurence of an official depiction of a North Korean (2-modules) manned orbital spacecraft (first revealed in February 2016), on the occasion of the 19st Annual Kimilsungia Festival, held at the Kimilsungia-Kimjongilia Exhibition House in Pyongyang, on April 13-20, 2017.

19kimilsungiafestival.1492166166.jpg
https://ipic.su/img/....1492166166.jpg
Apr 13, 2017 depiction of a North Korean manned spacecraft and an unknown GEO communication satellite model at the 2017 Kimilsungia Festival



Apr 13, 2017 Video


Video published on Apr 13, 2017 featuring a manned spacecraft and an unknown GEO communication satellite model: https://www.youtube....h?v=kIm9Gif0eVc
At T=1m02s: manned orbital 2-modules spacecraft, with two pair of solar panels, return module is similar to the Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft.

Edited by Soheil, 18 May 2017 - 06:06 PM.

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#17 Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:08 PM

Chinese recoverable capsule


post-119945-0-88501200-1490266272.jpg
https://imgbbs.ph.12...77650977789.jpg
http://ipic.su/7ypk2Q.jpg
http://bbs.news.163..../253209112.html
From left to right, started in 1967, the Chinese "Project 714" Shuguang-1 (曙光一号) manned space capsule scaled model, spacesuit and life supporting system.


e1e56ff5.jpg
https://i260.photobu...82/e1e56ff5.jpg
http://lt.cjdby.net/...591984-1-1.html
Unmanned version of "Project 714" known as FHS (返回式卫星) recoverable capsule


fae9408c.jpg
https://i260.photobu...82/fae9408c.jpg
Integration of the recoverable capsule service module


799928.jpg
https://zhuanti.spac...part/799928.jpg
http://zhuanti.space...16/content.html
Recovery of the capsule


post-119945-0-37026600-1490266311.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ypLf0.jpg
http://mmbiz.qpic.cn...rom=5&wx_lazy=1
http://mp.weixin.qq....Pa2EOxaSdrXP#rd
Chinese Shijian-10 capsule after recovery


post-119945-0-42745000-1490266316.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ypLf1.jpg
http://mmbiz.qpic.cn...rom=5&wx_lazy=1


post-119945-0-19004900-1490266327.jpg
https://ipic.su/7ypmET.jpg
http://mp.weixin.qq....tBK9wQhR6nGQ#rd
Chinese Shijian-10 capsule after recovery


North Korean reentry vehicle

WEBBOARD-3c1b2fa53c0.jpg
https://www.wetgeo.c...3c1b2fa53c0.jpg
http://www.wetgeo.co...php?webID=20898
Hwasong-14 warhead



North Korea acquires re-entry technology

May 17,2017

North Korea appears to have acquired re-entry technology after its latest [May 14, 2017 test of Hwasong-12]

the ballistic missile re-entry vehicle escaped and successfully re-entered the atmosphere, according to analysis of data communication with the North Koreas ground control center during the most recent intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) launch by North Korea on Sunday.

After its launch from the northwest city of Kusong, in North Pyongan Province, the North's Hwasong-12 missile flew about 700 kilometers (435 miles) before landing in the East Sea, with a total flight time of 30 minutes and 11 seconds.

It soared to an altitude of 2,111.5 kilometers along its planned trajectory.

The telemetry of the missile re-entry vehicle collects various data, including speed, pressure and temperature, and constantly transmits this to the ground control center.

If the Hwasong-12 RV was not able to endure a maximum temperature of 5,000 degrees Celsius during the re-entry process, there would not have been data communications once it returned to atmosphere, according to the government assessment.

North Korean state-run media reported on the success of the launch and said that it verified the homing feature of the warhead that allowed it to survive "under the worst re-entry situation"

The maximum speed of an IRBM is Mach 17

http://koreajoongang...spx?aid=3033467



Iranian recoverable capsule


Iranian scientists succeeded in developing spaceship heat shield...

