North Korea appears to have acquired re-entry technology after its latest [May 14, 2017 test of Hwasong-12 IRBM]
the ballistic missile re-entry vehicle escaped and successfully re-entered the atmosphere, according to analysis of data communication with the North Korea's ground control center during the most recent intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) launch by North Korea on Sunday.
After its launch from the northwest city of Kusong, in North Pyongan Province, the North's Hwasong-12 missile flew about 700 kilometers (435 miles) before landing in the East Sea, with a total flight time of 30 minutes and 11 seconds.
It soared to an altitude of 2,111.5 kilometers along its planned trajectory.
The telemetry of the missile re-entry vehicle collects various data, including speed, pressure and temperature, and constantly transmits this to the ground control center.
If the Hwasong-12 RV was not able to endure a maximum temperature of 5,000 degrees Celsius during the re-entry process, there would not have been data communications once it returned to atmosphere, according to the government assessment.
North Korean state-run media reported on the success of the launch and said that it verified the homing feature of the warhead that allowed it to survive "under the worst re-entry situation"
In particular, regarding the phase of re-entry of the [July 4, 2017 test of Hwasong-14 ICBM]:
The test-launch was aimed to confirm the tactical and technological specifications and technological features of the newly developed inter-continental ballistic rocket capable of carrying large-sized heavy nuclear warhead and to finally verify all technical features of the payload of the rocket during its atmospheric reentry including the heat-resisting features and structural safety of the warhead tip of ICBM made of newly developed domestic carbon compound material, in particular.
Specifically, the inner temperature of the warhead tip was maintained at 25 to 45 degrees centigrade despite the harsh atmospheric reentry conditions of having to face the heat reaching thousands of degrees centigrade, extreme overload and vibration, the nuclear warhead detonation control device successfully worked, and the warhead accurately hit the targeted waters without any structural breakdown at the end of its flight.
http://www.jajusibo....80214082682.jpg http://jajusibo.com/...n=sc3§ion2= ▲ July 29, 2017 (Tokyo Time) fligh test of Hwasong-14 reentry vehicle as capture from NHK Broadcasting Station camera (ＮＨＫ室蘭放送局) 〒051-0012 Hokkaidō, Muroran-shi, Yamatechō, 1 Chome−3−50, located at 42.3162N, 140.9802E. On the left side: For comparison, a Russian ICBM re-entry vehicle entering the atmosphere at a normal inclined angle. On the right: The Hwasong-14 re-entry vehicle, dropping vertically into the atmosphere, because it fired at the maximum angle. The speed is the fastest when falling vertically. The reentry vehicle has therefore overcome the harshest conditions.
http://www3.nhk.or.j...91229_01_03.jpg http://www3.nhk.or.j...1079571000.html http://www.jajusibo....80207283605.jpg http://jajusibo.com/...n=sc3§ion2= ▲ July 29, 2017 (Tokyo Time) fligh test of Hwasong-14 reentry vehicle as capture from NHK Broadcasting Station camera (ＮＨＫ室蘭放送局) 〒051-0012 Hokkaidō, Muroran-shi, Yamatechō, 1 Chome−3−50, located at 42.3162N, 140.9802E. The Hwasong-14 re-entry vehicle, which was launched in the second test on July 29, 2017, showed a bright light up to 7 km altitude, meaning it has already passed 72 km of of denser atmosphere layer, and the flashing light which was descending rapidly, gave a brighter flash. The glare weakened and the light disappeared over 3km altitude. This could be caused by the presence of clouds below 3 km altitude, or that the re-entry vehicle was self-destructed.
Video of North Korean flight test of re-entry vehicle
▲ 【日本ニュース】ＮＨＫの複数カメラにせん光のような映像（2017/07/29） : https://www.youtube....h?v=Gs7INZLvygI Hwasong-14 reentry vehicle captured on camera from Japan, Published on Jul 29, 2017 Pictures of NHK's multiple cameras July 29, 12:00 At the time when the ballistic missile launched from North Korea appears to have fallen into the Sea of Japan in the western Hokkaido, a number of cameras installed by NHK on the road have captured the scene. In the city of Hokkaido, cameras installed at two locations, the NHK and the Kansai Broadcasting Station, and the Hinzumachi district, and at around 0:28:26 Tokyo Time, the falling object has been captured. At the same time, a camera installed to the north-west side of Ejie-machi facing the Sea of Japan has also photographed the bright source of light while closing in the sea surface. The camera installed in Oku-jima Island is facing northward, but from the picture, it can be confirmed that the sky over the western side of the Oku-jima Island was momentarily brightened at around the same time. In addition, the said falling object was able to withstand the very strong pressure and high heat of the reentry into the atmosphere. This indicates the possibility that the re-entry technology of North Korea's ballistic missile might be advancing. http://www3.nhk.or.j...king-social_001
Juche 106 (Aug. 8, 2017), first official depiction of a future North Korean recoverable capsule, from a poster of the Pyonyang 1st Junior High School. The capsule seems similar in shape to the Chinese Shijian. The mission seems also similar to the Chinese Chang'e 5 T-1 precursor, where a downscaled Shenzhou reentry capsule was attached to a Chang'e lunar orbiter satellite. The launcher is a 3 stages Unha, and the capsule is separated from its Kwangmyongsong satellite carrier at the end of its orbital mission. The main parachute is deployed before 4 visible retrorockets are fired just before landing on land. A Mi-8 helicopter is used to locate and retrieve the capsule. The launch seems to be from the West coast, thus Sohae SLC, while the landing zone is in another shore, seemingly the East coast.
In 1965, Premier Zhou Enlai first proposed the concept of China developing its own ocean-going space tracking ships. In July 1967, the Chinese leadership approved a large-scale shipbuilding project known as Project 718 to support China's first full-range ICBM test flight from Shuangchengzi missile test site in Northwest China to the target zone in the South Pacific. The project included two 21,000t missile and spaceraft tracking ships (Yuanwang 1 and 2), an ocean scientific survey ship (Xiangyanghong 10), and an ocean rescue ship (Dajiang class), all to be constructed by Jianan Shipyard in Shanghai.
The first missile and space tracking ship Yuanwang 1 was launched on 31 August 1977, followed by the second ship on 1 September 1978. In early 1980, a large naval task force consisting 20 surface ships departed from Shanghai to the South Pacific for the scheduled missile test. On 18 May 1980, a Dongfeng-5 ICBM was launched from Shuangchengzi and the warhead was successfully recovered by the naval task force waiting in the target zone in the South Pacific.
In the mid-1980s, Yuanwang 1 and 2 were also involved in the full-range test flight of the Julang-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and the tracking of China's first geostationary orbit communications satellite DFH-2 and the third-stage of its Changzheng-3 launch vehicle. In 1986, the two ships received their first modernisation refit to support China's commercial launch services for international customers. In the late 1990s, Yuanwang 1 and 2 received their second major refit to support the flight missions of China's Shenzhou manned spacecraft.
▲ Memory of a Nation 20170720 | CCTV-4, Published on Jul 20, 2017 : https://www.youtube....h?v=lMsW5NZ69RU Task 580: DF-5 ICBM full-range test flight with data recovery capsule replacing nuclear warhead, presented as space launch [recoverable spacecraft test launch] at T=22m36s to T=24m00s
The "Donghae Rescue 118" (东海救118) is a 8000KW marine rescue ship. The marine rescue ship will be part of China's Shenzhou manned spaceflight for maritime positioning and recovery. The original ship equipped with 10 tons crane has been upgraded to 20 tons crane lift, and also increased its related search, positioning, communication equipments.
The "Donghae Rescue 118" (东海救118) 8000KW marine rescue ship was successfully delivered.
It is designed with a length of 99.35 meters, 15.2 meters wide, 7.6 meters deep, full load displacement of 5567.1 tons, speed 18.3 knots (draft 5.6 meters), the column drag force 1500 kN, has a crew of 30 people, can travel up to 14,000 nautical miles, may remain at sea for 45 days, can support helicopter search and rescue mission. The ship is mainly used for the rescue of ships at sea and the life saving at sea. It has a capacity of extinguishing fire, the ability of reclaiming oil and recovering operations, and capable of carrying 100 rescued people.
The Kavoshgar E Khalij Fars is Iran's National Institute of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences first commissioned research vessel. It will conduct research in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, geophysics, meteorology and sea mapping. It can be used for sea sampling and field measurement in the Persian Gulf. It is 50 meters long, 10 meters wide. May remain at sea for 45 days, and travel three thousand nautical miles. Accommodation capacity for 27 people, 11 crew members and 16 researchers. Powered by 2,000 kW engine. Fitted with 4 research laboratories.
