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North Korean manned space program

North Korea NADA spaceflight astronaut space race

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#1 Soheil


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 12:42 AM

Table of Contents

1. Table of Contents

2. Space Milestones

3. North Korean Space Launch Schedule

4. North Korean manned launcher
4.1. Iranian and North Korean manned space launchers Updated 9 MAR 2017

5. New 80-ton thrust rocket engine

6. The March 18 Revolution: New 80-ton thrust rocket engine for LV's second stage Updated 22 MAR 2017
6.1. Evolution of North Korean and Iranian LVs second stages Updated 25 MAR 2017
6.2. Photogrammetric analysis Updated 23 MAR 2017

7. North Korean heavy space launcher as phantasized in the West

8. North Korean manned spacecraft Updated 28 MAR 2017

9. Iran's manned orbital spacecraft
9.1. Unidentified Iranian orbital manned spacecrafts Updated 26 MAR 2017

Edited by Soheil, 28 March 2017 - 03:10 PM.

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#2 Soheil


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 12:43 AM

Space Milestones

North Korean Overseas Space Tracking Stations


Ahead of the launch, North Korea had sent missile scientists and equipment in late November to some Asian nations, like China, Mongolia and Indonesia,

"It appears that the equipment set up in China and Mongolia is aimed at tracking the satellite," a spokesman said. "Because the satellite circles very fast, it briefly passes through North Korea. Therefore, several regions need antennas to track it.


Newly-built General Satellite Control Centre

May. 4, 2015 Monday

The successful construction of the centre provided a solid springboard for continued launch of various working satellites essential for the country's sci-tech and economic development and national defence.

He went to the room for the education.

He noted that the main room for real-time display of satellite launch, auxiliary display and control room and optical observation room were built to meet the scientific and technological requirements and the visitor's room is very convenient to watching satellite launch.

E-library, lounge, conference room, offices, dinning room and bedrooms are well built to provide the scientists and technicians with enough conditions for their research and living.

He stressed the need to provide more cutting-edge facilities for the centre, build a base in which satellite test can be done.

Peaceful space development is an option taken.

Satellites of Korea will as ever be launched into outer space at the time and locations set by the Central Committee.


New high-altitude weather observation systems

May 5, 2015

Korea develops new high-altitude weather observation systems. The system consists of electronic radio detectors and high altitude weather radar. Weather balloons carrying electronic detectors can climb at altitudes up to 30,000 meters, measuring temperature and atmospheric pressure.

The system makes it possible to further raise the accuracy of weather forecast.


Bell Tolls Standard Time in Korea at 00:00, August 15, 2015

August 15, 2015

The Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of the DPRK decided to set the standard time of the Republic with 127 degrees 30 minutes east longitude as a standard and to apply it from August 15.

The thirty minutes between 24:00, August 14 of the previous time and 00:00, August 15 of Pyongyang time will be taken off to set 00:00 of August 15 of the previous time as 00:30 and all clocks would be set as "00:00, August 15, Pyongyang time" at 00:30, August 15 of previous time.

At 00:00, the Pyongyang Bell tolled deep sound at state standard time 00:00 at the Pyongyang Astronomical Observatory,
scientists working on satellites to explore a new area of conquering space and all other people of the country set their clock and watches according to Pyongyang time



This new Pyongyang Time will definitely bring North Korea closer to Beijing and Tehran. :lol:

In addition, the synchronization with Iran is made much easier, as Tehran Time is UTC+03:30 and Pyongyang Time UTC+08:30 instead of the UTC+09:00. All this, to the benefit of both nations' space programs.


DPRK NADA Joins International Astronautical Federation

Oct. 16, Juche 104 (2015) Friday

The DPRK National Aerospace Development Administration's (NADA) admission to the International Astronautical Federation was decided at its 66th general meeting which opened in Israel on Oct. 12 and will last till Oct. 16.

Rodong News Team

NADA IAF membership void

16 October 2015

The General Assembly in its second session revoked its earlier resolution of Monday, October 12, 2015, relating to the approval of the DPR Koreas National Aerospace Development Administrations application for membership to the IAF, based on new information received and unknown :gruble: to the General Assembly at its first session.


