Jump to content

Theme© by Fisana
 

Photo

BIZONS and SKORPIONS. What is a Sub Machine Gun?


  • Please log in to reply
26 replies to this topic

#1 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 03:41 PM

http://world.guns.ru/smg/smg08-e.htm

http://club.guns.ru/eng/bizon.html

BIZON Submachine Guns
In 1993 Victor Kalashnikov and Alexey Dragunov, engineers of the IZHMASH JSC, located in the city of Izhevsk, Western Urals, Russia, created a novel submachine gun designated BIZON (Bison). 60% of the BIZON components are interchangeable with the AK-100 series assault rifles.

Depending on the specific requirements of Customers, BIZON may have different constructions of the rear sight and the buttstock. The rear sight of BIZON-2 is similar to that of the Kalashnikov sliding tangent-type with three divisions of scale for 50, 100 and 150-meter elevation. BIZON-3 features a pop-up dioptric rear peep sight, with protective ears. The buttstock folds upward to lock into a spring-loaded latch ontop the receiver cover. A number of modular muzzle devices is available to meet requirements of specific tactic missions: silencers, muzzle brakes, compensators, flash hiders, etc.
The front sight of the latter two versions - BIZON-2 and BIZON-3 - is a derivative of the AK-74M construction, while the first configuration of the BIZON has the front sight similar to SVD - the Dragunov sniper rifle, with protective hood.

The BIZON trigger mechanism is exactly that of the AK74M.
The synthetic 64-round helical-type magazine provides an easy procedure of loading - all cartridges are oriented nose forward and can not be loaded incorrectly.
The latest modification of the magazine has four openings in the right side, with markings 4, 24, 44 and 64 to show the number of rounds in the magazine.
Construction of the stock makes the BIZON SMG a very controllable weapon afield.

Judging by the results of numerous tests, the BIZON is capable of highly accurate and accented penetrating fire. Taking into account its cyclic rate varying from 650 rpm to 700 rpm, depending on the two types of the used ammunition, it makes a desirable weapon in various tactic missions.

As estimated by experts, the BIZON SMG may be successfully employed by the Law Enforcement and Anti-terrorist units where fire contacts are of rapid and intensive nature, where multiple targets are to be engaged at short intervals of time, at the range of not exceeding 100 meters.
In such situations the following BIZONs characteristics may play an important role:
high hit probability;
excellent controllability in a fully automatic fire;
enhanced accuracy of rapid (instinctive) fire;
compact envelope and a possibility of carrying in concealment;
large capacity of magazine;
variable operational range of fire.
Army and Special Forces are also looking for a compact, effective weapon to be employed in surgical operations where fire of high density and accuracy at short and medium ranges is required. Being engaged in a combat, frequently conducted under complex environmental and operational conditions, a soldier needs a lightweight, low recoil firearm which may benefit by an operator-s lesser fatigue as well as by a possibility of conducting fire on the move or from shelters.

BIZON is exactly the weapon, which can meet such challenges. It can be comfortably fired from various positions: (a) with the extended buttstock at the shoulder, (B) with buttstock folded, from the hand (as a pistol) or from two hands, with carrying sling looped over the shoulder.

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
All modifications of the BIZON-series have the following operational modes: safety, semiautomatic and fully automatic. Change of modes is achieved by placing a selector lever into a required position.
When placed into its uppermost position, the selector brings the weapon into safety. The trigger is blocked and the bolt carrier could be retracted only partially - just enough to see through the opening whether there is ammunition in the magazine. The amount of travel the bolt group performs is not sufficient to **** the hammer and send the first round into chamber.
Shifted into extreme low position marked "OD" (odinochniy means single in Russian), the selector brings the systems into a semi-auto operation. Upon firing, the bolt group being driven rearward, the extractor claw removes an empty case from the chamber, and the ejector disposes of it through the opening in the right side of the top cover. As the bolt carrier travels farther, the single-strand recoil spring is compressed, the hammer is cocked and engaged with the auto-safety cocking cam. This cycle completed, the bolt group begins its return travel driven by the recoil spring. The mechanism goes forward, another round is stripped from the magazine and chambered. The bolt carrier releases the hammer from the auto-safety sear. The hammer cocked the bolt in the front position - the submachine gun is ready to fire. The trigger mechanism's mainspring is of multiple-strand type, which lasts longer and offers better performance. After the trigger has been released, its extension moves forward. The hook in the trigger extension is held by the sear. When the trigger is pulled, its hook moves the sear and disengages it from the hammer-cocking cam. The hammer, actuated by the mainspring, pivots forward and strikes the firing pin. The firing pin moves forward and impinges the primer. Another shot is fired. The cycle is completed.
To fire in full-auto mode, the selector should be placed into the middle position marked "AB" (avtomaticheskiy). By doing so, the sear is deactivated and does not control the hammer. In this mode the auto-safety sear holds the hammer back until the bolt carrier while moving forward releases it to fire another round.

BIZON Specifications
Caliber:
9 x 18 Makarov PM,
9 x 18 Makarov High Impulse PMM,
9 x 19 PARA,
9 x 17 Short,
9 x 21 SP-10
7.72 x 25 TT
Operation: Free blowback.
Semiautomatic and full-auto fire modes.
Cyclic rate: 650 to 700 rpm
Feed: Aluminum 64-round helical-type magazine.
Weight, empty: 2.47 kg (5.45 pounds);
without magazine: 2.1 kg (4.6 pounds)
Length, overall: With stock unfolded, 660 mm (26.0 inches);
with buttstock folded, 425 mm (16.7 inches)
Barrel: Four-groove with right-hand twist of one turn.
In 240 mm (9.4 inches).
The bore and chamber are chrome lined.
Sights: Flip-type rear sight with protective ears
and two open square U-shaped notches
with 50 and 100-meter elevation settings.
Round, post-type front sight with protective hood;
adjustable for both elevation and windage zero.
Finish: Black phosphate.
Status: Current production.
:cool:
  • 0

#2 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 03:50 PM

Skorpion vz 61 (Czech Republic)

Caliber: 7.65x17mm (.32ACP) in vz.61; also 9x18mm Makarov in vz.82 and 9x17mm (.380ACP) in vz.83
Weight: 1.28 kg without magazine
Lenght (stock closed/open): 270 / 517 mm
Barrel lenght: 115 mm
Rate of fire: ca. 850 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 10 or 20 rounds
Effective range: 25 meters

vz.61 Skorpion and its variants is manufactured by Ceska Zbrojovka (Uhersky Brod, Czech Republic).