TEHRAN, Feb. 04 (MNA) Defense Industries Organization (DIO), of the Ministry of Defense has inaugurated the country's first ever oceanographic ship dubbed Persian Gulf Explorer, Saturday in Bandar Abbas.
First oceanographic research vessel starts operation
Tue 14 February 2017 - 12:42
...a modern research vessel with 50 meters length, 10 meters width and 12 meters height, is capable of doing field research with full water and fuel for 45 day in the Persian Gulf, Sea of Oman and Northern Indian Ocean, having room for 27 people.
The vessel has the capability of remaining 40 days at sea and conduct offshore patrol for three thousand miles; it has a dynamic positioning system, sampling pump water with facilities, dry lab, wet lab, dry and wet labs, warehouse, refrigerator below zero degrees (-20 degrees Celsius), refrigerator above zero degrees (4°C) and compressor for air tools,
... a maximum speed of 15 knots with excellent maneuverability, power, satellite communications systems, advanced CCP propulsion systems, the data transfer system and the DP system for dynamic stabilization of the ship.
Not officially revealed yet, but within North Korean shipbuilding capabilities.
5 000-ton Trade Cargo Ship Launched
May. 17, Juche 105 (2016) Tuesday
5 000-ton trade cargo ship Jaryok (self-reliance) was built as a gift to the Seventh Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK).
The ship was launched with due ceremony at the Ryongnam Dockyard on Sunday.
Present at the ceremony were O Su Yong, vice-chairman of the Central Committee of the WPK, officials concerned, officials and employees of the dockyard.
Kang Jong Gwan, minister of Land and Maritime Transport, made an address to be followed by speeches.
The speakers said the launching of the ship was ascribable to the patriotic devotion of President Kim Il Sung and leader Kim Jong Il to the development of the nation's shipping and the leadership of Marshal Kim Jong Un and it was an expression of the loyalty of the working people and officials in the field of maritime transport to the party who are determined to bring earlier the final victory of building a thriving socialist nation.
They recalled that Kim Jong Un showed such loving care as personally naming the cargo ship Jaryok built by workers, technicians and officials in the shipping field with their own efforts.
This loving care and trust of Kim Jong Un is associated with his intention to dynamically promote the development of the maritime industry in the spirit of self-reliance and self-development, they noted.
They called for attaining the high goal for the development of maritime industry by displaying the revolutionary spirit and mettle of heroic Kim Il Sung-Kim Jong Il working class in close unity around Kim Jong Un and dynamically fighting for the final victory of building a thriving socialist nation.
Two Iranian rockets ready to be launched into space
Apr 11, 2015
Deputy Head of the Iranian Science Ministry's Aerospace Research Center for Executive Affairs Mohammad Ali Farsi announced that the country has built two new space [launchers] named 'Tir' (Mercury) and 'Mehr' (Sun).
Noting that the project to build [space launchers] started in Iran since nearly 10 years ago, he explained that Tir and Mehr [launchers] were also built under the same projects.
Farsi said that the two [launchers] are now ready to launch into space, adding that they could be sent into space in two months at the demand of any research, academic or state center that intends to send satellites into orbit.
North Korean Pukgukson-Class rapid reaction launcher
Since North Korea is surrounded by hostile nations in the East and South. Solid propellant TEL launchers could allow North Korea to place satellites into LEO rapidly and from anywhere.
Feasible by developing a civilian satellite launcher, based on the solid propellant Pukguksong-class TEL MIRV ICBM.
China develops sea launches to boost space commerce
BEIJING, July 7 (Xinhua) -- China has a clear plan to provide sea launches for commercial payloads to be carried by Long March rockets, according to an aerospace official.
Tang Yagang, vice head of the aerospace division of the No.1 institute of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASTC), said that the technology is not difficult and a sea launch platform can be built based on modifying 10,000-tonne freighters.
China will use solid carrier rockets which rely less on launch facilities and feature mature technology, Tang said, adding that key technology for the carrier rockets will be tested at sea this year and the service is expected to be available for international users in 2018.
At that time, Long March launch vehicles will be able to send satellites weighing 500 kilograms to a 500-kilometer-high sun-synchronous orbit with an inclination of zero to ten degrees, Tang said.
Countries in the equator region have growing needs for launching near-equatorial and low-inclination satellites, said Fu Zhiheng, deputy general manager of China Great Wall Industry Corporation, affiliated to the CASTC.
"The closer to the equator we launch a satellite, the less carrying capacity it will lose, and the lower the cost will be," Fu said, adding that space powers are competing to develop near-equatorial sea launches.
Writing proposal: Chae Yeon Seok, Young Gyu Kim, December 17, 2007
South Korea will enter the international satellite launch service market first before Japan, and this will be an opportunity to develop space technology as a growth technology of national economic development.
It is impossible to launch commercial communication satellite from the South Korean latitude ... Maritime space launch
입력 : 2013.02.02 03:06
The Naro Space Center is suitable for launching low orbit satellites such as earth observation satellites, but it can not launch communication satellites or meteorological satellites. These satellites are launched from the equator. The answer is the sea. Kim Seung Jo, director of the Korean Aerospace Research Institute, said, "We will show off South Korea's outstanding aerospace technology in the Pacific Ocean's equator." The global space market is worth $ 177.3 billion in 2011. 60% of them are satellite services using communication satellites.
Geostationary satellites orbit in the Earth's rotation direction. The equatorial orbit has the highest rate of rotation of the earth. If you launch satellite into the equatorial orbit, you can use less energy with the help of the Earth's rotation speed.
When launched from South Korean space center, the launcher has to turn 30 degrees or so to fly a long distance, so energy consumption is incredibly high. It is also possible that the first stage rocket may fall to Japan because it has to fly toward the equator.
If the rockets use less fuel, the satellites can weigh more. This is why France has secured half of the global satellite launches, because it has built its space launch site in Kourou, in the equatorial colony of Guiana.
"If the 800 kilometer range is already allowed in the military, the solid fuel with the same level of thrust can be freely used in civilian space development," said Kim Seung Jo, the director of the Korean Aerospace Research Institute.
South Korea pushes to revise missile guidelines to load up to 1 ton of warheads
In 2012, the U.S. revised the ballistic missile guidelines, allowing Seoul to extend the maximum allowable missile range to 800 kilometers from the previous limit of 300 km
Under the deal, Seoul can load up to 500 kg of warheads on missiles with the range of 800 km.
The South Korean government is pushing to revise the missile guidelines developed with the United States to double the maximum weight of warheads on Seoul's ballistic missiles from the current 500 kilograms
South Koreas first homegrown Hyunmoo-2A/B submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM)
Published : 2016-05-17 16:54
South Koreas military on Tuesday held a ceremony to formally start the assembly of its first domestically developed submarine, slated to be deployed in the 2020s.
- for batch 1 of Jangbogo-III submarine was held by its builder Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co.
Jangbogo-III, named after the legendary admiral during the ancient Korean dynasty of Silla, will be the first 3,000-ton submarine operated by the Navy.
The new submarine will be equipped with six vertical launching systems capable of firing ballistic missiles. The navy will reportedly equip the Hyunmoo-2B surface-to-surface ballistic missile with a range of 500 kilometers and payload of 500 kilograms.
There have been calls that the South should develop asymmetric military capabilities by powering the new Jangbogo-III -- at least from batch-2 -- with a nuclear reactor.
The South Korean Military is developing submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), a high-ranking military official said.
On the 3,000-ton Jangbogo-III submarine, which is currently under production, we are installing a vertical launching pad, said the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity. SLBMs are fired undersea and are therefore difficult to detect by radar. He added, The installation of a vertical launching pad indicates that the SLBM is already under development. The official also went on to say that the SLBM is being developed under the aegis of the Agency of Defense Development and is expected to be completed by 2020.
Although the SLBM may lack the accuracy of the SLCM, which is equipped with a guidance system, its velocity and destructive capability are significantly greater, said Kim Hyeok Soo
Another official said, The military has already deployed surface-to-air missiles that use cold-launching mechanisms - a technology used by the SLBM, in which the engine fires after the missile reaches a certain altitude. We are trying to apply that mechanism so that the missiles can be fired underwater.
As far as I know, South Korea uses more stable technology by taking the S400 that was obtained from Russia as a repayment of its debt to South Korea.
The S400 is a technologically superior missile with embedded cold-launching technology.
If the development of SLBMs finishes as scheduled, South Korean military authorities plan to equip the Jangbogo-III submarine with SLBMs, as this submarine which will have been turned over to the Navy by 2020.
South Korean Hyunmoo-2C/D/E/F solid propellant SLBMs MRBM/IRBM/ICBM
During the Roh Moo Hyun administration, South Korea launched a clandestine military project in 2003: developing its own nuclear-powered submarines and deploying them by 2020.