DPRK Accedes to Space-related International Agreements

Feb. 24, Juche 105 (2016) Wednesday

The DPRK acceded to the agreement on the rescue of astronauts, :lol: the return of astronauts and the return of objects launched into outer space and the convention on international liability for damage caused by space objects on February 22, Juche 105 (2016), according to the decision of its government.
The agreement concluded on April 22, 1968 stipulates the issue of handing over to the launch nation any astronaut, space objects and their parts as they fall or are discovered in the territorial land and waters of a signatory country and open sea.
The convention concluded on March 29, 1972 undertakes a launch nation to make responsible compensation when space objects caused human or property losses on the earth surface or caused damage to a plane in flight.
The DPRK's accession to the agreement and the convention will further promote the international trust in space scientific researches and activities and make positive contributions to strengthening cooperation with other countries.

Rodong News Team

Edited by Soheil, 06 March 2017 - 04:29 PM.

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#3 Soheil


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 12:43 AM

North Korean Space Launch Schedule

║ Launch     ║ Launch  ║ Orbit       ║ Launch pad  ║ Payload           ║ Class          ║ Status  ║ Remark                  ║
║ date       ║ Vehicle ║             ║             ║                   ║                ║         ║                         ║
║ 7 FEB 2016 ║ Unha-4  ║ SSO         ║ Sohae SLC   ║ Kwangmyongsong-4  ║ Remote sensing ║ Success ║ 1st functional          ║
║            ║         ║             ║      LC-1   ║                   ║                ║         ║ satellite in orbit,     ║
║            ║         ║             ║             ║                   ║                ║         ║ 2nd satellite in orbit  ║
║ 2012-2016  ║ Unha-5  ║ SSO         ║ Sohae SLC   ║ Kwangmyongsong-5? ║ Remote sensing ║ Delayed ║                         ║
║            ║         ║             ║      LC-1   ║                   ║                ║         ║                         ║
║ 2012-2016  ║ Unha-6  ║ ?           ║ Sohae SLC   ║ Kwangmyongsong-6? ║ Communication  ║ Delayed ║ 1st                     ║
║            ║         ║             ║      LC-1   ║                   ║                ║         ║ communication satellite ║
║ 2012-2016  ║ Unha-7  ║ ?           ║ Sohae SLC   ║ Kwangmyongsong-7? ║ Communication  ║ Delayed ║                         ║
║            ║         ║             ║      LC-1   ║                   ║                ║         ║                         ║
║ 2012-2016  ║ Unha-8  ║ ?           ║ Sohae SLC   ║ Kwangmyongsong-8? ║ Communication  ║ Delayed ║                         ║
║            ║         ║             ║       LC-1  ║                   ║                ║         ║                         ║
║ 2012-2016  ║ Unha-9  ║ LTO         ║ Sohae SLC   ║ ?                 ║ Lunar orbiter  ║ Delayed ║ First lunar orbiter     ║
║            ║         ║             ║       LC-1  ║                   ║                ║         ║                         ║
║ 2017-2021  ║ ?       ║ GEO         ║ Tonghae SLC ║ ?                 ║                ║ Pending ║ First GEO satellite     ║
║            ║         ║             ║       LC-2? ║                   ║                ║         ║ Rescheduled for 2018    ║
║ 2017-2021  ║ ?       ║ Sub-Orbital ║ Tonghae SLC ║ ?                 ║ Manned         ║ Pending ║ First manned spacecraft ║
║            ║         ║ ?           ║       LC-2? ║                   ║ spacecraft     ║         ║                         ║
║            ║         ║ LEO?        ║             ║                   ║                ║         ║                         ║
As disclosed on 31 December 2012

Edited by Soheil, 06 March 2017 - 04:33 PM.

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#4 Soheil


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 12:44 AM

North Korean manned launcher

April 8, 2012

Mr. Jang Myong Jin noted that the DPRK plans to launch a 400 metric tonnes booster in the future



The Iranian satellite carrier Safir-2A is the first version of Safir-2 with the name of Simorgh [Korean name: Unha]. Its length is 26 m, its diameter is around 2.5m and its weight is around 86 tons. Its thrust is around 143 tons. It can put 100 kg satellites into 500 km altitude orbits.