The vz.61 Skorpion (vz. means "vzor" in Chech, or model in English) submachine gun was designed as a dual purpose weapon, intended to be used as an close combat assault weapon as well as a personal defence weapon, instead of the pistols. Small size makes this weapon wery suitable for concealed carry or for use in confined space, such as cars or aircrafts, so this gun became popular among both police, security and counter-terror units, as well as among some terroristic groups.

vz.61 uses relatively weak 7.65mm Browning cartridge, so it employs simple blowback principle to operate. Gun features ambidextrous cocking handle (thwo small button-shaped handles on each side of the receiver). The safety/firing mode switch is located at the left side above the firing handle. Gun can be fired in single shots or in full auto. To decrease rate of fire to practical rate, vz.61 features rate reducer, that located in the handle and catches the bolt in the rearward position for the small amount of time after the each shot.

The vz.61 may be carried in the special holster, and may be fired single-handed or with two-hands grip, with or without the stock ectension, so it has slightly longer effective range than any pistol of the same caliber.

The variants of the vz.61 include almost itenthical to vz.61 models vz.82 and vz.83. Main difference is that those SMGs are chambered in different 9mm cartridges. The only external difference is that 9mm versions use straight box magazines, instead of the original curved box magazines.

vz.61 and its variants are in use by some Chech, Slovenian, Egypt and Lybian units, as well as in other countries.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Love this gun? Buy it - without any permit or paperwork!
Scorpion VZ-61 - Airsoft Replica - fires 6mm plastic BBs
You must be of ages 18 or older to purchase it
http://world.guns.ru/smg/smg26-e.htm
  • 0

#3 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:00 PM

Sa. 23 /24/25/26 (Chechoslovakia)

Caliber: Sa.23 and Sa.25 9x19mm Luger/Para; Sa.24 and Sa.26 7.65x25mm TT
Weight: 3.27 kg or 3.5 kg empty (with folding or fixed stock, respectively)
Lenght (stock closed/open): 445 / 686 mm
Barrel lenght: 284 mm
Rate of fire: 650 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 24 or 40 rounds (9mm) or 32 rounds (7.62mm)
Effective range: 100-200 meters

Here's the text i've received from one of my correspondents from Slovakia:
Samopal 23 was a progressive submachinegun (at that time). It has compact size, but a relatively long barrel and allows one-hand fire. This is his history:
History:
This submachinegun has been developed during years 1948-1949 in Ceska Zbrojovka Strakonice (prototypes H/p, CZ 447, CZ 148). The main constructor was J. Holecek, other important participating constructors were J. Cermak, F. Myska, J. Kratochvil, V. Zibara. The final weapon design was derived from a considerably modified prototype CZ 447. On 10th august 1948, the submachinegun was accepted by army under name "9 mm samopal vz. 48a" (with a solid wooden stock) and "9 mm samopal vz. 48b" (with a folding stock). The mass production of submachinegun began in 1949 in CZ Uhersky Brod (in 01/01/1948, the factory was renamed as Zavody presneho strojirenstvi Uhersky Brod). In spring 1950, the machinegun was renamed:
from Sa vz. 48a to Sa 23 (solid stock)
from Sa vz. 48b to Sa 25 (folding stock)

NOTE: Sa vz. 23 ( or 24, 25, 26) doesn't exist!!! Only Sa 23, 25, 24, 26. Number 23 (or 24, 25, 26) doesn't indicate year, so never put word "vzor" or "vz." (which means "model") to the name of this submachine gun. The number in the name of submachinegun indicates only some numerical specification. The mistake that I described is very spread (even in Czech rep./Slovakia).
In year 1950, because of unification with Soviet Union army, the production of Sa 23/25 in cal. 9 mm Parabellum ended. The weapon has been modified for caliber 7.62x25 (Tokarev). On 11th june 1951, the modified weapons were accepted by czechoslovak army as Sa 24 (solid stock) and Sa 26 (folding stock). After that, the previous submachineguns 23 and 25 were discarded from army and offered to the public militia (or other armed sections), a lot of submachineguns was sold to the other countries. Sa 24/26 has not been in the service for a long time, because in 1958 it was replaced with a new assault rifle Sa vz. 58.
Whole production of Sa 23/25 was about 136 000 pcs. Sa 23/25 were seen in the action in these countries: Tchad, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Chile, South Africa rep., Cambodia, Capo Verde, Cuba, Libanon, Libya, Mosambic, Niger, Nikaragua, Peru, Somalia, Syria, Tansania etc - maybe these submachineguns are still in service in some countries (armed forces, guerrillas...). In South Africa rep. in years 1977-1980, there has been produced a simplified semiautomatic version of Sa 25 under name Sanna 77. And... of course, the famous submachinegun UZI was patterned after Sa 25 (magazine in the grip, breech enclosing the barrel etc.). Nowadays, these submachineguns are not used in any czech/slovak armed forces, sometimes is found when a crime is commited.

Technically, al M23 SMGs were blowback operated, select fire firearms. The trigger works as a fire selector - short trigger pull produces sinle shot, while long pull produces burst fire. The wrap-around bolt has firing pin fixed into it near its rear end and encloses the breech part of the barrel with the most of its lenght when closed. Gun fires from the open bolt. Box magazines are inserted into the pistol handle (much like most semi-auto pistols, but first of all SMGs). All M23 family SMGs has built-in magazine loading device at the right side of the front guard, which is designed for loading box magazines from 8-rounds stripper clips. The charging handle is located at the left side of the gun. The sights are: hooded blade front sight and distance-ajustable drum rear ones.

