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Asymmetrical Aircraft Motor


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#1 Vanka Savolov

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Posted 11 October 2017 - 10:26 PM

Greetings everyone.

 

The information found in this thread is entered into the Public Domain as open source information for all to contemplate, improve upon and use for personal and national benefit. This information is not intended to be monopolized for the sole benefit of personal nor corporate profits. This is my gift to the world to use in a responsible and peaceful manner. I have no qualms if this aircraft motor is used in matters of national self-defense, and I would, if I could forbid such use for aggressive attacks upon other nations. To follow the same line of reasoning as 'mutually assured destruction' (MAD) this concept will place all Nations on an equal footing, where propeller driven aircraft apply.  I want/wish to see peace in the world and non-polluting, energy efficient technologies of every sort to become an everyday experience in everyone's life... a new status quo.

 

The following presentation is and introduction to asymmetrical electrical systems as such applies to aircraft motors. Also included here is a diagram of a contra-rotating propeller mechanism, which is the first drawing presented. A glossary of terms will be posted in a separate thread titled "A glossary of terms" and it will include a broad range of terms covering everything I plan to present and such will be updated as necessary. All text relating to a particular drawing will be present at the bottom of said drawing save for the drawing's title and brief description. What I intend to do is to present a progression of information whose details increases to advance the understanding in concept theory in relatively small portions. In order to keep this thread clean, I ask that any questions or comments are brought up as a separate topic where any copy/paste of relevant subject matter is welcome and encouraged... just keep it out of this thread (please).

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Rotor design layout for a single two-pole, split phase section.

rotor_bearing_assemb.2.png

I had articulated in the 'Overture' thread, to a fair degree, the rotor design. The drawing above is a 'rough draft' that depicts the basic layout of just one rotor section, with a change in concept regards the contra-rotating propeller assembly as it relates to the stationary tube and its pinion rack. The proper spacing of the ring-gears in relation to the pinion gears can be done effectively with shim washers, during assembly. There are eight such sections that fall between the cradles as describe... in time I will edit that narrative into this presentation to clarify the intent thereof. What is not shown in this drawing are the nuts that properly seat/tighten the roller-bearings to their respective races. These nuts are all located at the end, which is opposite of the propellers. The spline lock plate is removable to allow the rotor's bearing tightening nut to be removed from the stationary tube. The upper cradle block section can be removed to allow for removal of the entire rotor assembly, without disassembling its various components.

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This drawing represents a basic layout of 'off-the-shelf' components as well as some uniquely designed components configured into a single module design that is fully serviceable in that these modules can be removed and replaced as the motor is in operation.

mogen_circuit_version_8.png

There are a few fundamental design changes to this circuit when compared to other such attempts of conveying its functioning. The most notable change is the addition of a pulse-width-modulator (PWM) in place of a voltage regulator, as indicated in previous drawings. The initial intent was to have the motor operate at charge voltages, and this diagram brings that aspect, back to the fore. There are other motor speed control circuits that may prove to work better than a PWM circuit. What is unknown at present is the power usage of these off-the-shelf components as they are all symmetrical circuit designs that are known to be energy hungry. It could be that special circuits will need to be designed to cut/limit unnecessary energy losses. But for now, this is the system's configuration for experimental purposes... just to see what the actual efficiency of this design is. There is a need to dissipate the back-flow of electromotive forces, flowing out of the stator coil sets--when the contacts open, and so, whatever inefficiency is found in said components may prove to be a positive attribute, to meet that end. 

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This chart depicts the on cycles of each coil set through a single rotation of the rotor shaft in relation to said coil's respective switches and their firing sequence in relation to the rotor's position.

graph8x8.jpg

Three coil sets are on at all times, in varying stages of their cycles. For instance when coil set # 5 starts its cycle,  # 3 is midway through its cycle and # 7 is at the end of its cycle. Every coil set is on for an approximate 3/8ths of its cycle where it is off for the remainder of 5/8ths of its cycle. There is a set firing sequence that is out of order in relation to the inline switches, and this order is: 8-5-3-7-2-6-4-1. V8 combustion engines have a similar firing sequence.