The next step is Safir-3A or Sepehr [unknown Korean name: Puktusong] and Safir-3B or Sarir that can put 1,000 kg satellites into 1,000km altitude orbits. By adding micro thrusters and several side boosters, the Sarir heavy launcher can put payloads into 36,000 km altitude orbits. It is expected to be build during the fifth development program of the country.

Source: "Sorayya" weekly TV program, 90 MB in 3gp format and around 70 minutes.
Download: http://parsaspace.co...0464884/?c=1138


Older Korean artistic depiction of a future heavy launcher

Artistic conception of a larger North Korean rocket, unknown creation date, published on the internet circa before April 2012.

New official artistic depiction of a future heavy launcher

Picture from 2009 Arirang Mass Games showing probably for the first time ever an unknown uprated launcher with four strap-on rocket boosters!

Seemingly a future man-rated heavy launcher, as a launch abort escape tower is clearly visible atop the launcher.

The length of the strap-on rocket boosters are less than a third of the total rocket length. Rocket possibly made of 3 stages; alternately made of two stages plus a manned spacecraft with Re-entry Vehicle, Service Module and Orbital Module in shroud.

Videos also show the rear bottom part of the launcher, revealing the exact number of rocket engines in the first stage...

In a nutshell, this new launcher might be very similar in conception and performance with the Chinese CZ-2F.

According to past practice, where ballistic missiles are named after Mars (Hwasong), submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) after Polaris (Pukguksong), launchers after famous mountain (Paektusan) or the Milky Way (Unha), one can speculate that a future heavy launcher could be named after some bright celestial objects like notable constellations, such as Ursa Major. Thus Puktusong (북두성; 北斗星), instead of the obviously unlikely Unha-X. Alternately, Aurora seems to be one of the most popular name among spacefaring powers (Dawn, Shuguang, Fajr, Zarya), therefore Saepyek (새벽; 曙光) would be a well inspired choice, even suitable for any future Korean spacecraft or satellite!

Picture from 2009 Arirang Mass Games

Korean artistic depiction of Chinese spaceflight as a role model, circa before 2008.

Screen capture from Arirang Mass Games 2013, emphasising new rocket evolutionary path, toward horizontal parallel clustering of strap-on boosters, in opposition with all previous mediatic representations of longilineal rockets, made only of vertically stacked stages.
Very stylized shorter and thickset 2 stages launcher, with 4 strap-on boosters, thus consistent with previous assessment on a Chinese CZ-2F-type convergent evolution.

Iranian Safir-class manned space launchers family and North Korean manned space launcher

A man-rated Safir-1D could be a further development of the Safir-1 class, by increasing its reliability through the addition of redundancy of various critical sub-systems.

A Safir-2D could be based on the Safir-2A first stage core, powered by four 37 tons thrust liquid fuel engines and 4 vernier engines.
An addition of a total of four 37 tons thrust strap-on boosters would double its lift-off thrust.
Each strap-on booster might be powered by a single liquid fuel Shahab-3/Rodong uprated engine of 37-tons thrust.
This launcher could be adapted to support a manned orbital E1 mission, as the Safir-2D, similar to the Chinese Shuguang-1 and CZ-2A, with only a few orbits and a single astronaut.

A Safir-3D could be based on the Safir-3A first stage core, powered by four 80 tons thrust liquid fuel engines and 4 vernier engines.
An addition of a total of four 80 tons thrust strap-on boosters would double its lift-off thrust.
The second stage could be powered by a single modified 80 tons thrust engine and four vernier engines.
The Safir-3D could easily launch the two seaters E2 spacecraft made of two modules, the propulsion module of 2.5 tons and the Reentry module of 2.5 tons, as well as a speculative three seaters E3 spacecraft, augmented with another orbital module, similar to the Shenzhou spacecraft.

The name of the North Korean Safir-3-class LV is currently unknown.

Safir-class manned LV family evolution: Safir-1D with sub-orbital E1 spacecraft; speculative manned Safir-2D with orbital E1 spacecraft; speculative manned Safir-3D with orbital E2/E3 spacecrafts, or "Puktusong" (?) North Korean version.



Edited by Soheil, 23 March 2017 - 11:06 AM.

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#5 Soheil


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 12:46 AM

New 80-ton thrust rocket engine

Iran Plans to Start Work on Two New Engines for Satellite Carrier Rockets

Date and Time:
15:53 | 2013-02-11

The Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology approved two major national projects in the fields of research and technology, which include designing and developing two new engines for the countrys satellite carrier rockets.