2015/02/28

Fields of Research:
Ceramics, Refractories, Raw Materials, Advanced Ceramics.
http://www.gooyait.c...mal-shield.html


Laboratorial Production of High-Temperature Ceramic Nanofibers in Iran

Thu Aug 06, 2015 3:45

Researchers at Space Transportation System Department of Iran's Space Research Center succeeded in the laboratorial production of ceramic nanofibers made of cheap and biocompatible raw materials with very high melting point.

Today, there is a need for a type of material that is resistant to temperatures higher than 2,000°C for a long time in addition to having the ability to work at oxide and corrosive atmospheres in the production of thermal shields, cutting devices, turbines, melting bushes and storage of molten metals.

Nanofibers have advantages over nanoparticles, including perfect resistance to severe thermal shock, higher ability to endure dynamic load, and higher fracture toughness. Therefore, the researchers tried to synthesize zirconium diboride as a high temperature ceramic with nanofibrous structure.

There are different methods to synthesize zirconium diboride such as solid-state reaction, electrochemical reaction and mechanical methods. However, there are some problems in the production of these materials, including high temperature of synthesis, long production time, low purity and relatively large particle size.

In this research, zirconium diboride nanofibers were synthesized by using a gel containing raw materials and molecular dimensions and by electrospinning of the produced sol through carbothermal reduction. Cheap and eco-friendly raw materials have been used in the production of the nanofibers. The application of cheap precursors without the need for pre-preparation and reducing the temperature of thermal processing decrease the cost and pollution during the synthesis.

Results of the research have been published in Ceramics International, vol. 41, issue 5, 2015, pp. 6905-6911.

http://english.farsn...=13940515000144


post-119945-0-58008900-1490266367.png
https://ipic.su/7yrji5.png
Schematics of Iranian manned suborbital capsule E1


inv-cap_c.jpg
https://gallery.mili...7/inv-cap_c.jpg
CGI of Iranian manned suborbital capsule E1


28.11.1393-01.jpg
https://isrc.ac.ir/i....11.1393-01.jpg
Mockup of Iran's manned suborbital spacecraft E1


10.12.1393-01-01.jpg
https://www.iranhava....1393-01-01.jpg
http://s6.picofile.c...jename.pdf.html



And latest images from IRIB1 video, published on Jul 24, 2016

post-119945-0-52666800-1490266423.jpg
https://ipic.su/7yrhsb.jpg
New E1 manned suborbital spacecraft



post-119945-0-69225500-1490266431.jpg
https://ipic.su/7yrhsc.jpg
Left: New 2016 version of Iran's E1 manned suborbital spacecraft; Right: older 2015 version of E1 mockup



Iranian E1 manned suborbital spacecraft: https://www.youtube....h?v=UZl3fz9PNWg
At t=1m20s Iranian E1 manned suborbital spacecraft



Iranian orbital manned spacecraft E2

post-119945-0-67808400-1490267382.jpg
https://ipic.su/7yrjis.jpg
http://media.isna.ir...sm-final2.jpg/4
Iranian E2 manned orbital spacecraft CGI from 2013: propulsion module


post-119945-0-13862500-1490267390.jpg
https://ipic.su/7yrjiu.jpg
http://media.isna.ir...nt/25-375.jpg/4
Iranian E2 manned orbital spacecraft CGI from 2013: propulsion module



Researchers have success in the design of manned orbital spacecraft

2013/8/27

Design life of 14 days, orbital mission of up to 3 days with a crew of one to two astronauts.

Telecommunication antennas, solar arrays and radiators are installed outside the spacecraft.

Injection orbit of 250 × 200 km altitude, with operating altitude of 330 Km ± 5 km

Length of 5 m and diameter of 2.5 to 1.45 m, which is about four cubic meters volume
The mass of the propulsion module is 2.5 tons
The Reentry module has a mass of 2.5 tons.