The 7.65 and 9mm models can be distinguished by the magazine insertion: 7.65mm models have magazines that slope forward whereas those of the 9mm models are vertical.
http://world.guns.ru/smg/smg46-e.htm
  • 0

#4 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:03 PM

IMI UZI / Mini UZI / Micro UZI (Israel)

UZI Mini UZI Micro UZI
Caliber 9x19mm Luger/Para 9x19mm Luger/Para 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight, kg 3,7 2,7 1.5
Lenght, mm (stock closed / open) 470 / 650 360 / 600 250 / 460
Barrel lenght, mm 400 n/a n/a
Rate of fire, rounds/min 600 950 1250
Magazine capacity, rounds 25 , 32 20, 25, 32 20
Effective range, meters 200 100 30

The UZI submachine gun was developed in Israel bu Usiel Gal, and manufactured by IMI. UZI had been adopted by police and military of more than 90 countries, including Israel (now only in reserve), Germany, Belgium. More compact versions, Mini and Micro UZI, are adopted by many police, special operations and security units around the world, including Israeli Isayeret, US Secret Service etc.

UZI had been developed on the basis of the Czech M23 and 25 submachine gun, utilising its overall design and many features, but with completely different receiver (rectangular instead of round in cross-section) and other changes.
UZI is a recoil-operated, select fire submachine gun, firing from the open bolt. The bolt "sleeves" around the rear part of the barrel to decrease ovcerall lenght of the gun. UZI (as well as Mini and Micro versions) features safety/fire selector switch on the left side of the receiver, along with automated safety on the rear side of the handle. Charging handle is located at the top of the receiver and does't move when firing. The receiver is made from the stamped steel.
The UZI is equipped with folding stock, made from stamped steel (early variants were also equipped with fixed wooden stock); The Mini and Micro variants featured side-folding stocks made from steel wire. All versions may be equipped with silencers.
Some sources also reported that IMI developed a variant of Micro-UZI with charging handle located at the left side of the receiver and the picatinny-style rails on the top and on the bottom of the receiver. The rals are used to mount sights, tactical flashlights and laser aiming modules. These variants are used by Israeli special forces.

At all, the Uzi and its variants are simply the most popular SMGs in the world, being manufactured in great numbers (probably, more that 10 millions manufactured around the world until today).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Love this gun? Buy it - without any permit or paperwork!
UZI - Airsoft Replica - fires 6mm plastic BBs
You must be of ages 18 or older to purchase it
:D
  • 0

#5 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:07 PM

PP-90 (Russia)

Type caliber weight loaded / emty
Length (stock close/open) V0 Rounds per minute magazine capacity effective range
PP-90 9x18 1,83 485(270x90x32) 320 600-800 30 100

http://world.guns.ru/smg/smg10-e.htm


:cool:

THE DIPLOMATIC SMG

We need 9 x 21 SP10 or 9 x 21 IMI
it's better to defend embassies and to assure security of the VIPs.

:cool:
  • 0

#6 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:09 PM

MAC M10 and M11 (USA)

Data for MAC M10
Caliber .45ACP, 9x19mm Luger/Para (.380ACP a.k.a. 9x17mm Short for M-11)
Weight 2,84 kg (1.59 kg M-11)
Lenght 269 mm (548 mm with open stock) (248/460 mm for M11)
Rate of fire 1100 rounds per minute (1600 rpm for MAC-11 in .380)
Magazine capacity 30 , 32 rounds
Effective range 25 meters

The M10 submachine gun was developed in 1970 or so by Gordon Ingram at his Military Armament Company (hence the name MAC), based at Powder Springs, Georgia, USA.
Since then, many companies manufactured exact copies or slightly modified clones of both MAC M10 and M11 (smaller version of M10, in .380ACP a.k.a. 9x17mm Short). To name few: RPB Inc (USA), SWD Inc (USA), Cobray (USA), Jersey Arms (USA). Some modifications also were manufactured abroad the USA.
MAC M10 or its wariants were adopted by some special forces units and police units in USA and in some other countries, for example, Thaiwan.

M10 is a recoil-operated, select-fire submachine gun. M10 fires from open bolt. The bolt has firing pin milled in its body (or pinned to it), and the firing pin is located near the rear part of the bolt, that "sleeves" the rear part of the barrel (to decrease the lenght of the gun). The receiver is made from stamped steel and consist of two parts - upper and lower. receiver parts are connected by steel pin at the front of the weapon. Charging handle is located at the top of the receiver and doesn't move with the bolt when firing. The muzzle of the barrel is threaded to accept silencer.

Both MAC10 and MAC11 are compact and reliable guns, capable of delivering a good amount of firepower due to high rate of fire (1100 rpm for MAC11 and a striking 1600 rpm for MAC11 in .380). But the light weight and high rate of fire resulted in marginal accuracy and relatively short effective range, thus make the MACs the good choice for building sweeps and inside-the-vehicle operations (Israeli commandos used the MAC-11s in their Aircraft Hijack Resque missions, thank to its to great firepower and low probability of over-penetration ad ricochetes).
:D
  • 0

#7 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:12 PM

Ruger MP9 (USA)

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 3 kg empty
Lenght (stock closed/open): 376 / 556 mm
Barrel lenght: 173 mm
Rate of fire: 550-650 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 32 rounds
Effective range: ca. 25 meters

The MP9 submachine gun was designed as a compact weapon for law enforcement forces. It is based on basic design of the Uziel Gal (author of the UZI SMG), further improved by the Ruger company. The MP9 was released in 1995 for police and military sales in the USA.