Two macro-scale national projects have been added to the 38 major national projects already underway in the country and the executive operations for these two plans are being carried out now, Deputy Minister of Science, Research and Technology for Research Affairs Mohammad Mahdinejad Nouri told reporters on Monday.

He said the projects include manufacturing engines for satellite carrier rockets and devising a paradigm for the governing system.

As regards the new rocket engines, Mahdinejad Nouri said Iranian universities, including Sharif, Amirkabir, Tabriz and Mashhads Ferdowsi University will participate in the 5-year project.


Ballistic Missile Procurement for Iran


Navid Composite was contracting with Asia-based entities to procure a carbon fiber production line in order to produce carbon fiber probably suitable for use in ballistic missile components.

The Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group (SHIG) also coordinates KOMID shipments to Iran. The shipments have included valves, electronics, and measuring equipment suitable for use in ground testing of liquid propellant ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles. Within the past several years, Iranian missile technicians from SHIG traveled to North Korea to work on an 80-ton rocket booster being developed by the North Korean government.

Farahi and Nooshin have been critical to the development of the 80-ton rocket booster, and both traveled to Pyongyang during contract negotiations.




Sep. 20, Juche 105 (2016) Tuesday

Kim Jong Un Guides Ground Jet Test of New-type High-Power Engine of Carrier Rocket for Geo-stationary Satellite

Kim Jong Un, chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea, chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the DPRK and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, visited the Sohae Space Center to guide the ground jet test of a new type high-power engine of a carrier rocket for the geo-stationary satellite.

The newly developed high-power engine is a single engine whose thrust is 80 tf.

The test was aimed to make a final confirmation of the feature of combustion chamber, operation accuracy of valves and control systems and structural reliability of the engine during 200 seconds-long working time.

Kim Jong Un issued an order to conduct the test.

The moment the engine spewed out huge flames with deafening sound.

The test showed that thrust and other technological indexes of the engine accurately reached the estimated values and the feature values of all systems of the engine remained stable throughout the working time.

The successful manufacture of the engine provided a firm scientific and technological guarantee for developing and completing the carrier rocket for geo-stationary satellite during the 5-year program for national aerospace development and made it possible to acquire sufficient carrier capability for launching various kinds of satellites including earth observation satellite at a world level.

He expressed great satisfaction over the results of the test and highly praised the officials and scientists and technicians of the National Aerospace Development Administration for having successfully and devotedly carried out the task given by the Party in a short span of time.

The space science and technology and the space industry are an important barometer for estimating the national power, he said, calling for more dynamically paving the avenue to space conquest by conducting in real earnest the work for developing the space in order to fulfill the 5-year program for national aerospace development.

The development and use of space are an important policy of our Party and an important work for which the state should make sustained efforts, he said, adding that the National Aerospace Development Administration should carry out the space development with a main emphasis on the satellite development and manufacture and launch more satellites for different uses by indigenous efforts and technology and thus turn our country into a possessor of geostationary satellites in a couple of years to come.

Noting that thanks to the implementation of the Party's line of prioritizing science and technology world-startling unprecedented miraculous successes have been made in the field of cutting-edge science and technology including space technology despite the difficult economic conditions of the country, he requested the officials, scientists and technicians to round off the preparations for launching the satellite as soon as possible on the basis of the successful test and thus bring the news of greater victory to the people who have steadfastly lived and struggled under the leadership of the Party, unwaveringly trusting it, though they have fastened their belts owing to the enemies' harsh sanctions and moves to stifle the DPRK.

Political News Team



















Official KCTV Video


Back Up Video



With four 80-ton thrust main engines, 1 four chamber steering engine, and four additional 80-ton thrust strap-on boosters, the first stage of a future Korean manned space launcher could easily develop more than 640 tons of thrust at liftoff, enough for a 400 tons launcher.

In comparison, the Chinese CZ-2F has a mass of about 498.4 tons and its four 75 tons thrust main engines and four 75 tons thrust strap-on boosters develop a total of 592.3 ton thrust at liftoff, able to put a 8.60 tons spacecraft into LEO.