Dubbed 362 initiative, the program was derailed just a year later, with classified information leaked to the public and its nuclear activity brought under the scrutiny of UN nuclear watchdog International Atomic Energy Agency.
After 13 years, calls for building indigenous nuclear submarines are gaining momentum once again,
Nuclear-powered submarines are probably the only weapon systems that can impose retaliatory attacks after surviving the enemy's pre-emptive strikes, said Moon Geun Shik, a submarine expert and defense analyst at Seoul-based security think tank Korea Defense and Security Forum.
Analysts agreed that South Korea is considered to have secured technology for developing nuclear-powered submarines, as the country is able to build its own nuclear reactor and miniaturize it to fit into indigenous submarines.
When the Roh administration launched the submarine program, the then-government anticipated that building one nuclear submarine would cost about 1.3 trillion won ($1.16 billion), about one-fortieth of South Korea's defense budget in 2017.
South Korea's atomic energy agency finished its basic design for a nuclear reactor that can be used for a nuclear-powered submarine in 2004, Kim Si Hwan, who was in charge of developing nuclear reactors for submarines at the Atomic Energy Research Institute, said in an interview with local magazine Monthly Chosun.
Some analysts suggest that South Korea could avoid the international restriction by developing a nuclear submarine run by low-enriched uranium, which would not incur concerns over military use. Some nuclear submarines, such as those developed by France, can work on 20 percent enriched uranium.
But the country would face another tough negotiation with the US, with which South Korea signed an agreement in 2015 on Seoul's use of nuclear technology and materials. Under the revised deal, South Korea is allowed to enrich uranium up to 20 percent, but is strictly banned from using it for any military purpose.
The South Korean Hyunmoo-2B solid propellant SRBM with a 500-km range is the first SLBM designed for the Vertical Launching Systems of the Jangbogo-III SSB. South Korea will need to develop a submarine launched MRBM with a 1 ton warhead and 1600 km range (Hyunmoo-2D SLBM), then an IRBM with a 2 tons warhead and 4000 km range (Hyunmoo-2E SLBM) and finally a full ICBM with a 4 tons warhead and 8000 km range (Hyunmoo-2F SLBM). The development of a civilian satellite launcher would then be unlocked, based on a converted solid propellant Hyunmoo-2F SLBM MIRV ICBM upgrade. Note, sea launch of Hyunmoo-2C (현무-2C, 玄武-2C) solid propellant ballistic missile TEL have already been conducted successfully on 23 June 2017.
North Korean Pukgukson-Class Sea-based launcher
First hinted by an equivalent South Korean concept, as launching from near the equator would both improve the payload capability and reduce tensions with neighbouring nations produced by the launcher's overflight and drop zones.
Since North Korea is surrounded by hostile nations in the East and South, and has a maritime access to the South Oceans. Feasible by developing a civilian satellite launcher, based on the solid propellant Pukguksong-class TEL MIRV ICBM.
Converting one of the many North Korean 14,000t-class offshore platforms from the North Korean booming oil industry into a launch platform, would be the quickest way for North Korea to launch satellites from the Equator.
http://www.jajusibo....73144403381.jpg http://jajusibo.com/...=sc38§ion2= ▲ China Ocean Oil Corporation has surprised the world by announcing that there is an estimated 7.15 billion tons of crude oil in the Korean West Sea continental shelf. This photo shows the 14,000t-class offshore platform owned by CNPC, a state-owned Chinese company, leaving the Dalian port in China on May 22, 2016. This offshore platform is located in the waters 3 km inside the exclusive economic zone of North Korea, on the continental shelf of the Korean Sea. According to the report, the annual output of the oil well No. 606 in the West Sea is 19,700 tons and the annual production of the well No. 609 is 152,000 tons. There are at least 10 such wells on the continental shelf belonging to the exclusive economic zone or territorial waters of North Korea's West Sea.
Numerological Analysis by Master S☫heil from Sohae, DPRK.
The first lucky number is already assigned to the future lunar exploration rocket Unha-9, with a lift-off mass of ~200t, a lift-off thrust of ~4 x 80tf and a LEO payload capacity of ~2t @500km. The next known North Korean launcher is designated Unha-20, with a LEO payload capacity of ~20t.
Any manned launcher would need increased reliability thus, extra luck. The next lucky number after 9 and before 20 is 18 (1+8=9). This one should be assigned to the liquid fuel manned launcher as the Unha-18.
The next lucky number after 20 is 27 (2+7=9).
Therefore any manned solid fuel launcher could safely be named Unha-27 thus providing extra safety to all future crews!
Chinese KZ-41 manned solid fuel launcher
Kuaizhou is a series of solid fuel TEL space launchers.
Chinese manned solid-fuel launcher KZ-41 for commercial orbital flights, from Expace Technology Co.(Expace), a commercial-launch venture, created by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp. (CASIC), to market the solid-fueled Kuaizhou rocket globally.
The disclosed diameter and payload of KZ-21 are 4.5 m and 20 tons.
Iran has managed to design,manufacture,and test its new and powerful solid-fuel based Space launch Vehicle called Ghaem.
Ghaem project is part of a series of launchers, planned by Iran for next 10 years to meet its needs in the field of space launch vehicles for its space program.Ghaem is a four-staged all solid fuel expandable launch vehicle capable of launching payloads to LEO, MEO and GEO orbits and employs a very sophisticated design to be able to handle all types of payloads to those orbits.
Ghaem is not a man-rated launcher but many of its design specifications will be employed for our future manned space missions.
This prestigious and extremely sophisticated program was initiated and lead by Shahid Hajj Hassan Tehrani Moghadam and his team years ago and unfortunately experienced a set-back during a failed test back in 2011 which took the lives of several Iranian scientist including General Moghadam but eventually resulted in success in 2014. All stages are now flight-ready hardware.
With Ghaem Iran is now among a very elite group of space fairing nations capable of launching payloads to GEO and beyond.
While achievements in the field of defense made by Iranian rocket scientist Shahid Hajj Hassan Tehrani Moghadam are well known, little has been revealed about his last project, a 4-stages solid fuel launcher. According to data published in the national media, the first stage has a diameter of 3.5 m with a height of 20 meters and is designed to deliver a payload of more than 100 kg to an 1,000 kilometers LEO.
Advanced composite solid fuel HTPB was used in all new Iranian solid rockets.
22 Dey 1394
It will use thrust vector control (TVC) for the first time in Iran
http://ipic.su/img/i....1501870906.jpg ▲ 9/9/2011 satellite imagery of the Shahid Modarres Garrison facility (35°37'27.43"N 50°52'28.24"E), just before the November 12, 2011 explosion. Photogrammetric measurements of a booster's first stage or second stage black solid propellant section indicate a ~3 meters maximum diameter, and a ~1 meter inner diameter. This larger stage might be assembled from ~6 of these sections (~6 visible on the image). Two ~3 meters cylinders of obviously even greater length (as indicated by the shadow) are also visible just 80 meters south at the entrance of another bulding. Smaller stage of ~2 meters are also visible. This smaller stage might be assembled from ~5 of these sections.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1501870941.jpg ▲ 27/JUN/2011 satellite imagery of the Shahid Modarres Garrison facility (35°37'23.63"N 50°52'14.54"E), just before the November 12, 2011 explosion. Photogrammetric measurements of a ~4 meter maximum diameter white cylinder and ~ 1.25 inner diameter, possibly a solid motor casing mold for a first stage booster. Several brown, green and white cylinders of ~10 meters long and ~2 and ~3 meters diameters.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1501870837.jpg ▲ 2014 satellite image of the ~6 meters rectangular? or circular? exhaust's pit at the Imam Sadegh Space Center's Launch Complex 1 designed to support the ~3.5 meters diameter Ghaem solid propellant launcher.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1501889099.jpg ▲ 9/9/2011 satellite imagery of the Shahid Modarres Garrison facility, solid motor static test firing site with no less than 8 horizontal static test stands in a row among others in the area that clearly show the burn mark obstructions from their gas jet firings (35°36'26.26"N 50°52'18.94"E), just before the November 12, 2011 explosion. Photogrammetric measurements of ~60 to 90 meters ground burn mark from gas jet firings.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1501889136.jpg ▲ 9/9/2011 satellite imagery of the Shahid Modarres Garrison facility, solid motor static test firing site with no less than 8 horizontal static test stands in a row among others in the area that clearly show the burn mark obstructions from their gas jet firings (35°36'26.26"N 50°52'18.94"E), just before the November 12, 2011 explosion. Simulated ~40 meters Ghaem SLV scaled to the ~90 meters ground burn mark from gas jet firings, according to the rocket to flame length 1:2 ratio.