Basically, MP9 may be called "improved UZI". Main improvements over the Uzi included: the blowback operated action is re-designed to be fired from the closed bolt, to increase accuracy; the lower receiver with the handel is made from Zytel polymer, while the upper receiver is made from stainless steel; the buttstock is redesigned, and is telescopic. When closed, it folds down. The gun features three positions safety/fire selector with "safe", "semi-auto" and "full-auto" positions, as well as a separate firing pin block to increase safety. The quickly detachable barrel is loaded with spring to cussion the impact of the bolt on closure. The cocking handle is located at the top of the receiver.
:D
  • 0

#8 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:19 PM

Someone search WMD
Try to search they to the sellers.
Try to search they to Peshawar where someone could build they for you.
:D
It' simple to build a HANDCRAFT REPLICA of the SMGs if you need they.
:D
  • 0

#9 AnotherEuropean

AnotherEuropean

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 1611 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:22 PM

Children,

In modern warfare, these weapons are useless ... cause you ain't ever gonna get close enough to your enemy to use them. These weapons are designed for close combat, urban warfare.

And, you can be absolutely certain that there are better weapons to defend your embassy than these ... like automatic fireweapons, that aim at infrared targets/heat sensored ... and are especially aim-accurate to flares from fireweapons. :P
  • 0

#10 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:26 PM

FN P90 (Belgium)

Caliber: 5.7x28mm SS190
Weight: 2.54 kg empty; 3 kg loaded with magazine with 50 rounds
Lenght: 500 mm
Barrel lenght: 263 mm
Rate of fire: 900 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 50 rounds
Effective range: 200 meters

The FN P90 submachine gun (SMG) was developed in the late 1980s as a defensive weapon for the troops whose primary activities does not include small arms - vehicle and tank crew members, artillery crews etc. Standart pistols and SMGs chambered for pistol rounds were proved ineffective against enemy soldiers, wearing armour (bulletproof) vests, so FN Herstal developed a new round with enhanced penetration - the SS190. This round looks like scaled downt 5.56mm NATO round and forces the pointed, steel core bullet to the 600-700 meters per second at the muzzle, thus being capable to defeat standart CRISAT helmets and armour vests at reasonable distances (50-100 meters).

The P90 is a blowback operated, selective fire weapon. It is fed from 50-rounds box magazines, made from transluscent polymer. The magazine is being located above the barrel, with the cartridges being aligned at 90 degrees to the barrel axis. Each magazine has built-in ramp that rotates cartridge to align it with the barrel prior to chambering it.

The P90 controls are completely ambidextrous, with charging handles located at the both sides of the weapon, and the safety/fire mode selector is located below the trigger. The P90 also features downward ejection of the spent cases. P90 is built in bull-pup configuration, with polymer stock, and features built-in reflex collimator sight with 1X magnification and reticle automaticaly ajustable to the light level, as well as a set of the backup open sights. P90 may be equipped with special silencer, that should be used with special, sub-sonic variant of the 5.7x28mm cartridge.

P90 may be referred as a forerunner of the PDW (Personal Defence Weapon) concept, that arose in last 4 or 5 years.

P90 is used by Saudi Arabia, Peruan Special Forces and some special units of Thailand army, and offered for export by FN.

:cool:
  • 0

#11 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:36 PM

If someone builds they, someone use they.
The others sistems are to the shop at the corner like the weapons.
If someone asks to build a SMG It's because they need they.
The FLIRs are for fools people, in the town or in the city it's not necessary to use FLIR systems.
The close combat is in the jungle or in the forest or in the villages, towns, cities.
In the jungle and in the forest there is not more light and the FLIRs sistems aren't necessary.
In the villages, towns, cities, there is the pubblic light.
:D
and last but not least
How many people fires at more than 100 meters?
A lot of people fires at about 50 meters or less to hit and to see the target.
The firepower is necessary to protect the VIPs
The firepower protect yourself and the people you want protected.
:D
  • 0

#12 AnotherEuropean

AnotherEuropean

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 1611 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:41 PM

>
>The FLIRs are for fools people, in the town or in the city it's not necessary to use FLIR systems.
The close combat is in the jungle or in the forest or in the villages, towns, cities.
In the jungle and in the forest there is not more light and the FLIRs sistems aren't necessary.
In the villages, towns, cities, there is the pubblic light.
:D
>

A simple digital camera with zoom features, simple robotics arm (must be able to move within range diameter, within 1/4th of a sec), a simple heat sensor and a simple modern computer that is capable of tracking and analysing a live image on the fly. :D

I'll rather depend on robotics than a european, in or outside a jungle :D
  • 0

#13 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 04:53 PM

The terrorism and the tiefskillers don't use to be in action in the night and with targets at more than 50 meters.
Policemen loves the SMGs if they are on the way to protect VIPs.
Pistols are from 6 or less to 18 rounds and with full automatic action (raffles of 3 rounds or free) and you can find they everywhere in every country.
The night battle is not a rule it's an event of misfortune if you die and if you live if you are a thiefkiller or a terrorist or a Policeman.
:D
  • 0

#14 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 05:17 PM

PPSch-41 (USSR)

Caliber: 7,62x25 mm TT
Weight: 5,45 kg loaded with full 71 rds drum; 4,3 kg with full 35 rds magazine; 3,63 kg without magazine
Lenght: 843 mm
Barrel lenght: 269 mm
Rate of fire: 900 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 71 rounds in drum magazine or 35 rounds in curved box magazine
Effective range: meters

The PPSch-41 (Pistolet Pulemjot Schpagina model of 1941 = Shpagin submachinegun) was one of major infantry weapons of the Soviet troops during the World war 2. Total number of PPSch's manufactured during WW2 estimates to more than 6 millions. The gun became one of the symbols of the Great Patriotic War. Retired from Soviet Army service soon after the WW2, the PPSH was widely exported to some pro-Soviet countries arount the world, including Vietnam and many African countries.

The PPSch-41 was designed as a cheap and simple but effective war-time weapon. It featured simple blowback operated action, fired from open bolt. The striker was permanently fixed in the bolt face. PPSch-41 was a select-fire firearm, with fire selector switch located inside the triggerguard, ahead of trigger. The safety was integrated into the charging handle and locked the bolt in forward or rearward position. The receiver and the barrel shroud was made from stamped steel. The front part of the barrel shroud extends beyound the muzzle and acts as a muzzle brake / muzzle flip compensator. Early PPSch-41's were issued with drum magazines with capacity of 71 round, similar to ones used in PPD-40.
Such high capacity increased the firepower but the magazines were too slow to refill and not too reliable, so in 1942 a curved box magazine was developed. This magazine held 35 rounds and was much more comfortable to carry in pouches. Early magazines were made from .5 mm sheet steel and were somewhat unreliable. Later magazines were made from 1 mm steel and were completely satisfactory.
Usually, infantrymen carry one drum in the gun and some box magazines in the pouches or pockets.

