Current elements named after nations
- Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Gallium meaning Gaul in Latin (Gallia), was named after France.
- Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Named after Germany from the Latin word Germania.
- Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63. Named after the continent of Europe.
- Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84. Named after Poland (Latin: Polonia).
- Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87. Named after France.
- Americium is a radioactive transuranic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95. Named after the Americas.
- Californium is a radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98. Named after California.
- Nipponium/Japanium will be the name of a chemical element with atomic number 113. Named after Japan/Nippon
- Moscovium will be the name of a synthetic superheavy element in the periodic table that has the atomic number 115. Named after Moscow.
The next addition to the periodic table will be japonium (or maybe nipponium)
January 31, 2016
For nearly 150 years, scientists have been vying to discover new elements as they endeavor to unravel the mysteries of the universe.
Now the confirmed discovery of element 113 by a Japanese research institution demonstrates the country's basic research strengths in a field long dominated by the U.S., Russia (or the former Soviet Union) and Germany.
The news that a Japanese research team had received official credit for discovering a new element came on Dec. 31, surprising many in the country. Two international organizations, which are comprised of scientists from around the globe, certified the discovery of element 113 by a team led by Kosuke Morita at Riken, a government-affiliated research institute.
Morita, a professor of physics at Kyushu University, and his fellow scientists made the discovery after nine years of experiments.
The scientific community generally allows those who make a discovery to name it. The new element is widely expected to be named either "japonium" or "nipponium." In a year or so, the element will be added to the periodic table in chemistry textbooks.
Atomic numbers are determined according to the number of protons in the nucleus, such as atomic No. 1 for hydrogen, No. 6 for carbon and No. 26 for iron. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev proposed the concept of a periodic table in 1869. He assigned atomic numbers to each element based on a law of periodic behavioral change in chemical properties.
When released, Mendeleev's periodic table had a number of vacant slots. This pointed to the existence of undiscovered elements. Initially, many scientists were skeptical. But other elements, such as gallium and germanium, were later discovered, as had been predicted. Those discoveries helped prove the correctness of Mendeleev's periodic table.
Elements up to uranium, No. 92 on the periodic table and a source of nuclear energy, do occur in nature, but elements past uranium must be synthesized from existing elements in an accelerator called a cyclotron. Using the cyclotron, atomic nuclei of zinc were accelerated into those of bismuth.
The device is designed to generate an enormous amount of energy by accelerating electrons and protons nearly to light speed. The cyclotron was first developed in 1931 and has since been used to support the development of basic research. Dr. Yoshio Nishina, a researcher at Riken, and other scientists created Japan's first cyclotron in 1937.
Super-heavy elements, those elements past No. 104, are not only hard to create but also very difficult to detect. Indeed, element 113 disappears into thin air in one-500th of a second. "The discovery has proven that Riken is at the top of the world in terms of the performance of its accelerator and detector as well as experimental accuracy, among other criteria," said Akito Arima, a Riken president during the 1990s as well as a past president of the University of Tokyo.
In physics, the focus of cutting-edge research has shifted to such topics as the theory of elementary particles -- a world of subatomic particles -- and the use of highly sophisticated mathematics to trace back to the birth of the universe.
In contrast, chemists have traditionally devoted themselves to the study of elementary reaction. Thus, discovery of new elements has come with the development of modern science. Scientific pursuit of new elements, in fact, has a longer history than the Nobel Prize, which dates back to 1901.
In research, scientists have to go through the process of unlocking a number of mysteries and overcoming various challenges time and again. In recent years, Japanese scientists who did pioneering work in the fields of blue light-emitting diodes and induced pluripotent stem, or iPS, cells have won Nobel Prizes. Their practical and remarkable findings came to fruition only after long years in the lab.
Basic research -- everything from the development of standard technologies down to quality assessment methods -- is quite low-key but extremely important. The U.S. and European countries are strong at basic research.
Japan has focused on adopting various systems and new technologies from the West since its shift from feudalism to capitalism during the Meiji Restoration of the late 1800s. But Japan has sometimes been criticized by Western countries for not having a true understanding of science -- even for enjoying a "free ride" on other countries' basic research.
The discovery of element 113 attests to the fact that Japanese researchers do toil away at seemingly not-so-applicable yet important research. "I think," said Kazuyuki Tatsumi, a designated professor at Nagoya University, "that the new element discovery is worth more than winning a Nobel Prize."
Element 115 will be named Moscovium
March 9, 2016:
The 115th element, which was synthesized in Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at JINR will be named moscovium
A new element of the periodic table with the atomic number 115 will be named moscovium in 2016, said JINR Director Academician Victor Matveev at the meeting with the Governor of the Moscow region Andrey Vorobiev. This element was synthesized by scientists in Dubna in 2003, however, a second group must replicate the work, for an element to be officially discovered. That is what scientists at Lund University in Sweden did in 2013 and the research of the element was internationally approved in 2015.
More than half a year ago the FLNR Director Sergey Dmitriev said to the information agency:
We thank the Government of the region for helping us financially. In gratitude, one of the already discovered elements we would like to be called moscovium in honor of Moscow region - the land, where the element has been created. It will be symbolic if 115th element will be named moscovium, which is decayed away into105 dubnium element.
Earlier, it was suggested to use the name moscovium for element 116, but then it was called livermorium in honor of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (California, USA). Its staff together with scientists from the FLNR synthesized this element. Element 114 was named flerovium in honor of Georgy Flerov, the founder of FLNR. Now days FLNR carries out the project to build SuperHeavy Elements (SHE) Factory − on the projects creation was awarded a grant. Over the last few years JINR scientists have been able to synthesize the 49 new isotopes and 5 chemical elements (with atomic numbers 113-119). They also plan to be first to create element 119.
Affected by Japanese success with the element 113 being named Japanium(鈤), Chinese forumers speculate on a future zhongium(钟) or tangium(鎕).
Edited by Soheil, 07 May 2016 - 10:49 PM.