Solar Electric system power: 1.00 average kW.
Batteries power: 0.2 kW

http://isna.ir/fa/news/92060502937/موفقیت-محققان-ایرانی-در-طراحی-فضاپیمای-سرنشین



Unofficial CGI of Iranian orbital manned spacecraft E2

10 April 2013


635011844293450022.jpg
https://media.jameja...44293450022.jpg
Unofficial CGI of Iranian E2 manned orbital spacecraft with reconstructed missing Shenzhou-type return module.



http://jamejamonline.ir/online/1001418685139564907/دوستی-در‌-آرزوی-پرواز-به-فضا
http://www.aerospace...ead.php?t=51579


Various unidentified conceptual Iranian manned orbital spacecrafts


121650.jpg
https://gallery.mili...0198/121650.jpg
Official Iranian unidentified manned orbital spacecraft illustration


Capsule.jpg
https://soheilesy.pe...ATL/Capsule.jpg
Iranian unidentified manned orbital spacecraft CGI


post-119945-0-48386300-1490267443.jpg
https://ipic.su/7yrji7.jpg
Iranian unidentified manned orbital spacecraft CGI


Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft

CtM0ycKVMAApSiu.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...ycKVMAApSiu.jpg
Old Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft concept from Beijing Institute of Control Engineering of April 1989


CtM00zuUIAA1nnm.jpg
https://pbs.twimg.co...0zuUIAA1nnm.jpg
Old Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft concept from Beijing Institute of Control Engineering of April 1989


https://twitter.com/...025284942712835


Edited by Soheil, 20 May 2017 - 07:31 PM.

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#18 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:09 PM

North Korean international space cooperation


North Korea-Chinese space cooperation




12 Oct 2015

Head of China's space station program: Foreign nations welcome to add modules, visit w/ crewed vehicles

https://twitter.com/...594130698907648




North Korea-Iranian space cooperation


6630106792535929739.jpg
https://img2.ph.126....92535929739.jpg
http://keaver.blog.1...20092232816839/
From right to left: Safir-1, Simorgh-e-Tolou, Safir-1B, Unha-3, Unha-2, Paektusan-2 and Paektusan-1 LVs.





2016/09/26

Difference betwen the North Korean Kwangmyongsong LV (Unha-4) and the Iranian Safir-2A


2016092630403694.png
https://www.jajusibo...92630403694.png
Four Rodong engines placed close to the center of the rocket stage, each sharing a common turbopump exhaust pipe with a lateral vernier, thus a total of four turbopump exhaust pipes, but verniers engines diverting fuel flow from the Rodong engines and lowering their thrusts.




2016092631532303.png
https://www.jajusibo...92631532303.png
Four Shahab-3 engines are placed at greater distance from the rocket stage's center, each feeded by its own turbopump and exhaust pipe. A fifth exhaust pipe for another turbopump solely dedicated to the 4 verniers near the center, thus allowing higher thrust from the Shahab-3 engines.



http://www.jajusibo....62&section=sc38



20160211_115408.jpg
https://www.military.ir/forums/topic/21289-پیگیری-اخبار-مرتبط-با-پرتاب-ماهواره-طلوع-و-پرتاب/page-30#entry486663
As announced, a new paintjob for the Safir-2 mockup as paraded in the streets of Tehran on 11 February 2016, previously blue and white, but this year newly assorted with the Korean orange and white vertical gantry at Sohae, and still dark green a year ago.



1118013054_14548564832441n.jpg
https://news.xinhuan...8564832441n.jpg
http://news.xinhuane..._1118013054.htm
Vertical gantry of the Sohae Satellite Launch Center, previously dark green and repainted orange and white this year, used to launch the Kwagnyongsong-4 remote sensing satellite with a Kwangmyongsong (Unha-4) launcher on 7 February 2016.