Early guns featured elevation-ajustable rear sights, later ones flip-type "L"-shaped rear sights marked for 100 and 200 meters range.

All PPSch-41s featured hardwood stocks.

The main advantage of the PPSch-41 was bigger effective range (when compared to both Allies and Axis submachineguns of that era). It also was accurate enough and reliable. The main drawbacks were: heavy weight, lenght (too big for trench combat or for mobile operations) and the fact that the gun was sometimes prone (especially when weared enough) to unintended fire when dropped.

Sten (UK)

Technical data (Mk.III)
Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 3.18 rg empty
Lenght: 762 mm
Barrel lenght: 196 mm
Rate of fire: 450 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 32 rounds
Effective range: 70 meters

The STEN name came out of names of the designers (R. V. Shepard and H.J. Turpin) and from the factory where they worked (ENfield arsenal). It was one of the most crude and ugly and simply, but effective submachineguns of the WW2. More than 4 millions of STENs of different wersions were made from 1941 until 1945.

The first STEN, Sten mk.I, was developed in mid-1941. It was blowback operated, automatic weapon that fired from the open bolt. The tubular receiver and the barrel shroud were made from rolled steel. The gun was fed from left side mounted box magazines. The stock was of sceleton type, made from steel. Sights were fixed, ajusted for 100 yards distance, peep hole rear and blade front. The Mk.I featured spoon-like muzzle jump compensator. Some guns featured small folding forward grip.

The Sten mk.II was a mainstream gun, slightly smaller and lighter than Mk.I. It featured sceleton or wooden stocks. The magazine and the feeding module were the main drawbacks of the Mk.I and Mk.II, since those were prone to failures to feed. The magazines also often were loaded with only 30 rounds instead of full capacity of 32, to reduce starin on feed springs. The magazine housing was flexible to cover feed window when not in use. Some Mk.II's were manufactured with integral silencers for undercover operations and were marked as Mk.II(S).

The Sten mk.III was modification of mk.I. The major change was that the reciver and the barrel shroud was made from single sheet-steel tube that extended almost to the muzzle. Another changes were fixed magazine housing for improved reliability and small finger guard in the front of the ejection port. Internally, Mk.III was similar to Mk.I and has same variety of sceleton stocks. Mk.III first appeared in 1943.

The Sten mk.IV was only experimental and did not entered the production.

The Mk.V was an attempt to made Mk.II a more "good lookin'" gun. Being internally the same as Mk.II, the Mk.V featured wooden buttstock and rear handle, new front sight that allowed bayounet mount. Early mk.V's also featured wooden front grip, but it was prone to breackage and was removed soon. Mk.V's appeared in 1944 and remained in service until the eraly 1960s' being replaced by then-new Sterling SMGs.

:P WWII operatives
  • 0

#15 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 05:18 PM

Thompson submachineguns / Tommy Guns (USA)

M1921

M1927

M1928

M1

M1

M1921 M1928 M1
Caliber .45ACP .45ACP .45ACP
Weight, empty 4.69 kg 4.9 kg 4.78 kg
Lenght 830 mm 852 mm 811 mm
Barrel lenght 267 mm 267 mm 267 mm
Rate of fire ~ 1000 rpm ~ 700 rpm ~ 700 rpm
Magazine capacity 20 or 30 rounds box
("stick") magazines and
50 or 100 rounds drums same as M1921 20 or 30 rds box
Effective range ~ 50 meters ~ 50 meters ~ 50 meters

John Tompson founded the Auto Ordnance corp. in 1916, and began his developments in submachine guns with purchase of John Blish patent (1915), that described a delayed blowback automatic firearm. This patent described delayed blowback breech system in which a sloping metal wedge interlocked the breech block with the gun body. Under high pressure, as when the cartridge fired, the angle of the slope was such that the mating faces jammed solid. As the pressure dropped, the faces were able to slip across each other, the wedge moved up due to the slope, and the breech unlocked. This idea was used in all Thompson submachineguns except for M1 and M1A1 (those were simply blowback operated).

The first Thompson SMG appeared in 1919. The first serial manufactured model appeared in 1921 and was manufactured by Colt, as well as latest M1927 and M1928 models. 1928A1 & M1 series were manufactured by Auto-Ordnance and Savage, and licensed copies were manufactured by B.S.A. in Great Britain.
Currently, Auto-Ordnance (a part of the Kahr company) manufactures semi-auto only Tommy guns with lenghtened to 16" (405 mm) barrels for civilian market.

In general, all Tommy guns may be described as a select-fire, delayed blowback or simply blowback (M1) operated firearms. All tommy guns featured all-steel, high quality construction. Barrels are partially ribbed for better cooling.

Thommy guns became famous through "roaring twenties" in the USA, when, during the Prohibition times, many Tommy guns were used by both Police and criminals to spread the death across the enemies. The Hollywood made the Tommy gun the sign of the 1920's in the USA. But this gun was also widely used during the WW2 and later in Korean war, and proved itself as a reliable and powerful firearm. The main drawbacks of the Tommy guns were short effective range, heavy weight and high cost of manufacture.