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A special note regarding the coil set's ohms rating: 14 ohms for these coils is a 'soft' rating for an asymmetrical system, however, if these coils were wound at 12 ohms, the horsepower of this motor will increase by a measurable amount. At 14 ohms, the watt rating (according to ohms law) is: 504 watts per set-- where if 12 ohm coils were used, the watt rating would be: 588 watts per set. In electrical terms, there are 746 watts per 1 unit of horse power and so, if you multiply 588 times 8 (Pt) you'll get: 4,704 watts which converts to 6.3 horsepower. Now pay close attention here, these motors use 1/9 the energy to achieve the same amount of work and so: 6.3x9= 56.7 Hp per motor and where there is to be one such motor on each wing for a total of 113.4 Hp... and that's just its electrical rating, without factoring in the power held within the permanent magnets.

 

To know what its actual output is, this motor must be tested under load. I was getting an estimated fractional HP of 3/5ths--with a two-pole split-phase design, using a 2 inch rotor at 36Vdc--where the coils were rated at 7.5 ohms per set, and where many 25Lbs-pull round-disk (1/4"x 3/4") permanent magnets were stacked eight high, and 3-3/4 inches wide in their parallel arrangement. This current concept runs at 88Vdc (charge voltage for 84Vdc), the rotor is 5 inches in diameter and the permanent magnets have 290Lbs of pull force, when combining both ends of the magnet... so go figure the difference.

 

(I'm being conservative in my presentation here as my experiments show much higher efficiencies.) As you can tell from this example, this system, as it stands, is for smaller aircraft... but it's all scale-able to meet whatever demand you choose.  

 

If one dares to take a chance, it is possible to use a source voltage of 96Vdc at 12 ohms for the coil set, which figures to 768 watts per coil set or slightly over 1HP.


Edited by Vanka Savolov, 15 October 2017 - 04:05 PM.

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#2 Vanka Savolov

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Posted 13 October 2017 - 01:53 AM

I plan to present no more than three drawings per post.

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This next drawing shows the layout for the rotor shaft in relation to the generator/stator coils and the location of the module.

rotor_and_coils.png

This drawing is mostly self explanatory--the switch in the module is a close approximation of the switch's actual placement, however said switch will rest closer to a 45 degree angle than the 90 degree angle shown. The overall height of the motor is determined by the coils and their placement within the framework, which will be presented in another drawing. If the coils are wound flat, they then can be pressed in to shape. 

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This drawing depicts the ring-gear assemblies--which include the propeller mounting flanges, the pinion-gear rack and its shaft mounting surface and the various shafts with vital features.

ring_pinion_shaft2.png

Take note of the stop collars, which limits the distance these shafts must extend beyond the leading edge of the wing they are mounted in, on or under. The propellers are mounted to each ring gear assembly--where said aft assembly is mounted forward in its respective propeller and where the forward propeller's assembly is mounted aft. The forward propeller is mounted after the ring gear assembly is first mounted to its respective shaft. Shim washers are placed on the center tube, between its stop collar and its respective bearing to allow for proper meshing of the pinion gears to the aft ring gear. Similar shim washers are placed on the forward propeller's shaft at its stop collar for proper meshing with its respective ring-gear. Once all of this is set in place and properly spaced, then all the shaft nuts can be tightened to finish the propeller/shaft installation.

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This drawing is a complete layout of the coils, base frame, various shafts, et cetera. It also indicates rotor magnet placement.

rotor_frame.png

Starting from the left at 0 degrees, the first rotor magnet (north pole) is located at top-dead-center the shaft and the south pole is located at bottom-dead-center. Each north pole is set at 45 degrees, right of top-dead-center until the last one (# 8) finishes at 315 degrees left of top-dead-center. I still cannot find enough information to give a reasonable HP rating with the B-field of the permanent magnet factored in.


Edited by Vanka Savolov, 13 October 2017 - 08:59 PM.

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#3 Vanka Savolov

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Posted 14 October 2017 - 02:31 AM

fiber-optic.png

Here is a link to some LEDs that will work with the fiber-optic speed control system...ultra-bright LEDs These LEDs show the best spread pattern that will flood the ends of the fiber-optic strands at the LED coupling end of the cable. It appears that the LED will need to stand off of the ends of the fiber-optic strands about 1/4 inch to properly flood all of the ends equally. That LED is rated at 3.2~3.4 volts, and so, the average voltage rating is 3.3 volts per LED. Dividing 88 by 3.3 indicates that there is a need of 27 LEDs to create an effective dissipation circuit.