18.gif


Video of repainted Simorgh IRILV of Feb 11, 2016


Iran Tehran 37th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution UCAV & Simorgh IRILV: http://www.youtube.c...h?v=nSPM5w03S0M


International space cooperation



Mar 22, 2012

A few more successful satellite liftoffs will enable the North Koreans to use its powerful Unha carrier rockets to launch low-cost satellite launch services available to any interested client in the developing and the Western world.

http://www.atimes.co...a/NC22Dg01.html


Edited by Soheil, 18 May 2017 - 06:09 PM.

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#19 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:10 PM

North Korean satellites already launched


╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                                                       History of North Korean satellite launches                                                       ║
╠═════════════╦═════════════╦═════════════════════╦═════════╦════════════════╦══════════╦═════════════╦═════════╦═════════╦═══════════════════╦══════════╣
║ Launch date ║    Time     ║                     ║ Launch  ║                ║  Nodal   ║             ║ Apogee  ║ Perigee ║ General function  ║          ║
║ (Pyongyang) ║ (Pyongyang) ║ National designator ║  site   ║ Launch vehicle ║  period  ║ Inclination ║  (km)   ║  (km)   ║      of the       ║  Status  ║
║             ║             ║                     ║         ║                ║          ║             ║         ║         ║   space object    ║          ║
╠═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════════════╬═════════╬════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║ 31 AUG 1998 ║    12:07    ║  Kwangmyongsong-1   ║ Tonghae ║  Paektusan-1   ║ 165m 6s  ║    40.2°    ║ 6,978.2 ║ 218.82  ║  test techology   ║  failed  ║
║             ║             ║                     ║  LC-1   ║                ║          ║             ║         ║         ║                   ║          ║
╠═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════════════╬═════════╬════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║ 5 JUL 2006  ║    05:01    ║ Kwangmyongsong-2#1  ║ Tonghae ║     Unha-1     ║          ║             ║         ║         ║                   ║  failed  ║
║             ║             ║                     ║  LC-2   ║                ║          ║             ║         ║         ║                   ║          ║
╠═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════════════╬═════════╬════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║ 5 APR 2009  ║    11:20    ║ Kwangmyongsong-2#2  ║ Tonghae ║     Unha-2     ║ 104m 12s ║    40.6°    ║  1,426  ║  490.6  ║       test        ║  failed  ║
║             ║             ║                     ║  LC-2   ║                ║          ║             ║         ║         ║ telecommunication ║          ║
╠═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════════════╬═════════╬════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║ 13 APR 2012 ║   7:38:55   ║ Kwangmyongsong-3#1  ║  Sohae  ║     Unha-3     ║          ║    97°.4    ║   500   ║   500   ║ Earth observation ║  failed  ║
║             ║             ║                     ║  LC-1   ║                ║          ║             ║         ║         ║                   ║          ║
╠═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════════════╬═════════╬════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║ 12 DEC 2012 ║  09:49:46   ║ Kwangmyongsong-3#2  ║  Sohae  ║     Unha-3     ║ 95m 29s  ║    97.2°    ║ 584.18  ║  499.7  ║ Earth observation ║ In orbit ║
║             ║             ║                     ║  LC-1   ║                ║          ║             ║         ║         ║                   ║          ║
╠═════════════╬═════════════╬═════════════════════╬═════════╬════════════════╬══════════╬═════════════╬═════════╬═════════╬═══════════════════╬══════════╣
║ 7 FEB 2016  ║    09:00    ║  Kwangmyongsong-4   ║  Sohae  ║ Kwangmyongsong ║ 94m 24s  ║    97.4°    ║   500   ║  494.6  ║ Earth observation ║ In orbit ║
║             ║             ║                     ║  LC-1   ║    (Unha-4)    ║          ║             ║         ║         ║                   ║          ║
╚═════════════╩═════════════╩═════════════════════╩═════════╩════════════════╩══════════╩═════════════╩═════════╩═════════╩═══════════════════╩══════════╝
http://liuqiankktt.b...20161902943664/