Short listing of Thommy Gun models (according to Auto-Ordnance web site)
M1921 - first production model. Featured delayed blowback operations, machined steel receivers, charging handle located at the top of the receiver, detachable wooden buttstock and vertical forearm.
M1923 - unsuccessful attempt to increase effective range by introducing a new, more powerful cartridge, .45 Remington-Thompson.
M1927 - semi-auto only version of M1921. Barrel with Gutts compensator.
M1928 - also known as "Navy model". Select-fire version with horisontal wooden foregrip (also was manufactured with vertical foregrip) and sling swivels. Barrel with Gutts compensator.
M1 - First issued in 1943 as a simplified for war-time production variant of M1928. Select-fire, simply bowback operated, issued with 20 round "stick" magazines. Charging handle is located at the right side of the receiver. Plain barrel (without ribbing).
M1A1 - even more simplified M1 (with fixed peep-hole rear sights).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tales of the Gun: The Tommy Gun

This is the definitive look at the gun that shot its way into legend in the hands of the most infamous gangsters in history.

MP-38 / 40 (Germany)

MP-40

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 4,7 kg loaded, 4,03 kg empty
Lenght (stock closed/open): 630/833 mm
Barrel lenght: mm
Rate of fire: 500 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 32 rounds
Effective range: ca. 100 meters

The MP-38 and MP-40, often incorrectly referred as "Schmeissers", were developed by german engineer Follmer at the Erma company and adopted by Wehrmacht (German Army) in 1938 and 1940, respectively. The MP-40 is a further modification of the MP-38. Total of some 1.2 millions of MP-38/40 were manufactured prior and during WW2. Initially, MP-38 was intended for use by paratroopers and vehicle crews, but later was widely used by german infantry.

Both MP-38 and MP-40 were blowback operated, full auto only submachine guns. MP-38 featured steel machined receiver, while MP-40 featured stamped receiver and stamped magazine veil to make the gun cheaper. The charging handle (located at the left side of the receiver) was used as a safety, locking the bolt in forward or rearward position when placed in cut slots in the receiver. Both MP-38 and MP-40 fired from the open bolt. Both featured special rate of fire reducer, that resulted in very controllable rate of fire of some 400-500 rounds per minute. Both guns featured special detail below the barrel to use the guns from armoured wehicles. Both guns featured underfolding steel buttstock. Both MP-38 and MP-40 featured fixed and hooded front sight and flippable rear sight with settings for 100 and 200 meters.

The main drawbacks of the MP 38/40 were the lack of the front handguards that often resulted burned hands during the sustained fire, and the lack of the effective range, when compared to its soviet counterparts (PPSch-41, PPS-43), chambered for more powerful 7.62mm TT round.

:P

WWII operatives
  • 0

#16 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 05:23 PM

I'm very gratefull to you for the informations about robotics systems.
I notice to you that they are a fake they don't distinguish a child from a dwarf or from a troll or from a monkey or from a gorilla.
:P
  • 0

#17 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 05:44 PM

XM29 Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW)
Objective Individual Combat Weapon

XM29 OICW

The Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) is the lethality element of the Land Warrior program. It is also planned to be fielded as a stand-alone system. The OICW, recently designated as XM29 by the US Army, is a developmental infantry weapon system that will revolutionize the close combat fight by substantially improving the infantry soldier's effectiveness. The XM29's unique, full-solution target acquisition/fire control system combined with precision 20mm air bursting ammunition provide a significant overmatch capability against today's threats, resulting in a dramatic increase in soldier survivability. The XM29 is one of the premier programs within the new Program Manager Soldier Weapons Office in the Program Executive Office Soldier Systems.

XM29 is an integral part of the Land Warrior system and, as such, will provide a tremendous enhancement in tactical and operational capability when fielded. The XM29 also is planned for introduction into the Objective Force as an individual system for both the Future Combat Soldier and the Objective Force Warrior. In the Objective Force, it will be linked to a networked battlefield environment, further benefiting the overall force capability.

OICW gives the infantry soldier a capability to acquire targets and precisely detonate an air bursting 20mm projectile approximately 1 meter over the threat. It can also detonate on impact. These capabilities are required out to ranges 2-3 times the existing M16/M4/M203 system, or up to 10 football fields. The system provides both an integrated day and night battlefield sight capability allowing effective weapon usage 24 hours a day.

The OICW fires the same round as an M16A2 with the lower barrel, 5.56 mm, and can fire in either a single shot or two-round burst. The upper barrel fires a 20 mm high-explosive air-bursting fragmentation round at a distance of more than half a mile away. A six-round magazine in the butt of the rifle holds the HE rounds. The 20 mm round has a dual warhead which makes it lethal on both sides and gives complete coverage when it explodes. The round is air-bursting, and explodes at 1.5 meters above the target. This works especially well if the enemy is hiding behind an object or is lying prone on the ground.

The OICW has a window mode that can be used to reach the enemy inside a building. A normal round will explode upon impact of a window, limiting its destructive power. In the window mode, once the round strikes the window it delays exploding by a few milliseconds so the lethal area is increased inside a room. The round can also go through thin metal with the same effect. A safety mode does exist, in that the rounds have an 8-second self-destruct mode. After being fired, the round will explode in 8 seconds regardless of impact. This insures that no unexploded rounds are left on the battle field.

The sight of the OICW uses Direct View Optics with Video Enhancements. The Direct View Optics will be similar to looking at a television screen. The image can be magnified three times and will include an electronic compass on the screen.

The XM29 has a dual semi-automatic over and under configuration capable of firing 20mm air bursting ammunition or NATO standard kinetic energy 5.56mm ammunition. Both weapons are magazine-fed, providing the combat soldier an operational firepower advantage over current single shot systems. The full-solution target acquisition fire control has a laser range finder, direct view optics, integrated thermal imager, ballistic computer, fuze setter, environmental sensors, and compass. The precision 20mm ammunition includes High Explosive Air Bursting (HEAB) and Target Practice (TP) variants. The system has been demonstrated at ranges two to three times the current 40mm system to accurately deliver an air burst one meter over the lased target on the first shot fired.

The system should be rugged enough to withstand military use, including airborne and shipboard operations without degradation of the OICW s performance. The OICW will be effective from the standing, crouching, kneeling, sitting, prone, and foxhole positions.