North Korean Pukgukson-Class manned solid fuel launcher
An uprated 4.5 meters diameter and 40 meters long Pukgukson-Class launcher could be used to launch astronauts to LEO. In this regard, the Tonghae Space Center's Launch Complex 3 (construction currently on hold), seems specially suited for this size of solid propellant launcher, with a ~10 meters base circular aperture for the flame's exhaust pit, compared to the ~7.5 meters by 7.5 meters rectangular exhaust's pit of the Sohae's Launch Complex 1 designed to support the ~3 meters to ~3.5 meters diameter Unha-9 launcher.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1500704219.jpg ▲ 2005 satellite image of the ~7.5 meters by 7.5 meters rectangular exhaust's pit at the Sohae Space Center's Launch Complex 1 designed to support the ~3 meters to ~3.5 meters diameter Unha-9 launcher.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1500704293.jpg ▲ 2012 satellite image of the ~10 meters circular exhaust's pit at the Tonghae Space Center's Launch Complex 3, suitable to support the 4.5 meters diameter solid propellant Unha-27 launcher.
http://ipic.su/img/i....1500882597.jpg ▲ 2013 satellite image of the ~17 meters circular exhaust's pit at the Jiuquan Space Center's Launch Complex 921, designed to support the ~9 meters? maximum diameter CZ-2F launcher (2 x 2.25 m boosters + unknown spacing + 3.35 m core stage). Meaning that the exhaust's pit is always about twice the maximum diameter of the launcher! QED
The Teng Yun, which CASIC intends to deliver by 2030, uses a TRCC-engined hypersonic carrier aircraft to carry the second rocket-powered stage into near space. Both stages will be reusable; the hypersonic carrier airframe could also be used to hypersonic strike and reconnaissance roles. The DSTO Teng Yun would have a combined weight of 100-150 tons. The first stage is a Mach 6 hypersonic 'carrier' aircraft, with TRCC engines. Teng Yun's second stage is a reusable, 10-15-ton rocket-powered spaceplane capable of carrying either 2 tons of cargo or 5 passengers.
Seemingly a two stages to orbit vehicle, with a vertical-takeoff, similar to the Chinese Teng Yun (腾云).
The hypersonic carrier airframe could be powered by an improved version of the North Korean scramjet engine used to power its new class of Hwasong-14 ICBM warhead, and revealed on 4 July 2017, by Korean aerospace analysts.
North Korean scramjet engine
If North Korea had made a Hwasong-14 ICBM with triconic nuclear warhead, it would not claim the missile as a "new strategic weapon that the world does not have and can not imitate." As you can see, the idea is that the Hwasong-14 ICBM is a completely new missile with no equivalent in the world and that can not be imitated. Like the Russian Topol-M ICBM nosecone, the long, thick conical-shaped Hwasong-14 warhead nosecone is an indication that the nosecone contains a scramjet-powered warhead that alters course midflight.
Video Published on Jul 8, 2017 from the national exhibition of children's science fictions and models-2017: https://www.youtube....h?v=0bOBJifozQw ▲ At T=2m54s to T=2m57s: North Korean two stages to orbit reusable space plane scaled model.
Li Xiangrong is the chief designer of China's Long March-4B rocket and the commander-in-chief of China's spaceflight Jiang Jingshan is deputy chief designer of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program
Both are ethnic Korean Chinese. No wonder Korea get access to such space technologies...
Li Xiangrong (李相荣, 리상영: Lee Sang Young)
2007년 1월 3일 (수) 15:10
Born in Korea (庆尚北道, Gyeongsangbuk-do) on 19 September 1941, Li Xiangrong settled in China with his father in 1942. Member of the Chinese communist party. Li Xiangrong , a Korean-Chinese scientist, was awarded the Grand Prize of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the highest Science Prize in China. He was awarded this prize for the first time as an ethnic Korean in the People's Congress of Beijing at the end of last year. Born in Wuchang, Heilongjiang province, he has contributed to China's aerospace business for more than 40 years after graduating from the Beijing Institute of Technology.
He created "10 miracles out of 10" by placinging 10 satellites in space in 10 space launches.
Sent to the Soviet Union to study (electronics engineering?). Returned to China in 1962, and sent to the 581 Institute, the first in China to design satellite. Built the first DFH-1 satellite in 1970. Built remote sensing satellites.
China will open its space station to scientists worldwide after the station is completed around 2022, according to Wei Chuanfeng, on Thursday at the 2017 Global Space Exploration Conference, which was held in Beijing.
UN members, especially developing countries, could conduct scientific and technological experiment on Chinese space station, Wei said.
The space station will enable astronauts to stay in space for up to six months.
China will also help astronauts and payloads specialists from developing countries to enter into space, Wei said.
║ Comparative table of the two civilizations ║
║ Geostrategic data │ DPRK │ IRAN ║
║ Claimed history │ 5000 years │ 7000 years ║
║ Demographic weight │ 73 millions (North 24.589 + South 48.861) │ 79 millions ║
║ Main natural resources │ rare earth │ hydrocarbons ║
║ Political system │ Democratic People's Republic (Juche) │ Islamic Republic (Shia) ║
║ Comparative space practices of the two space powers ║
║ │ Historical │ Birth anniversary of leader Kim Il Sun │ Islamic Revolution Victory ║
║ │ commemoration events │ Day of the Sun │ ║
║ Comparative primary │ Date │ 15 April 1912 │ 22 Bahman 1979 ║
║ launch window for ├──────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────╢
║ the most important │ Launch window │ week of 15 April │ week of 11 February ║
║ space missions ├──────────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────╢
║ │ │ Kwangmyongsong-3#1: │ Omid: first satellite ║
║ │ Most prominent │ first working satellite │ Navid: first observation satellite ║
║ │ space launches │ first observation satellite │ Fajr: first with cold gas propulsion ║
║ │ │ first SSO polar orbit satellite │ ║
║ Space launch order given by │ Supreme leader of the WPK │ IRI President ║
║ │ General Satellite Control │ ║
║ Space center open to foreign journalists │ and Command Centre │ Alborz Space Center ║
║ │ Pyongyang │ 29 February 2012 ║
║ │ 12-16 April 2012 │ ║
║ Satellite launch market │ first announced March 22, 2012 │ first announced February 9, 2012 ║
Iran, which also learned missile technology from North Korea, announced on March 5, 2014 that "the Iranian Defense Ministry has equipped its Qadr H and Qiam ballistic missiles with its newly developed Multiple Reentry Vehicle (MRV) payloads, a military hi-tech owned only by a handful of the world states." If North Korea, who taught it, had made a Hwasong-14 ICBM with triconic nuclear warhead, it would not claim the missile as a "new strategic weapon that the world does not have and can not imitate."
In the last period, some countries attempted to develop nuclear weapons, but finally yielded to the collective pressure of the powers in collusion with them. Those countries did so because of lack of courage and will.
According to Iranian news agency ILNA, Mohammad Homayoun Sadr, the deputy head of the Iran Space Agency (ISA), made the announcement citing the extremely steep cost of a human spaceflight programme that he estimated was somewhere between U.S.$15-20 billion over 15 years. This price-tag is onerous for a well-functioning large economy, never mind one that is laboring under international sanctions, endemic corruption, failing economic policies, and lack of reforms as is the case with Iran.
Difference betwen the first stages of the North Korean Kwangmyongsong LV (Unha-4) and the Iranian Safir-2A
https://www.jajusibo...92630403694.png ▲ Four Moksong-1 engines placed close to the center of the rocket stage, each sharing a common turbopump exhaust pipe with a lateral vernier, thus a total of four turbopump exhaust pipes, but verniers engines diverting fuel flow from the Moksong-1 engines and lowering their thrusts.
https://www.jajusibo...92631532303.png ▲ Four Shahab-3 engines are placed at greater distance from the rocket stage's center, each feeded by its own turbopump and exhaust pipe. A fifth exhaust pipe for another turbopump solely dedicated to the 4 verniers near the center, thus allowing higher thrust from the Shahab-3 engines.
Huge difference betwen the launch stands of the North Korean Kwangmyongsong LV (Unha-4) and the Iranian Safir-2A (시모르그: Simorgh) The sound of ignition of the Safir-1 and Unha-2/3/4 are similar, always starting with a short whistle-like tone then overtaken by a rain shower-like roar. The sound of ignition of the Safir-2A differs from Safir-1 and Unha-2/3/4 maybe due to the launch stands difference, since the flame color indicates a similar Kerosen/RFNA propellants combination, sunset color very opaque dark yellow and dark orange at the nozzle's exit for the first ~2 meters or so, before turning noonday sun color yellowish white and never revealing any shock diamond.
In addition, the movable vertical gantry of IKSLC LC-2 make it less vulnerable in case of an energetic event during the initial seconds of ignition-liftoff.