2016021548259070.jpg
http://www.jajusibo....21548259070.jpg
http://www.jajusibo.....html?uid=25927
Orbital parameters of the Kwangmyongsong series satellites: Satellite, Perigee, Apogee, Nodal period, Mean motion



Kwangmyongsong-1 (광명성 1호, 光明星一號: Shining Star-1)


Glossary

Mar 22, 2012

Kwangmyongsong (Korean for guiding light or Polar Star) refers to the late Kim Jong Il. The name was given by the members of the anti-Japanese guerrilla army when he was born at a secret camp on snow-covered Mt Paektu, expressing their desire that he would grow into a Korean "King David".

http://www.atimes.co...a/NC22Dg01.html



Background


A Brief History of the DPRK's Space Program:

The DPRK's space program began in the 1980's with the creation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST). In the 1990s, North Korean scientists developed an experimental satellite, Kwangmyongsong-1 or Bright Star or Shining Star.

According to the DPRK's Kim Jong Il Biography 3, when the scientists developing KMS-1 were discouraged, the Chairman reminded them that the first Korean Chollima-brand tractor had run backward on its trial drive. Encouraged, the scientists drew fresh designs and compiled technical data within a year, something which would have taken five years to be completed in ordinary times and within two years had completed KMS-1's launch vehicle.
...
The DPRK-produced biography of Kim Jong Il, The Great Man, in discussing the development of KMS-1 and 2, even admitted that the fact that the DPRK had launched a satellite at all can be said to be a miraculous event.

http://www.youngpion...a-space-program



Numerological Analysis by Master S☫heil from Sohae, DPRK.

Launch date (Pyongyang): 31 AUG (19)98

3+1+8=12 thus exceeding the lucky number of 9!

Strongly advised to Not Proceed with any space launch attempt on that Unlucky date!

ef4c39dcd17aefe2a1d2402a2ee4eb.png

Master S☫heil


Launch


Pyongyang, September 8 (KCNA)

Scientists outline launch of artificial satellite

Academician, Prof. and Dr. Kwon Tong Hwa, Kim Il Sung order winner, labour hero and deputy to the Supreme People's Assembly, who was involved in the launch said that the DPRK has long since developed the science and technology of artificial satellites and laid its solid industrial foundation, not boasting of it. He explained the background of the launch of the satellite: Under the wise guidance of General Secretary Kim Jong Il, the DPRK has developed a multi-stage rocket capable of carrying an artificial satellite already in the 1980s and made remarkable successes in researches into satellites as well. When he was alive, the President Kim Il Sung said that it was high time for the DPRK to launch an artificial satellite. All preparations for the launch had been completed in Korea already at the beginning of the 1990s. As instructed by Kim Jong Il, the first artificial satellite was launched to significantly adorn the first session of the 10th Supreme People's Assembly and the 50th anniversary of the founding of the DPRK.
...
Candidate academician, Prof. and Dr. Han Hae Chol, Kim Haeng Gyong and other scientists, who were involved in the launch of the artificial satellite "Kwangmyongsong No. 1," referred to the purpose of the launch: First, it is to master the technology of putting a satellite correctly into orbit with a multi-stage carrier rocket. Second, it is to perfect the structural engineering design of a multi-stage carrier rocket and its control technology. Third, it is to study the circumstances of the space and verify if electronic devices correctly operate in the space. Fourth, it is to complete the observation system of the carrier rocket and satellite. For this purpose, necessary observation devices were installed at the carrier rocket and satellite.
...
The scientists chose the sky above Tsugaru strait between Hokkaido and Honshu, Japan, as the trajectory of the recent artificial satellite launch. The carrier rocket was equipped with a device with which to lead the rocket to a safe area and explode it in case the flying rocket is deviated from the expected trajectory.
...
A scientist Kim Haeng Gyong who had participated in the launch said the carrier rocket correctly flied along the theoretically expected trajectory and that all the apparatuses of the artificial satellite are working properly after it was put into orbit.
...
The artificial satellite moving along its own orbit sends them survey data, including temperature, pressure and conditions of power source, they said. The sketch map of the test launch of the carrier rocket of the artificial satellite shows where the carrier rocket was separated stage by stage and where the separated parts of the rocket dropped. It shows that the first stage was separated from the rocket 95 seconds after the launch, in the air 35.9 kilometres high and 19.5 kilometres off the launching station, that the second stage separated itself from the rocket in 266 seconds, in the air 204 kilometres high and 450.5 kilometres off the launching station and that the artificial satellite was put into orbit in 293 seconds, at the speed of 8,980 metres per second, in the air 239.2 kilometres high and 587.9 kilometres off the launching station. It also shows that the first stage separated from the rocket fell 253 kilometres off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 51 minutes north latitude 132 degrees 40 minutes east longitude and that the second stage fell 1,646 kilometres off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 13 minutes north latitude 149 degrees 07 minutes east longitude.

