After the first moon race of the 1960's between the then highly secretive Soviet N1 program and the most hyped U.S. Apollo program, the Second Moon Race will see the participation of a third contender, namely China.
Similar to the Soviet strategy, with no less than 3 separate projects each under the lead of its own chief designer and planning its own launcher, China currently has also two manned lunar launchers in development.
Chinese Manned Lunar Landing with CZ-5TZ
Video of Academician Long Lehao explaining the alternative Chinese manned Lunar project, feasible within a decade and requiring only the launch of 3 modified CZ-5 rockets.
Called CZ-5TZ this uprated CZ-5 would double the LEO payload to 50 tons, with two manned and unmanned versions.
A total of no less than three rendez-vous and dockings in lunar orbit, could land a crew of 2-3 astronauts to the lunar surface. A modified Shenzhou capsule would return the crew to the Earth.
Academician Long Lehao, Chief designer of Long March 3A, chief designer and chief commander of Long March 3A/3B/3C.
He has participated and chaired the development of seven different launch vehicles and missiles in the past 36 years.
He is currently the deputy chief architect of the lunar landing project.
The use of a CZ-9 Heavy launcher could send 3-5 astronauts to the Moon in 15 years.
The spacecraft would have a mass of 50 tons made of four modules: Orbital module, Lunar Ascent stage, Return module, Service module.
The proposed alternative strategy would require the use of the uprated CZ-5TZ launcher, with a LEO capability of 50 tons, in two manned and unmanned versions.
Three launches and 3 rendez-vous and dockings could send and return a crew of 2-3 astronauts to the Moon within a decade.
The first launch would send the Lunar Descent Module to a Lunar orbit.
First unmanned launch with the Lunar Descent Module.
Lunar Descent Module in LTO.
The second unmanned launch would place the Lunar Ascent Module and the Docking Module into a lunar orbit. A rendez-vous and docking would follow with the Lunar Descent Module.
First rendez-vous and docking of the Lunar Ascent Module and the Docking Module with the Lunar Descent Module.
The third launch would be manned. Placing the Shenzhou return capsule in a lunar orbit.
A second rendez-vous and docking would be performed with the Lunar Ascent Module, the Docking Module and the Lunar Descent Module complex.
Second rendez-vous and docking performed by the crewed Shenzhou return capsule with the Lunar Ascent Module, the Docking Module and the Lunar Descent Module complex.
After transfer of the 2-3 astronauts crew into the Lunar Ascent Module/Lunar Descent Module complex, the landing on the Lunar surface would be performed.
After successful completion of the Moon walks and experiments on the Moon, the crew would use the Ascent Module to reach the Lunar orbit.
Once in Lunar orbit, the third rendez-vous and docking would be performed by the crewed Lunar Ascent Module with the Docking Module/Shenzhou return capsule complex.
Once the crew is transfered to the Shenzhou spacecraft, the Lunar Ascent Module with the Docking Module would separate.
The astronauts would then fly back to the Earth orbit aboard the Shenzhou.
Before reentering the Earth atmosphere, the Shenzhou return capsule would separate from the service module as usual.
Landing over land in Inner Mongolia as in normal Shenzhou missions.
Current development with the Lunar Descent Module
Descent Module with legs folded and deployed.
Full-scale landing impact experiment.
Space radiation risk assessment for male astronauts in simulated manned lunar exploration
Space radiation is one of the most important risk factors for the health of astronauts in the long-term manned spaceflight. In order to develop reasonable space radiation protections in the manned lunar explorations, the space radiation field models are used to simulate and calculate the physical characterizations of the space radiation in the spacecraft cabin with different thicknesses of the shielding materials during the Chang'e-3 mission to the Moon, and the radiation doses, the dose equivalents and the effective doses of each organ of the astronauts are determined to evaluate the space radiation risk. The results show that the adsorbed doses, the dose equivalents and the effective doses decreases significantly with the increase of shielding thicknesses, and the mass shielding method has a very good protective effect for protons with energy below 100 MeV, while the effect is not significant for high energy protons or heavy ions. The calculation and analysis show that the space radiation risk of astronauts can be controlled in the manned lunar exploration mission as long as the appropriate shielding is adopted in the spacecraft or spacesuit.
Absorbed doses of different organ based on CRAF under different shielding thicknesses of aluminium in 30d simulated manned lunar exploration for male astronaut.
A scheme of lunar surface nuclear reactor power
Abstract：To establish a lunar base, the energy supply is a first issue to be solved. The nuclear reactor power has the advantages of high power, long service life and environmental resistance ability. It is an ideal energy solution option for the lunar base and other deep space exploration missions. A brief analysis of the current status of the energy resources that can be used for a lunar base is made. The design idea of a 40 kWe nuclear reactor power for the lunar surface is proposed. After the preliminary optimization design, the scheme and the overall design parameters of the nuclear reactor power are given. Finally, the power scheme is analyzed and demonstrated from the aspects of the reactor physics, the shielding, the thermal performance and structure. It is shown that the nuclear reactor power scheme is reasonable and feasible. It can meet the requirements of safety and long life service.
General configuration of nuclear reactor power system
Scheme of reactor core
Edited by Soheil, 14 January 2017 - 06:16 PM.