International reactions

2016-9-20 15:52

This 80 tons thrust engine has surpassed the Chinese CZ-2 class' engines and also the future South Korean 75 tons thrust engine.
What a slap in the face of the imperialists!


2016-9-20 18:46

The South Koreans have been humiliated, as they are still struggling with their own 75 tons thrust engine.




post-119945-0-85967900-1490180979.jpg post-119945-0-76630300-1490181699.jpg post-119945-0-79949100-1490181182.jpg post-119945-0-72517400-1490181797.jpg post-119945-0-87502300-1490181320.jpg post-119945-0-07095600-1490181932.jpg post-119945-0-53066500-1490182049.jpg post-119945-0-89500300-1490182156.jpg post-119945-0-20860300-1490182250.jpg post-119945-0-07723600-1490182347.jpg post-119945-0-48129300-1490182448.jpg post-119945-0-47350900-1490181453.jpg post-119945-0-24656000-1490181552.jpg post-119945-0-30098000-1490182558.jpg post-119945-0-69923900-1490182643.jpg post-119945-0-31045500-1490182723.jpg post-119945-0-58864400-1490182808.jpg

Edited by Soheil, 23 March 2017 - 10:24 AM.

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#6 Soheil


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 12:47 AM

The March 18 Revolution: New 80-ton thrust rocket engine for LV's second stage



Mar. 20, Juche 106 (2017) Monday

Kim Jong Un Observed the Ground Jet Test of a New High-Thrust Rocket Engine

Kim Jong Un, chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea, chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the DPRK and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, watched the ground jet test of Korean-style high-thrust engine newly developed by the Academy of the National Defence Science. After being told about the production of the new-type high-thrust engine, he personally visited the Sohae Satellite Launching Ground at dawn to learn in detail about the technical specifications of the engine and preparations for the test and guided it. The test was conducted to confirm the overall technical indices of the engine such as features of thrust power in the combustion chamber, accurate movement of turbine pump, control system and various valves and their structural safety and reliability. He mounted an observation post and gave an order to start the test. The results of the test confirmed the stable maintenance of technical indices of all systems such as starting and stopping features of a new-type high-thrust engine of Korean style designed and manufactured by the defense scientists and technicians by their own efforts and with indigenous technology, the features of the thrust power in the combustion chamber, turbine pump, control systems in the whole course of engine operation after accurately reaching the expected values, and the perfect guarantee of their structural reliability. . He noted that the success made in the current test marked a great event of historic significance as it declared a new birth of the Juche-based rocket industry which has radically turned into a development-and creation-oriented industry both in name and in reality by completely doing away with dogmatism, conservatism and formalism left in the field of rocket industry and the dependence on the technology of other countries. He emphasized that the whole world will soon witness what eventful significance the great victory won today carries. The development and completion of a new-type high-thrust engine would help consolidate the scientific and technological foundation to match the world-level satellite delivery capability in the field of outer space development, he noted, adding with pleasure that today when a great leaping forward has been made in the development of the rocket industry is the day to be always remembered, a historic day which can be called "March 18 revolution". He said that the field of munitions industry made a series of unprecedented successes this year as it did last year, instilling dynamism into the grand revolutionary advance of all the service personnel and people. Then he had a significant photo session with the officials, scientists and technicians in the field of defense science who took part in the test. He was accompanied by Ri Pyong Chol, Kim Jong Sik and other leading officials of the C.C. the WPK and scientists and technicians in the field of rocket research.

Rodong News Team

Screen capture KCTV video

KCNA image

KCNA image

KCNA image


Evolution of North Korean and Iranian LVs second stages

The Safir-1 LV's second stage disclosed in 2008 is designed with two vernier engines.

The second stage of the Safir-2A disclosed in 2015 is powered by four vernier engines, developing a total of 7.2 tons of thrust.

The second stage of a Safir-3/[North Korean name?] could be powered by a single modified 80 tons thrust engine and four vernier engines, all feeded by a single common turbopump.
The single longer exhaust pipe is also fitted with its own expansion nozzle to further increase the overall thrust, feature first introduced in 2010 on the Safir-1B's second stage, and present in all follow-up LVs such as the 2015 Safir-2A's second stage.

Safir-1 LV second stage evolution.

Safir-2 LV second stage.