http://www.kcna.co.j...9/news09/08.htm


Pyongyang, September 8 (KCNA)

"Kwangmyongsong No. 1" revolves round earth

The first artificial satellite of the DPRK launched at Musudan-ri, Hwadae county, North Hamgyong Province, on August 31 is now revolving round the earth. The multi-stage carrier rocket and satellite launched by Korean scientists and technicians were developed with local strength, wisdom and technology 100 percent. Today's edition of Rodong Sinmun carries an interview with scientists and technicians involved in the satellite launch and a sketch map of the carrier rocket launching test. The first and second rocket stages are made up of liquid rocket engines and the third stage an engine with highly efficient solid fuel. The control mechanism of the rocket is a product of advanced science and technology, including computers. The first stage was separated from the rocket 95 seconds after the launch and fell on the open waters of the East Sea of Korea 253 km off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 51 minutes north latitude 132 degrees 40 minutes east longitude. The second stage opened the capsule in 144 seconds, separated itself from the rocket in 266 seconds and fell on the open waters of the Pacific 1,646 km off from the launching station, that is 40 degrees 13 minutes north latitude 149 degrees 07 minutes east longitude. The third stage put the satellite into orbit 27 seconds after the separation of the second stage. The purpose and mission of the rocket were accomplished at the first launch.

http://www.kcna.co.j...9/news09/08.htm



2016/02/15

According to a press release issued by the National Aerospace Development Administration on February 7, 2016, the orbit inclination angle of Kwangmyongsong-1 and Kwangmyongsong-2 were 40.2 degrees and 40.6 degrees, respectively.

http://www.jajusibo....n=sc38



paektusan-1.1491081669.jpg
http://ipic.su/img/i....1491081669.jpg
Paektusan-1 first stage and second stage falling areas.



Mar 24, 2017


19th year ago, on Juche 87 (1998), August 31, at 12:07, the day of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the nation launched its first ever man-made test satellite. It was launched heading a 86 ° direction and entered a Low Earth orbit exactly after 4 minutes 53 seconds.

1e44ae5ab365839e7b77ce01b66881e6.jpg?ima
http://cms-bucket.no...thumbnail=550x0
http://news.163.com/....html#sns_weibo



http://www.dprktoday...type=2&no=19018


ff223a95bf0368eab601a4374c854ad2.jpg
http://www.ilbe.com/7478791097
http://i1.daumcdn.ne...75535E65E13C02D
http://nktoday.tistory.com/m/post/1525
North Korea's first unsuccessful experimental satellite Kwangmyongsong-1 launched in August 1998.



20160922-k3-01-1.jpg
http://www.dprktoday...922-k3-01-1.jpg
http://www.dprktoday...type=2&no=14458
August 1998 Paektusan-1 launch.