The OICW weapon will consist of two separable subsystems, an HE module, and a KE module, with a single trigger and selector switch that operate both subsystems and interacts with the TA/FCS automatic fuze programming. The KE module will utilize standard 5.56mm ammunition and have semi-automatic and burst modes equivalent to the M4 carbine. The HE subsystem will fire the HEAB ammunition in all four fuzing modes. The weapon will be as reliable as the M16 rifle/M4.

The full-solution fire control begins with the soldier lasing to the target for a range reading. The range is fed into the ballistic computer, and the data is transmitted to the HEAB round inductively. The fire control system provides the appropriate adjusted aim point for the target to the chambered round. The round is fired and explodes at the precise range over the target with devastating effect. The system provides greater than five times the lethality at twice the range of today's conventional systems and, at the same time, reduces soldier combat exposure time, enhancing survivability.

The ruggedized, compact, single, integrated full solution day/night target acquisition/fire control system (TA/FCS) capable of operations without environmentally caused degradation of performance. The TA/FCS will have a direct view powered optic mode, thermal sighting mode, and a television/camera mode all with automatic, ballistically adjusted reticles. It will include a laser range finder; a compass, cant and inclinometer; an environmental sensor suite; a combat identification module and an infrared aiming light; laser illuminator pointer; and embedded training. It will include automatic fuze programming to arm the HEAB in any of the following modes: burst, point detonating, point detonating delay and window (detonating delay after passing through a window). It will contain a full ballistic algorithm to facilitate accurate placement of the airburst munition on target incorporating data from environmental and attitude sensors.

OICWs weight fielding goal of 14 pounds is 10 to 30% less weight than the current M16/M4/M203 systems. When comparable features such as Thermal Weapon Sight, Optic Sight, Rails, Aiming Light, Leaf Sight and Laser are added, the standard infantry soldier carries 15 to 19 pounds. This weight includes only 1 (30 round) magazine of the 5.56mm and 1 round of 40mm HE ammo. The OICW's 20mm HE round weighs only 1/4 pound compared to the M203's 40mm round weight of 1/2 pound - a 50% comparison weight savings with substantially more effectiveness. The 18 rounds of 40mm ammunition in a soldier's vest weigh 9 pounds. If a soldier was carrying 18 rounds of 20mm the weight is 4 1/2 pounds.

The M203 40mm combat round costs approximately $20. OICW's 20mm round was projected in FY99 to be $20-$30 each. Cost effectiveness is a critical measurement to consider. Given OICW's significant edge in effectiveness (5 times more at 300 meters) an engagement cost for the existing M203 would be $80-100 to achieve what a single $30 OICW round can do.

While an M16 costs under $1000, OICW may cost $10,000. That is because OICW is a single system consisting of a fire control and combinatorial weapon. The functions contained within the system include the "add-ons" now used on the M16 or M4 such as optics, thermal weapon system, and aim light. With these functional add-ons, the existing M16/M4/203 system cost exceeds $35,000 each.

The current XM29 program is focused on verifying system safety and launching into the full scale engineering design of the weapon, fire control, and ammunition. In tests concluded in January 2002, over 180 rounds of ammunition were fired to confirm air burst accuracy, system safety, and environmental assessment at ranges of 100, 350 and 500 meters. The testing verified the ammunition passed all safety requirements, leading to an "okay to proceed" from the Army Fuze Safety Board. In addition, multiple operational modes and functional capabilities were demonstrated, including precision turns count fuzing, point detonation, self-destruct, and short arm. The short arm mode provides the soldier a unique capability for the MOUT (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) environment. Further, the fuze provides for self-destruct and self-neutralization to provide a safer battlefield for the infantry as they move forward. The XM29 has now demonstrated the integrated system capability "end to end" on three different test sequences over the multiple phases of the program. These results validate that it is technically low risk to field this leap-ahead capability in shoulder-fired HEAB ammunition.

The target acquisition fire control is being upgraded, primarily focusing on reducing weight by integrating the latest laser, sensor, optics, electronics, and material technologies. It incorporates improved, low-weight optics for daylight viewing and integrated thermal optics for use at night. As the lethal element of the Land Warrior, it has been designed to integrate with the Land Warrior, allowing the XM29 to communicate from the fire control to the Land Warrior heads-up display and also to accommodate power sharing between systems.

http://world.guns.ru...ault/as40-e.htm

http://www.globalsec...nd/m29-oicw.htm

It's for the Jungle, the forest, the village, the town, the city, all close combat weapon, very expensive.

:D :cool: :P
  • 0

#18 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 05:45 PM

Alliant Techsystems / Heckler-Koch XM-29 SABR / OICW assault rifle (USA)

XM-29 OICW ammunition - HE (High Explosive) ant TP (target practice) rounds for 20mm unit and KE (Kinetic Energy) 5.56mm NATO round

Caliber: 5.56 mm NATO (KE) and 20x85mm (HE)
Action: Gas operated, rotating bolt (KE), unknown (HE)
Overall length: 890 mm
Barrel length: 250 mm (KE) 460 mm (HE)
Weight: ca 5.5 kg empty; ca 6.8 kg loaded
Magazine capacity: 20 or 30 rounds box (KE) and 6 rounds box (HE)

The history of the one of the most ambitious projects in the history of small arms, known as the OICW, or the Objective Individual Combat Weapon, began late in the 1986, when the US Army Infantry School at Ft. Benning published a military paper, named "Small Arms System 2000" (SAS-2000). Despite the current trends towards the caseless and fleschette ammunition and appropriate weapons, researched and developed under the ACR program (see HK G11 and Steyr ACR entries for some details), this paper stated that the conventional small arms already reached its technological peak, and the only way to increase the hit probability in the small arms is to introduce a weapon that will fire explosive and fragmentation warheads, combined with the smart fusing and sighting / aiming technologies. While the most small arms research during the late 1980s in the USA was conducted under the ACR program, the idea first developed in the SAS-2000 was supported by another US military paper, published in 1989 by the US Army TRADOC (Training & Doctrine) center. This paper, called "The Small Arms Master Plan" (SAMP), requested for a family of infantry "Objective" weapons, namely the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW), Objective Personal Defense Weapon (OPDW), and the Objective Crew Served Weapon (OCSW). The SAMP stated that such weapons must utilize the latest developments in computers and visual technologies, as well as in the small arms, and combine both high explosive warheads and traditional bullets fire capabilities in a single weapon, that should be fielded circa 2000. Of cause, the timelines and most of the weight and cost requirements set in this paper looked unrealistic from the start, but the development of the Objective weapons began in the early 1990s.