Photogrammetric analysis

High resolution image

Close up

Close up

Size comparison with previous 80 tons thrust engine from the September 2016 test

Photogrammetric nozzle size estimation

Drawing showing a rocket stage powered by a new Rodong engine with 4 verniers, taken aboard a North Korean ship captured in 1999.

Engine might have run 150s or 300s, depending on different time unit.





Edited by Soheil, 25 March 2017 - 04:52 PM.

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#7 Shura


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Posted 19 May 2016 - 02:23 AM

Amazing progress for a nation maligned and ridiculed by US and the West

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#8 Soheil


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Posted 26 September 2016 - 09:35 PM

North Korean heavy space launcher as phantasized in the West

German space enthusiast's speculations

2015, Oct. 07




US space website's speculation





Other US space website's speculative Unha-X video



Unha-X_tower.jpg Unha-X_spec.jpg

Edited by Soheil, 23 March 2017 - 11:07 AM.

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#9 Soheil


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Posted 06 March 2017 - 04:38 PM

3# Soheil

North Korean manned spacecraft

Older depiction of Korean astronaut performing space walk

Artist's depiction of future Korean manned spaceflight. Taken on May 5, 2010 Space exploration - Samjiyon children's palace North Korea

Soldiers depicting North Korean astronauts marched in one April 2012 Pyongyang parade.

New hint from the November 30, 2015 Third ASEAN Regional Forum Workshop on Space Security

Third ASEAN Regional Forum Workshop on Space Security Inaugurated in Beijing, on November 30, 2015
Left: Chinese Shenzhou-8 manned return module

Two North Korean delegates conducting on-the-spot field inspection, closely studying the Chinese Shenzhou-8 manned return module

Third ASEAN Regional Forum Workshop on Space Security Inaugurated in Beijing, on November 30, 2015

Identity of the man on the right:
Back in circa 12 April 2012, Paek Chang Ho head of the General Satellite Control Center

Identity of the man on the left:
Back in April 8, 2012, at Sohae Satellite Launch Station, simply presented as a scientist and briefing foreign journalists on the upcoming Kwangmyongsong-3-1 launch mission

Side view

New February 2016 illustration of a Korean manned spacecraft showing for the first time a Chinese Shenzhou-style double pairs of solar panels

Possibly second occurence of an official depiction of the North Korean 3-modules manned orbital spacecraft (first revealed in February 2016), on the occasion of the 21st Annual Kimjongilia Festival, held at the Kimilsungia-Kimjongilia Exhibition House in Pyongyang, on February 14-21, 2017.

Previous Annual Kimjongilia Festivals have been notorious for the exhibition of scale models ranging from the Unha-3, Unha-9, Hwasong-13 and Pukguksong-1.

This new spacecraft shows obvious similarities with the Chinese Project 921 Shenzhou spacecraft with a pair of solar power panels on both the service module and the orbital module.

Depiction of a North Korean 3-modules manned orbital spacecraft at the 2017 Kimjongilia Festival

First animated depiction in a March 9, 2017 video of a manned orbital 3-modules spacecraft, with one pair of solar panels on the service module, similar to the Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft.
Very brief, fuzzy and stealthy four seconds only sequence.

Mar 9, 2017 Video

Video published on Mar 9, 2017 showing manned spacecraft and 8 more unknown satellite models.
At T=15s to T=19s: manned orbital 3-modules spacecraft, with one pair of solar panels on the service module, similar to the Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft.

Chinese recoverable capsule

From left to right, started in 1967, the Chinese "Project 714" Shuguang-1 (曙光一号) manned space capsule scaled model, spacesuit and life supporting system.

Unmanned version of "Project 714" known as FHS (返回式卫星) recoverable capsule

Integration of the recoverable capsule service module

Recovery of the capsule

Chinese Shijian-10 capsule after recovery


Chinese Shijian-10 capsule after recovery

North Korean reentry vehicle

Hwasong-14 warhead

Iranian recoverable capsule

Iranian scientists succeeded in developing spaceship heat shield...


Fields of Research:
Ceramics, Refractories, Raw Materials, Advanced Ceramics.