KCNA Video Published on Mar 16, 2012

Note, include footage of Kwangmyongsong-1 and 2.


Científicos coreanos se entrevistan con la Agencia Central de Noticias Coreana: https://www.youtube....h?v=RLcGtm6gPOc


Controversy


Apr 5, 2012

As a matter of course, the second-term Clinton administration initially condemned the August 31, 1998, satellite launch as a ballistic missile test in disguise. However, it went out of its way two weeks later to retract its initial assessment, calling it "a satellite".
...
On September 4, an anonymous US intelligence officer told Reuters, "We have seen that report and we are still evaluating the data connected with the launch and we cannot at this point rule out that an object was placed in orbit." The Reuters news story was headlined, "US Can't Rule Out N Korea Launched Satellite.
...
Ten days later, September 14, the State Department courageously backed away from its initial assessments and acknowledged that the object launched by North Korea in the western Pacific two weeks earlier was a satellite and not a missile.
State Department spokesman James P Rubin told AP, "The object launched by North Korea in the western Pacific two weeks ago was a satellite and not a missile."


http://www.atimes.co...a/ND05Dg02.html



Commemoration philatelic souvenir

1-138.JPG
http://www.luckystam...ges/D/1-138.JPG
http://www.luckystam...-No.-3890C.html
North Korea Stamp 1998 Launch of First Artificial Earth Satellite



stamp27.jpg
http://js-tours.jp/w.../12/stamp27.jpg
http://js-tours.jp/archives/1115
North Korea Stamp 1998 Launch of First Artificial Earth Satellite

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#20 Soheil

Soheil

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 05:11 PM

Kwangmyongsong-2#1



Numerological Analysis by Master S☫heil from Sohae, DPRK.

Launch date (Pyongyang): 5 JUL (20)06

5+7=12 thus exceeding the lucky number of 9!

Strongly advised to Not Proceed with any space launch attempt on that Unlucky date!

ef4c39dcd17aefe2a1d2402a2ee4eb.png

Master S☫heil



Launch


11 July 2006

Just 42 seconds after its 5 July launch, the rocket plunged into the Sea of Japan, according to US, South Korean and Japanese intelligence.
...
"It's very hard to get this far,"
The failure appeared to take place at the moment rocket designers call 'maximum q', when a rocket feels the greatest aerodynamic forces.
...
the first stage had probably not finished firing by the time of the crash
something fell from the rocket immediately after take-off.
...
He thinks that part of the final, third stage may have pulled loose when under maximum strain, and struck the body of the rocket.

That 'something' may have been a shroud covering a small satellite that the North Koreans intended to put into orbit, Vick says. Such a problem would be relatively easy to fix, he notes. "If the shroud is the problem, we could see another flight within a year or less."

Simple glitch

But other types of failure are just as likely, says McDowell. For example, the steering mechanisms might not have been strong enough to guide the rocket at maximum q, or a software or guidance glitch might have caused the crash. If the latter were true, he says: "They could fly it again in a few months."

McDowell adds that regardless of the specifics of the failure, the 42-second flight shows that the North Koreans are indeed skilled at rocketry. Most launch failures occur within the first few seconds after lift-off, he says. During the early days of the US programme, says McDowell, a 40-second flight would have been described as a 'partial success'.


http://www.nature.co...ws060710-5.html


Wednesday, July 5, 2006 Posted: 0403 GMT (1203 HKT)

The Taepodong-2 landed about 200 miles west of Japan in the Sea of Japan, a U.S. military source said.
'''
"It's very difficult technology. They very clearly have not mastered it," Jim Walsh, a national security analyst at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said. "Most estimates are they will not master it for another 10 years."

http://edition.cnn.c.../korea.missile/


Controversy


15 July 2006

Statement by the President of the Security Council

Expressing grave concern at the launch of ballistic missiles by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK)


http://www.mofa.go.j...olution1695.pdf


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