Safir-2 SLV's 2nd stage
April 12, 2012
Around two years ago an exhibition was held in Sharif university. One of the visitors of that exhibition wrote a good report about that exhibition and posted the photos of it too:
The engine of first stage of Safir SLV has been engine of a ballistic missile that Iran has reverse engineered it and has built different generations of it.
But he says unlike the engine of first stage , engine of second stage has been built by a engineering (designing) work not a reverse engineering work.
He says " This engine is built in "Space Research Institute". Before Iranians, scientists of Korea had tried to build this engine 7 times but each time after just 3 seconds the engine is exploded. Iranian young scientists try to build this engine 5 times and the engine works (burning time of engine) 150, 320 and 350 seconds in the last three times and finally the engine of second stage reaches to operational stage."
He says in Simorgh, this engines of second stage will be replaced with more thrust engines
Although it is said engines of second stage of Safir is based vernier engines of Russian R-27 missile, but difference of thrust of that engine and engines of Safir is very much so that it is possible to say engines of second stage of Safir isn't reverse engineering version of vernier engine of R-27, Thrust of vernier engine of R-27 is around 15 tons but thrust of each engine of second stage of Safir is around 3.5 tons.
Video of Simorgh ground testing, Published on Jul 31, 2017
▲ Iran Simorgh SLV song قسمتی از آهنگ حماسه فضایی ماهواره بر سیمرغ: https://www.youtube....h?v=7hfMvA7kN1U Video Published on Jul 31, 2017 showing: Saman-1 upper stage separation ground test at T=0m38s to T=0m39s, payload fairing separation ground test at T=0m39s to T=0m41s, Saman-1 upper stage's stage 1 separation from stage 2 ground test at T=0m41s to T=0m44s
Recent example of Korean reverse engineering with the Soviet T-72 MBT
The Soviet Union did not export the T-72 MBT to North Korea until its demise in 1991. After the Gulf War of 1991, hundreds of T-72s and T-80s were left shattered in Iraq and the Kuwaiti desert. Among them, many were still usable tanks. Some of the North Koreans military personnels who arrived in Iraq and Kuwait under the pretext of helping in the post-war reconstruction effort, had a special mission to get rid of the full T-72 left in the desert. They found a suitable T-72 and transported it via sea secretly. Through this dramatic secret mission, a T-72 arrived at a North Korean armored tank factory. This reverse engineered T-72 third-generation tank, is called the Chunma-92 MBT (천마-92). Further upgrades with the introduction of CNC machines, robots, and computers tools have produced the Chunma-98 MBT. Finally, in the early 2000s, the last model of the third-generation Chunmaho Tank series, the Chunma-216 tank was developed. From the middle of the 2000s, the Chunma series tank have been completely abandoned, with the development of the totally new Songun-915 series tank (선군-915).
Sarir ultra-heavy satellite-carrier is another space project due to be launched by March 2015 - March 2016.
The "Sepehr" should be available by 2015 or 2016. It is about 40m high, has a diameter of 3m. The first stage is equipped with new liquid fuel engines. The engines are bigger as the engines of the Safir and Simorgh. Each engine has about 50 tons of thrust. Combustion chamber, turbopump etc are unique, says the source. Further details are not known. However, it is developping a total thrust of 300 tons.
Conclusion: It is hard to believe that Iran has already the know-how to develop a new engine with about 50 tons of thrust, to bundle it to a cluster, add appropriate control engines, and to integrate it already by 2015 or 2016 in a functioning new rocket. Even North Korea has not this know-how. That can only mean that the technical requirements for such a propulsion already exist .........
Up to now all of the engines used in these countries, are always originated from the Soviet era. The advertised power of the new engines for example, corresponds to the RD-218 engines of the first stage of the R-16 ICBM, developed in OKB-586 Yangel.
Comment: This has already been debunked in various threads on other foreign dedicated space forums decades ago:
The Russian rockets scrap dealers
http://images.moviep...-1020547621.jpg ▲ Meanwhile, a few hundred miles north from where Anousheh blasts off, a ragtag band of scrap-metal merchants set off in their trucks for the spot where the first stage of the rocket will fall back to earth, providing rich pickings from its valuable metals. These will eventually be sold to China, where they are likely to be converted into aluminium foil of the kind used to wrap sandwiches. The scrap dealers enthusiastically agree that nothing is quite like beshbarmak (Kazakh lamb stew) cooked in the open air - especially when the cooking pot is a retrieved rocket part. And several hundred miles further north again, where the next stage of the rocket falls into a more populous area, farmers use the junk to mend houses and make tools, oblivious to the potential chemical hazards.
A few more successful satellite liftoffs will enable the North Koreans to use its powerful Unha carrier rockets to launch low-cost satellite launch services available to any interested client in the developing and the Western world.
Space development is a very promising future industry. If North Korea succeeds in the development of its geostationary satellite, this means that it would be able to launch GEO communication satellite and it can build its own GPS system.
Equatorial Guinea, a major oil producer in Africa, signed last June a contract with North Korea for 3.3 trillion won ($ 3 billion) for building a network. North Korea's communications network is known to use special technology that renders hacking by the United States simply impossible. Because of this, Equatorial Guinea had not hesitation in signing the contract with North Korea, and plans to extend the system to Africa. Equatorial Guinea is said to have a great influence in the African Union.
If North Korea secures its own communication satellites and exports those satellites to third world countries, it will be able to earn huge foreign currency. Former people's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya leader, Moammer El Gaddafi is also known to have been removed from power by the United States because of his geolocation done through wiretapping. Therefore, demand for communication satellites made in North Korea is not expected to be small.
The scientists of Kim Il Sung University have succeeded in developing a quantum code communications technology, which makes it possible to open up a bright prospect for blocking various kinds of hacking and wiretapping from their sources by taking hold of its core technologies.
The quantum code communications device makes use of such main properties of the quantum world as uncertainty relation and superposition principle, the main principles of quantum physics, to detect wiretapping on the spot, makes new codes and thus disables the hacking to keys.
This cutting-edge code technology requires special knowledge of various sectors including the technologies of quantizing laser beams, splitting and synthesizing light, controlling signals of transceivers and creating and decoding keys, together with the knowledge about the main principles of quantum physics.
All the problems of this new device, ranging from the basic designing of quantum code transmitter and receiver and the designing and making of a control panel to the programs of creating and decoding quantum keys, have been solved by their indigenous efforts and technologies.
The scientists have designed and manufactured an optical circuit for realizing quantum code "BB84 Protocol", developed a technology of controlling polarization of a photon, realized the distribution of quantum keys and, based on them, established a perfect security communications system. The new device absolutely guarantees the safety of keys even in case of the advent of a quantum computer.
Its inaccuracy rate is only 3.5 %, which is lower than the international allowable error of 10 %. And it can code all communications concerning images, sound and documents.
The Korean-style development of the quantum code communications device in the limelight of the world has made a breakthrough in the work for turning the above-said technology to practical use on a high level.
A group of high-rise condominiums "Future scientist street" (Mirae Scientists street) built in the central part of Pyongyang. Mirae Scientists Street, which is located by the side of Taedong River, is built with flats for thousands of families and more than 150 public catering outlets. The condominium apartment room here is provided free of charge to scientists and their families, and furniture and other items are all free of charge, so that the family of scientists can enjoy living in that residence. Furthermore, parades are organized to welcome scientists such as those involved in the experimental launch of the Hwasong 12, on May 14, 2017. Scientists will always be given a high preferential treatment according to the state's directives.
Newly developed residential area for scientists in the past few years, include Changgeon Street, Future Scientist Street, Galaxy Scientist Street, Satellite Scientist Housing Area, Yeonpung Scientist Recreation Area and also Munsu Water Park, Majyeong Stream Ski Resort, Mirim Equestrian Complex.
Kim Jong Sik started his career as a civilian aeronautics technician. Veteran rocket scientist.
North Korea's aerospace genius
In various missile tests, its appearance has been confirmed.
It is said that the age of the North Korean scientist is in the mid-50s.
However, the date of birth and career are unknown.
Although he is quite a mysterious person, the intelligence agencies of the US and south Korea think that Kim Jong Sik is the central figure who has made possible the breakthrough in North Korea's rocket technology.
In North Korea many contests are held in fields like mathematics and physics, and Kim Jong Sik has won the best awards many times, as his genius was already unmatched at the age of 10.
Then he enrolled at the Pyongyang Science University, and immediately after graduation he entered the Second Institute of Natural Sciences (the current National Defense Academy) and engaged in the development of rocket engines.
Furthermore, he was awarded the title of "Hero of the Republic", the highest honor in North Korea, for recognition of his achievements in rocketry development.
His genius was pivotal in the shift from liquid fuel to solid fuel rocket engines, such as seen in the Pukguksong-2 GLBM.
Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi (住友清太郎: Sumitomo Kiyotarō; 徐錫洪: Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi / ソ・ソクホン: So Sokuhon, Xu Xi Hong; 서석홍: Seo Seok Hong/Suh Seok Hong?)
23 May 2017
The genius Kim Jong Sik is presented as the North Korean chief designer.
There was also report that Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi (徐錫洪, 서석홍), a Korean born in Japan, and researcher with a doctorate from the University of Tokyo that is regarded as the authority of rocket engine development, and was involved in North Korea's "Kim Jong Motor Joint Venture Company", a rocket engine related company. Sumitomo Kiyotarō (住友清太郎) is the Japanese name that Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi used.
Space engineering experts pointed out that he is also called the North Korean von Braun, Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi is said to have made achievements in North Korea comparable to von Braun's in the American missile development. Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi graduated from the University of Tokyo Engineering department. After that, he joined the University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Technology and received a doctorate. He is an expert in the promotion organization and sometimes awarded the American Power Engineering Society Award. However, there is no doubt that he was deeply involved in the development of the ballistic missile in the DPRK starting with the improvement of the Soviet Scud. It was around 1976 that North Korea acquired two Scuds via Egypt and started improvement. Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi, born in 1970, is in his mid-40s. It seems that he was in a position to lead rocket development.
Jiyo Bandō (徐判道: Jiyo Bandō, Xu Pan Dao; 서판도: Seo Pan Do )
Jiyo Bandō is a Japanese scientist graduate from the University of Tokyo. Industry Production Research Institute of Tokyo University, Work Examination Engine Expert Vice president of North Korea's Kim Jong Motor Joint Venture Company (「金剛原動機」). Jiyo Bandō also turned out to be visiting repeatedly North Korea, such as staying for a long time before the Unha-2's launch in April 2009. But with Jiyo Suzu Hiroshi, the two are involved in the North Korean rocket development.
Korean Association of Science and Technology in Japan (在日本朝鮮人科学技術協会)
North Korea has started the development of calculators since the 1980s, with the help of the Korean Association of Science and Technology in Japan (Kwahyop, 在日本朝鮮人科学技術協会). Among the 1200 members, 300 have visited Pyongyang during vacation and provided their expertise in fields such as calculators, semiconductors, robotics, rocket engines, chemistry, biology and nuclear physics. The most modern Western technologies in high thrust rocket engines have thus been transfered.
Machinery needed in the production of solid fuel for rocket have also been provided in 1994.
Japanese advanced defense technology transfered to North Korea
Since the end of the 1950s, North Korea has acquired heavy chemical industry and electronic technology secretly from Japan, and Chongryon (Korean Association in Japan) has played a role as an intermediary.
In addition to technology, US-made weapons have also been brought.
At that time, the traction vehicles and other vehicles of the North Korean People's Army were almost all Japanese Nissan, Isuzu and Mitsubishi. North Korea had CASIO fx series calculators, NEC PC-9801, MBC-555 and MZ-800. At that time, the Soviet Union and China said they had to go to Pyongyang to get Japanese computers.
Until the early 1980s, the basic reason why North Korea's science and technology and economy surpassed China and South Korea was also found here, and North Korea was the source of technology that the Soviet Union has not been able to develop by itself.
In fact, last year [in 2016], North Korea showed that its ultra-precision striking capability does not use any Russian radar.
Why did Japan so secretly help North Korea long before South Korea did?
According to sources, the period was when North Korea played the role of Japan's gateway to the continent. At that time, Japan seemed desperate for an easy access to China and the USSR.
In addition, most of the post WWII Japanese leaders at that time had tasted Kim Il Sung's unmatched guerrilla warfare, who had made 1 million Japanese Kwantung troops tremble in Manchuria during the 1930s, and they had experienced with World War II in the 1940s, and the following Korean War in the 1950s. Therefore, they regarded General Kim Il Sung as an invincible adversary leader and accepted almost all of Kim Il Sung's requests, while publicly kepping the secret.
Japan may have worried that if North Korea was to be completely occupied by the US and if the US was to take control of all Northeast Asia, it would move its military bases from Japan to the Korean peninsula.
If you occupy North Korea, you might say that the US would then make Japan to become a tributary state of the US like Hawaii. Just as Hawaii was a tributary state of the US, the majority of the Aborigines disappeared, just as American Indians were completely destroyed by European immigrants.
The leaders of Japan may have considerd Kim Il Sung as a person able to defend Northeast Asia from such an American world domination strategy.
It seems that this mighty North Korean military science and technology has been combined with the advanced technology of Japan as well as the science and technology of Russia and Eastern Europe that have been learned through foreign students.
Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space
February 23. 2016 Juche 105
DPRK Accedes to Space-related International Agreements
Pyongyang, February 23 (KCNA) -- The DPRK acceded to the agreement on the rescue of astronauts, the return of astronauts and the return of objects launched into outer space and the convention on international liability for damage caused by space objects on February 22, Juche 105 (2016), according to the decision of its government.
The agreement concluded on April 22, 1968 stipulates the issue of handing over to the launch nation any astronaut, space objects and their parts as they fall or are discovered in the territorial land and waters of a signatory country and open sea.
The convention concluded on March 29, 1972 undertakes a launch nation to make responsible compensation when space objects caused human or property losses on the earth surface or caused damage to a plane in flight.
The DPRK's accession to the agreement and the convention will further promote the international trust in space scientific researches and activities and make positive contributions to strengthening cooperation with other countries.
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
19 December 1966.
States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptly returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.
In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties.
States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.
Kwangmyongsong (Korean for guiding light or Polar Star) refers to the late Kim Jong Il. The name was given by the members of the anti-Japanese guerrilla army when he was born at a secret camp on snow-covered Mt Paektu, expressing their desire that he would grow into a Korean "King David".
Jong Il Peak rises high on Mt. Paektu The blue waters of the Sobaek meanders; Here, 50 years ago, the Shining Star was born A master with pen and sword, loyal and dutiful. He commands respect and praise from all. And the cheers for him rock heaven and earth.
In April 1992, North Korea mulled two events for the festivities. The first one was a large scale military parade and the second one was a satellite launch. However, President Kim Il Sung said that the proposed launch of a satellite was untimely and had no significance. So the launch was postponed until August 1998.
The DPRK's space program began in the 1980's with the creation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology (KCST). In the 1990s, North Korean scientists developed an experimental satellite, Kwangmyongsong-1 or "Bright Star" or "Shining Star."
According to the DPRK's Kim Jong Il Biography 3, when the scientists developing KMS-1 were discouraged, the Chairman reminded them that the first Korean Chollima-brand tractor "had run backward on its trial drive." Encouraged, the scientists "drew fresh designs and compiled technical data within a year," something which would have taken "five years to be completed in ordinary times" and within two years had completed KMS-1's launch vehicle. ... The DPRK-produced biography of Kim Jong Il, The Great Man, in discussing the development of KMS-1 and 2, even admitted that the fact that the DPRK had launched a satellite at all "can be said to be a miraculous event."
Academician, Prof. and Dr. Kwon Tong Hwa, Kim Il Sung order winner, labour hero and deputy to the Supreme People's Assembly, who was involved in the launch said that the DPRK has long since developed the science and technology of artificial satellites and laid its solid industrial foundation, not boasting of it. He explained the background of the launch of the satellite: Under the wise guidance of General Secretary Kim Jong Il, the DPRK has developed a multi-stage rocket capable of carrying an artificial satellite already in the 1980s and made remarkable successes in researches into satellites as well. When he was alive, the President Kim Il Sung said that it was high time for the DPRK to launch an artificial satellite. All preparations for the launch had been completed in Korea already at the beginning of the 1990s. As instructed by Kim Jong Il, the first artificial satellite was launched to significantly adorn the first session of the 10th Supreme People's Assembly and the 50th anniversary of the founding of the DPRK. ... Candidate academician, Prof. and Dr. Han Hae Chol, Kim Haeng Gyong and other scientists, who were involved in the launch of the artificial satellite "Kwangmyongsong No. 1," referred to the purpose of the launch: First, it is to master the technology of putting a satellite correctly into orbit with a multi-stage carrier rocket. Second, it is to perfect the structural engineering design of a multi-stage carrier rocket and its control technology. Third, it is to study the circumstances of the space and verify if electronic devices correctly operate in the space. Fourth, it is to complete the observation system of the carrier rocket and satellite. For this purpose, necessary observation devices were installed at the carrier rocket and satellite. ... The scientists chose the sky above Tsugaru strait between Hokkaido and Honshu, Japan, as the trajectory of the recent artificial satellite launch. The carrier rocket was equipped with a device with which to lead the rocket to a safe area and explode it in case the flying rocket is deviated from the expected trajectory. ... A scientist Kim Haeng Gyong who had participated in the launch said the carrier rocket correctly flied along the theoretically expected trajectory and that all the apparatuses of the artificial satellite are working properly after it was put into orbit. ... The artificial satellite moving along its own orbit sends them survey data, including temperature, pressure and conditions of power source, they said. The sketch map of the test launch of the carrier rocket of the artificial satellite shows where the carrier rocket was separated stage by stage and where the separated parts of the rocket dropped. It shows that the first stage was separated from the rocket 95 seconds after the launch, in the air 35.9 kilometres high and 19.5 kilometres off the launching station, that the second stage separated itself from the rocket in 266 seconds, in the air 204 kilometres high and 450.5 kilometres off the launching station and that the artificial satellite was put into orbit in 293 seconds, at the speed of 8,980 metres per second, in the air 239.2 kilometres high and 587.9 kilometres off the launching station. It also shows that the first stage separated from the rocket fell 253 kilometres off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 51 minutes north latitude 132 degrees 40 minutes east longitude and that the second stage fell 1,646 kilometres off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 13 minutes north latitude 149 degrees 07 minutes east longitude.