Laboratorial Production of High-Temperature Ceramic Nanofibers in Iran

Thu Aug 06, 2015 3:45

Researchers at Space Transportation System Department of Iran's Space Research Center succeeded in the laboratorial production of ceramic nanofibers made of cheap and biocompatible raw materials with very high melting point.

Today, there is a need for a type of material that is resistant to temperatures higher than 2,000°C for a long time in addition to having the ability to work at oxide and corrosive atmospheres in the production of thermal shields, cutting devices, turbines, melting bushes and storage of molten metals.

Nanofibers have advantages over nanoparticles, including perfect resistance to severe thermal shock, higher ability to endure dynamic load, and higher fracture toughness. Therefore, the researchers tried to synthesize zirconium diboride as a high temperature ceramic with nanofibrous structure.

There are different methods to synthesize zirconium diboride such as solid-state reaction, electrochemical reaction and mechanical methods. However, there are some problems in the production of these materials, including high temperature of synthesis, long production time, low purity and relatively large particle size.

In this research, zirconium diboride nanofibers were synthesized by using a gel containing raw materials and molecular dimensions and by electrospinning of the produced sol through carbothermal reduction. Cheap and eco-friendly raw materials have been used in the production of the nanofibers. The application of cheap precursors without the need for pre-preparation and reducing the temperature of thermal processing decrease the cost and pollution during the synthesis.

Results of the research have been published in Ceramics International, vol. 41, issue 5, 2015, pp. 6905-6911.


Schematics of Iranian manned suborbital capsule E1

Schematics of Iranian manned suborbital capsule E1

Mockup of Iran's manned suborbital spacecraft E1


And latest images from IRIB1 video, published on Jul 24, 2016


At t=1m20s Iranian E1 manned suborbital spacecraft

New E1 manned suborbital spacecraft

Left: New 2016 version of Iran's E1 manned suborbital spacecraft; Right: older 2015 version of E1 mockup


Failure-NK-astornauts-425x280.jpg 2016-02-07t.jpg 7ytepD.jpg 7ypLeP.jpg 7ypLeQ.jpg 20120412112848_5.jpg 7ypk2Q.jpg 7ypLf0.jpg 7ypLf1.jpg 7ypmET.jpg 7yrji5.png 7yrhsb.jpg 7yrhsc.jpg

Edited by Soheil, 28 March 2017 - 03:12 PM.

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#10 Soheil


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Posted 22 March 2017 - 11:53 AM

Iranian orbital manned spacecraft E2

Iranian E2 manned orbital spacecraft CGI from 2013: propulsion module

Iranian E2 manned orbital spacecraft CGI from 2013: propulsion module

Researchers have success in the design of manned orbital spacecraft


Design life of 14 days, orbital mission of up to 3 days with a crew of one to two astronauts.

Telecommunication antennas, solar arrays and radiators are installed outside the spacecraft.

Injection orbit of 250 × 200 km altitude, with operating altitude of 330 Km ± 5 km

Length of 5 m and diameter of 2.5 to 1.45 m, which is about four cubic meters volume
The mass of the propulsion module is 2.5 tons
The Reentry module has a mass of 2.5 tons.

Solar Electric system power: 1.00 average kW.
Batteries power: 0.2 kW


Unofficial CGI of Iranian orbital manned spacecraft E2

10 April 2013

Unofficial CGI of Iranian E2 manned orbital spacecraft with reconstructed missing Shenzhou-type return module.


Various unidentified conceptual Iranian manned orbital spacecrafts

Official Iranian unidentified manned orbital spacecraft illustration

Iranian unidentified manned orbital spacecraft CGI

Iranian unidentified manned orbital spacecraft CGI

Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft

Old Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft concept from Beijing Institute of Control Engineering of April 1989

Old Chinese Project 863 manned orbital spacecraft concept from Beijing Institute of Control Engineering of April 1989


Iranian international cooperation

12 Oct 2015

Head of China's space station program: Foreign nations welcome to add modules, visit w/ crewed vehicles



7yrjis.jpg 7yrjiu.jpg 7yrji7.jpg

Edited by Soheil, 26 March 2017 - 12:02 PM.

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#11 Soheil


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Posted 22 March 2017 - 11:57 AM

Will fix failed uploaded images at "ipic.su" (not sure of the cause), by the way Yandex email account also hacked...
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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: North Korea, NADA, spaceflight, astronaut, space race

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