During the early stages of research and development in the mid-1990 one out of the two teams was selected as a winner for further development contract. This team is lead by the US based Alliant Techsystems corporation (ATK), with the Heckler-Koch (Germany), Brashear and the Omega companies (both of USA) as the other team members. The ATK is responsible for system integration, and also develops the 20mm Air Burst munitions; HK is responsible for both the 5.56mm rifle and the 20mm grenade launcher; Brashear works on the sighting equipment and Omega provides the training means. The resulting weapon was type-classified by the US Army as the XM-29 circa 2002, and is scheduled to enter the service during the year 2008 in limited numbers. It will be then consequently upgraded with the new technologies then available. Present plans for fielding the M-29 are to issue four units per one infantry squad of 9 men. Early in the 2002 the XM-29 test weapons were successfully tested with the newest 20mm HEAB (High Explosive Air Bursting) munitions, which will be a major "kill factor" for the M-29 weapon. At the same time the "kinetic energy" part of the XM-29 was type-classified as the XM-8 light rifle, and, in the near future, could possibly replace the current Colt M4 carbines as a standalone compact conventional small arms.

XM-29 OICW Description.
The XM-29 is a combination weapon, which has the 20mm semi-automatic, magazine fed grenade launcher as its primary part, and the 5.56mm compact assault rifle as its secondary part. Both parts are assembled into the single one-man portable unit, with the addition of the target acquisition / fire control system (TA/FCS), which is an essential part of the whole system. The XM-29 will become an integral part of the future Land Warrior system, capable of communicating with the other parts of this system, including the tactical computers and helmet-mounted displays.

The grenade launcher is capable to fire in semi-automatic mode only, and is gas operated. It has a bullpup layout with the detachable box magazine located in the butt of the weapon. The rifled barrel is used to launch the 20mm grenades up to the 1000 meters range with good accuracy. In the standard configuration most of the fire controls for the grenade launcher part are located on the rifle part, including the single trigger for both firing modules. It is quite possible, however, that the separate stock will be developed for the grenade launcher part, so it will be possible to use it without the rifle part attached. The launcher has the provisions for the TA/FCS system to be mounted on its top, and the appropriate interfaces, so the data provided from the TA/FCS can be used to program the 20mm grenade fuses. These fuses, used for the 20mm HEAB ammunition, has multiple mode of detonation, including the direct impact mode and the Air Burst mode. In the latter mode the fuse is pre-programmed to explode the warhead at the preset range, which is calculated during the flight by counting the number of the grenade rotations. This allows do defeat targets without the direct impact, using the blast and fragmentation effect of the high explosive warhead. This is a major advantage over the present small arms, which in most cases require the direct hit on the target to be effective, as it allows for greater aiming errors, and also makes possible to defeat targets in defilade, like the trenches and so. The high explosive warhead also has the advantage of not being dependent on its velocity to be effective, so unlike with the bullets, its effectiveness does not decreased with the increase of range. The disadvantages of this system is the extreme complexity of the electronic fuses, which results in the high price of a single round of ammunition. The present plans stated that the one HEAB round must cost about US $25, and it is still to be seen which will be an actual price when the M29 system will be fielded. It is interesting that the present design of the HEAB ammunition actually has two small HE warheads at the front and at the rear of the projectile, with the electronic fuse module located between them. While the HEAB is considered a primary round for the 20mm grenade launcher, it is entirely possible do develop a low cost, direct hit only anti-armour 20mm round with Shaped Charge warhead, which will be effective against lightly armored vehicles (APC, MICV and alike) and various hardened targets.

The rifle, or "kinetic energy" part of the XM-29 system, on the other hand, is a fairy conventional, short-barreled assault rifle, derived from the Heckler-Koch G36 assault rifle. The basic "rifle" part of the XM-29 has no buttstock and no own sights, and thus can be used separately from the whole system only as emergency, personal defense weapon. While being mounted to the whole system, it can be used for a close quarters work, both defensive or offensive (the 20mm grenade launcher has it minimum range of fire of about 50-100 meters), or as an low-cost, low intensity medium range offensive weapon. Most of the XM-29 system controls are built into the "rifle" part, around the trigger guard.

The target acquisition / fire control system (TA/FCS) is the most expensive and complicated unit of the whole system, since it must combine day and night vision capabilities, laser rangefinding unit, ballistic computer and various interfaces to the grenade launcher and external systems. It is used to find the targets in any light and weather conditions, determine the range to the target, calculate and display the aiming data, so the grenade or bullet could be fired to the desired point of impact, and then supply the data to the grenade launcher, so the range could be preset into the grenade fuse. In the case of damage to the TA/FCS the 20mm grenade launcher still can be used in the direct impact mode, as well as the rifle part of the system.

The current research and testing showed that the XM-29 can be up to 500% more effective than the present "small weapons", but it is still to be seen if all the requirements will be met in the resulting system, especially regarding to the reliability of electronic components, weight, and, at last but not at least, the unit price.

:D
  • 0

#19 AnotherEuropean

AnotherEuropean

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 1611 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 07:54 PM

>
>I'm very gratefull to you for the informations about robotics systems.
I notice to you that they are a fake they don't distinguish a child from a dwarf or from a troll or from a monkey or from a gorilla.
:P
>

Hey, I love America ... you put up a sign that says "Trespassers will be shot", to be on the legal side and then "If it moves, shoot it" :D
  • 0

#20 pacific

pacific

    Registered User

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 6441 posts

Posted 14 April 2003 - 08:39 PM

The guns are more dangerous than the nukes or WMD
Syria was on the way to democracy now it's all loose
:cool:
  • 0




0 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users

Copyright © 2016 Pravda.Ru