The first artificial satellite of the DPRK launched at Musudan-ri, Hwadae county, North Hamgyong Province, on August 31 is now revolving round the earth. The multi-stage carrier rocket and satellite launched by Korean scientists and technicians were developed with local strength, wisdom and technology 100 percent. Today's edition of Rodong Sinmun carries an interview with scientists and technicians involved in the satellite launch and a sketch map of the carrier rocket launching test. The first and second rocket stages are made up of liquid rocket engines and the third stage an engine with highly efficient solid fuel. The control mechanism of the rocket is a product of advanced science and technology, including computers. The first stage was separated from the rocket 95 seconds after the launch and fell on the open waters of the East Sea of Korea 253 km off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 51 minutes north latitude 132 degrees 40 minutes east longitude. The second stage opened the capsule in 144 seconds, separated itself from the rocket in 266 seconds and fell on the open waters of the Pacific 1,646 km off from the launching station, that is 40 degrees 13 minutes north latitude 149 degrees 07 minutes east longitude. The third stage put the satellite into orbit 27 seconds after the separation of the second stage. The purpose and mission of the rocket were accomplished at the first launch.
According to a press release issued by the National Aerospace Development Administration on February 7, 2016, the orbit inclination angle of Kwangmyongsong-1 and Kwangmyongsong-2 were 40.2 degrees and 40.6 degrees, respectively.
19th year ago, on Juche 87 (1998), August 31, at 12:07, the day of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the nation launched its first ever man-made test satellite. It was launched heading a 86 ° direction and entered a Low Earth orbit exactly after 4 minutes 53 seconds.
As a matter of course, the second-term Clinton administration initially condemned the August 31, 1998, satellite launch as a ballistic missile test in disguise. However, it went out of its way two weeks later to retract its initial assessment, calling it "a satellite". ... On September 4, an anonymous US intelligence officer told Reuters, "We have seen that report and we are still evaluating the data connected with the launch and we cannot at this point rule out that an object was placed in orbit." The Reuters news story was headlined, "US Can't Rule Out N Korea Launched Satellite. ... Ten days later, September 14, the State Department courageously backed away from its initial assessments and acknowledged that the object launched by North Korea in the western Pacific two weeks earlier was a satellite and not a missile. State Department spokesman James P Rubin told AP, "The object launched by North Korea in the western Pacific two weeks ago was a satellite and not a missile."
The separation of the first and second stages was successful at that time. The third-stage engine seemed to have exploded just about two seconds before the satellites entered the orbit, and the debris, along with launcher, was scattered about 4000 kilometers from the launch site. ... According to a detailed analysis of the rocket launch from the Japanese "Defense White Paper" in 1999, a small object from the third stage was able to fly for a while but could not enter orbit.
Numerological Analysis by Master S☫heil from Sohae, DPRK.
Launch date (Pyongyang): 5 JUL (20)06
5+7=12 thus exceeding the lucky number of 9!
Strongly advised to Not Proceed with any space launch attempt on that Unlucky date!
11 July 2006
Just 42 seconds after its 5 July launch, the rocket plunged into the Sea of Japan, according to US, South Korean and Japanese intelligence. ... "It's very hard to get this far," The failure appeared to take place at the moment rocket designers call 'maximum q', when a rocket feels the greatest aerodynamic forces. ... the first stage had probably not finished firing by the time of the crash something fell from the rocket immediately after take-off. ... He thinks that part of the final, third stage may have pulled loose when under maximum strain, and struck the body of the rocket.
That 'something' may have been a shroud covering a small satellite that the North Koreans intended to put into orbit, Vick says. Such a problem would be relatively easy to fix, he notes. "If the shroud is the problem, we could see another flight within a year or less."
But other types of failure are just as likely, says McDowell. For example, the steering mechanisms might not have been strong enough to guide the rocket at maximum q, or a software or guidance glitch might have caused the crash. If the latter were true, he says: "They could fly it again in a few months."
McDowell adds that regardless of the specifics of the failure, the 42-second flight shows that the North Koreans are indeed skilled at rocketry. Most launch failures occur within the first few seconds after lift-off, he says. During the early days of the US programme, says McDowell, a 40-second flight would have been described as a 'partial success'.
Wednesday, July 5, 2006 Posted: 0403 GMT (1203 HKT)
The Taepodong-2 landed about 200 miles west of Japan in the Sea of Japan, a U.S. military source said. ''' "It's very difficult technology. They very clearly have not mastered it," Jim Walsh, a national security analyst at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said. "Most estimates are they will not master it for another 10 years."
The launch was a scientific research experiment partly intended to serve as a firework display to celebrate the re-election of Kim Jong Il as the all-powerful National Defense Commission, partly to demonstrate that North Korea has joined the two elite clubs of nuclear powers and space powers, and partly to signal it will join a third elite club of economic tigers by 2012.
Preparations for Launch of Experimental Communications Satellite in Full Gear
The preparations for launching experimental communications satellite Kwangmyongsong-2 by means of delivery rocket Unha-2 are now making brisk headway at Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground in Hwadae County, North Hamgyong Province.
KCNA Report on DPRK's Accession to International Space Treaty and Convention
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies ... Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. ... "DPRK informed the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization and other international organizations of necessary information for the safe navigation of planes and ships according to relevant regulations as part of its preparations for launching Kwangmyongsong-2, an experimental communications satellite, by carrier rocket Unha-2"
KCNA on DPRK's Successful Launch of Satellite Kwangmyongsong-2
Pyongyang, April 5 (KCNA) -- Scientists and technicians of the DPRK have succeeded in putting satellite Kwangmyongsong-2, an experimental communications satellite, into orbit by means of carrier rocket Unha-2 under the state long-term plan for the development of outer space.
Unha-2, which was launched at the Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground in Hwadae County, North Hamgyong Province at 11:20 on April 5, Juche 98 (2009), accurately put Kwangmyongsong-2 into its orbit at 11:29:02, nine minutes and two seconds after its launch.
The satellite is going round the earth along its elliptic orbit at the angle of inclination of 40.6 degrees at 490 km perigee and 1,426 km apogee. Its cycle is 104 minutes and 12 seconds.
Mounted on the satellite are necessary measuring devices and communications apparatuses.
The satellite is going round on its routine orbit.
It is sending to the earth the melodies of the immortal revolutionary paeans "Song of General Kim Il Sung" and "Song of General Kim Jong Il" and measured information at 470 MHz. By the use of the satellite the relay communications is now underway by UHF frequency band.
The satellite is of decisive significance in promoting the scientific researches into the peaceful use of outer space and solving scientific and technological problems for the launch of practical satellites in the future.
On April 5, 2009, at 11:20 am, a test telecommunication satellite Kwangmyongsong-2 was launched on a Unha-2 rocket. The satellite was injected into orbit after 9 minutes and 2 seconds and was able to send measurement data transmission and relay communication.
Note, this is an edited version, with some scenes removed from the original footage! Animation sequences of the launch from the North Korean drama movie The Country I Saw - Part 3 (2009) (start at t=1h16m09s) ( 내가 본 나라 3 (2009): start at t=1h19m16s, 我所见的国家 3) by Ko Hak Rim and Pak Jong Ju.
Pyongyang, May 7. 2009 Juche 98 (KCNA) -- A spokesman for the Korean Committee of Space Technology issued a statement on Thursday, one month after satellite Kwangmyongsong-2 started its normal operation after being put into orbit.
The observation by the satellite and a control test were normally conducted despite the unidentified strong jamming done in the above-said communications frequency band, in particular.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the international agency in charge of radio frequency allocation for satellites, dismissed North Korea's claim to have put a communications satellite into orbit
Security Council Condemnation of North Korean "UFO"
Notably, the Council nowhere spelled out what North Korea might have launched, for the simple reason that its members could not agree: some thought missile, some thought satellite. Unable to agree on a noun, it therefore compromised with the verb "launch." The Council's strong and peremptory diplomatic language - "condemns," "demands," etc was therefore oddly out of kilter with its inability to decide what it was condemning. Essentially it was saying North Korea was not to launch any more unidentified flying objects, or "UFOs." "Whatever it was you launched," said the Security Council in effect, "you should not have and you must not do it again."
Kim Jong Un Inspects KPA Air and Anti-Air Force Unit 447
Pyongyang, May 14 (KCNA) -- Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea and first chairman of the National Defence Commission of the DPRK, inspected KPA Air and Anti-Air Force Unit 447 honored with the title of O Jung Hup-led 7th Regiment.
"Whenever I visit the airfield where airmen are active, I feel as if I were entering the yard of my old home," he added.
He highly praised the unit, saying the unit which produced 14 human bomb-like fighters is the unit which gave origin to the heroic, self-sacrificing and self-blasting spirit of the brave red hawks of Songun Korea.
he praised the unit for maintaining with good care the plane and always keeping it fully ready to make sortie and thereby letting it take the lead in flight drills at all times.
It is necessary to intensify training in order to shed less blood in battle, he noted, calling upon airmen to intensify the training so that they may satisfactorily perform combat flight mission including take- off and landing under the worst conditions. He said that airmen should make it part of their life and habit to undergo training with the help of modern piloting training equipment while flying aircraft a lot and thus make the unit intensify the training
Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea and first chairman of the DPRK National Defence Commission, Monday visited Unit 447 of the KPA Air and Anti-Air Force honored with the title of O Jung Hup-led 7th Regiment and planted trees with fighter pilots of the unit.
On the same day, he went round a monument to the merits of 14 stalwart fighters, who displayed the suicidal-attack spirit, at the unit. This monument was built, under the deep care of the Supreme Commander, to convey the heroic feats performed by the 14 fighter pilots in the operation to ensure the successful launch of satellite Kwangmyongsong-2.
Citing North Korea's earlier news reports, South Korean officials said that at least one of the 14 airmen was killed due to a jet crash on the eve of the rocket launch.
"It's presumed that a pilot was killed as a MiG-23 fighter jet crashed into the waters near the launch site in Tonghae while conducting a patrol flight against a possible attempt to intercept the rocket," a unification ministry official told reporters on background.
The pilot received a posthumous medal and 13 others were awarded watches with the name of Kim Jong Il, he added.
... plans of the Kim Jong Il administration for economic prosperity by 2012 - the centenary of the birth of founding father Kim Il Sung - in a bid to complete its membership of the three elite clubs of nuclear, space and economic powers.
Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, today in Poland, only 24 days before the DPRK's founder and leader, Kim Il Sung, on 23 March 1912.
Affiliated with the German Nazi party, and himself promoted SS officer, von Braun served his national socialist masters and worked for the German war effort designing the Aggregat ballistic missiles.
Soon after Germany's unconditional surrender of May 1945, von Braun would lead the surrender of his entire team only to serve his new American captors.
The Germans' collaboration would be pivotal for the new hegemonic U.S. war machine, by developing the world first satellite carriers in less than a year after von Braun's arrival on 20 September 1945 in Fort Strong, Boston.
The April 2012 launch of Kwangmyongsong-3 is meant to celebrate the 100th birth anniversary of leader Kim Il Sung, greatest and indomitable anti fascist guerilla commander, while totally keeping in the shadow his predecessor's, eternal lackey of the militarists and stooge of the imperialist puppet masters.
http://www.naenara.c...10/10109/10.jpg http://www.naenara.c...109 10 english ▲ "Guerrilla warfare is a method of armed struggle which will enable us to deal heavy political and military blows to the enemy while preserving our own forces, and to defeat the numerically or technically superior enemy even with small forces." - Kim Il Sung, Mingyuegou, Yanji County, December 16, 1931
https://www.zum.de/F...sonen_24_gr.jpg https://www.zum.de/F...personen_24.htm ▲ Auf einem Bild mit Hitler: Des Führers Raketenspezialist Wernher von Braun (5. Reihe Mitte) und sein militärischer Förderer Walter Dornberger (2. Reihe rechts), damals Oberst im Heereswaffenamt. Die Aufnahme entstand am 23. März 1939 auf dem Artillerieschießplatz Kummerdorf bei Berlin - Ort der Versuche mit dem ersten einer Reihe immer leistungsfähigerer Vorläufermodelle der V2. Damals war Wernher von Braun bereits Mitglied der NSDAP. Ein Jahr später trat er auch der SS bei. Wernher von Braun and his team on 23 March 1939, posing with Adolf Hitler in Berlin.
此次发射实用型卫星在三年前的2009年4月发射光明星二号之际就已预告过 The launch of an Application Satellite was first announced three years ago in April 2009, during the launch of Kwangmyongsong-2.
在这一过程中于1998年8月发射了首颗试验卫星光明星一号，并在此后十年研究成果的基础上发射了光明星二号卫星，按计划完成国家宇宙开发展望计划的第一阶段目标。 The First Phase of the Korean space program included the launch of a first experimental satellite Kwangmyongsong-1 in August 1998 and ten years later of a second experimental telecommunication satellite Kwangmyongsong-2 in 2009.
在达成计划第一阶段后的目标将是发射国家经济发展所必须的用于通讯、资源探测、气象预报等领域的实用型卫星并使其正常运行。 The Next Phase of the Korean space program includes launching telecommunication, teledetection/ressource and meteorological satellites.
WASHINGTON--A senior North Korean government official informed the United States before the death of Kim Jong Il was announced in December of its plan to launch a satellite, according to a former senior U.S. government official.
In an article for a U.S. research institute, Evans Revere, who served as acting assistant secretary of state under the administration of President George W. Bush, wrote that the decision to carry out the launch is highly likely to have been made by the late North Korean leader.
Revere therefore hinted that the launch would be unavoidable, as "his son and successor was in no position to reverse that decision."
Revere met with the North Korean official on Dec. 15 and was told about the planned launch of what some people believed to be a missile.
The meeting is believed to have taken place in New York.
Kim Jong Un, has ordered the Korean Committee for Space Technology to invite a bevy of experienced foreign experts on space science and technology and journalists to observe the satellite liftoff at the country's ultra-modern satellite launch center.
There are two reasons for Kim Jong Un's decision: One is to provide the promised maximum transparency for the launch and the other is to add to the festive nature of the celebratory event. Obviously, there is nothing to conceal about the peaceful satellite launch,
the payload mounted on the Unha (Milky Way) rocket is a polar-orbiting observation satellite. It is designed to transmit important prospecting data on the underground resources of the Korean Peninsula, as well as weather and mapping data.
A: Kwangmyongsong-3 has video camera mounted on it and will send observation data including pictures to the General Satellite Control and Command Centre. It weighs 100kg and will circle along the solar synchronous orbit at 500km high altitude. Its life is two years.
The DPRK is to launch a working satellite, Kwangmyongsong-3, manufactured by itself with indigenous technology to mark the 100th birth anniversary of President Kim Il Sung.
A spokesman for the Korean Committee for Space Technology said this in a statement Friday.
After successfully launching two experimental satellites, DPRK scientists and technicians have steadily conducted scientific researches to develop and utilize working satellites indispensable for the country's economic development in line with the government's policy for space development and peaceful use.
Through the researches they have made a drastic progress in the field of space science and technology and laid solid material and technological foundations for working satellite launches and operation.
Kwangmyongsong-3, a polar-orbiting earth observation satellite, will be blasted off southward from the Sohae Satellite Launching Station in Cholsan County, North Phyongan Province between April 12 and 16, lifted by carrier rocket Unha-3.
A safe flight orbit has been chosen so that carrier rocket debris to be generated during the flight would not have any impact on neighboring countries.
The DPRK will strictly abide by relevant international regulations and usage concerning the launch of scientific and technological satellites for peaceful purposes and ensure maximum transparency, thereby contributing to promoting international trust and cooperation in the field of space scientific researches and satellite launches.
North Korea reportedly informed on March 16, the ITU headquarters in Geneva of the satellite launch stating, "We will launch the earth observation satellite Kwangmyongsong-3 (Shining Star-3), some time between 7AM and 12AM within the 12th-16th time period of next month."
The satellite will broadcast remote data in the UHF band and video in the X-band, the ITU quoted the DPRK" notification as saying.
The UHF band runs from around 300MHz to 3GHz and has several chunks of frequency reserved for satellite use. It's commonly used by satellites to send data back to earth.
The X-band runs from around 7GHz to 12GHz and is most often used via satellite for military and government communications.