 

I'm considering a circuit that will allow for the adjust-ability of both current and voltage. This will allow for the trimming of both should the system give off too much energy at high speed. To do this, another set of CdS cells will be added to the 'fixed' part of the regulator to make it adjustable (again). A second fiber-optic cable will run along side the other one to independently control said current/voltage. 

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This drawing depicts a clear view of the rotor's magnet placement and a work-up of the framework.

framework.png

This framework is shown assembled, top and side view, and halved top and side view. These coils set into a recess of which a cross-section is not shown to better illustrate. On the end-view drawing of this framework, there is a flat edge that mates with the base frame's stanchions to position it, and to a prevent the whole assembly from spinning when the motor is in operation.

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Here'a the panel/cover layout, module design, cut-away views and the like.

panel-cover.png

The lime green rectangle is both a receptacle (electrical connector) and positioning guide. On the backside of the module, there is a plug that fits said receptacle. The use of small button magnets is tentative, because I'm not sure if said magnets will interfere with the rotor magnets. It seems that these magnets are set far away enough so as to not have any effect on the rotor. Take note in the cut-away views, left and right of the panel, of the stanchions that protrude downward so as to mate with the framework at the same location as the upward stanchions on the base frame. I yet to find a reason as to why that mounting/holding method will not work. I have reworked the module to show a more proper angle at the bottom end, where the switch is. Take a good hard look at all of that... 


Edited by Vanka Savolov, 15 October 2017 - 03:20 AM.

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#4 Vanka Savolov

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Posted 16 October 2017 - 03:42 PM

This post starts with some warnings and reality checks. Some may think of 'Murphy's Law as a joke, but in the engineering world, such is a stark reality. The general meaning behind Murphy's Law is: leave nothing to chance. So far, what has been presented here is many rough-drafts and open thoughts as well as some sound theory regarding this particular motor design. The need to stress rigid engineering standards is of paramount importance here. For example: some of these drawings indicate just four mounting bolts on the base-frame... which would leave too much to chance if any two of these bolts should loosen. The minimum number of mounting bolts is 10--5 down each side of the base. The panel/cover must have sides/top thick enough to withstand the stresses placed upon them due to the forces being applied by the coils on the rotor shaft, because this panel/cover works as a stator coil framework mounting/positioning device.

 

I should just restore all the previous drawings in the 'overture' thread so that any new designers out there can get a clear picture in their mind of what it is like to contemplate and express design theory. This statement always holds true: "well, it looked good on paper"... and quite typically it actually dose look 'very good', but once reality sets in, after all settles in the mind after viewing and reviewing said design drafts, a clearer picture of a possibly better way usually presents itself. It is a very good idea to be able to work out as much as possible while it is just lines/shapes on paper. To work out the various view perspectives e.g. top, side, front, back, cross-sections and cut-a-ways will generally reveal the many faults in the early stages of design. Once there's enough certainty that everything possible is as correct as it can get, then its time to build a proof-of-concept device, from which an actual prototype may come in to being. Think smart, give it due diligence, remember Murphy's Law and you will be on your way to producing a safe and reliable system. Good luck! I'm here to discuss whatever, whenever... panel/cover modification drawing to follow.

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Here is the modified panel layout, plus a simple wiring schematic and module modification is included.

modified_panel.png

The position of the receptacle has changed as well as the size of the module, and I've included the fiber-optic coupling at the panel. The rotary switch is shown as a package without a source voltage connected and there's a servo motor attached to step-charge the running capacitors.

The bottom panel is a depiction of the back of a panel for a left-hand mounted motor... assuming one is sitting in the pilot's seat. This drawing does not show the voltage control 'trim' circuit and its control thingy-wingy. (that's your average slang these days.) Note: somehow I misidentified the stator coil color code in the circuit diagram, the coils are shown in orange and where the legend indicates same in gold, which matches the end/cross section view. I'm not going to revise that drawing, so just make a mental note that that part of the drawing is wrong... just wrong.

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This drawing shows the wiring for the stator coil firing sequence.

panel-coil_wiring_diagram.png

Remember that the inline switches do not fire the inline coils in the same sequence in which they are numbered--because the magnet arrangement on the rotor shaft is off-set. To fire the coil in the proper sequence in relation to its switch, the circuit must be wired as shown. Just follow the paired-gold lines from the switches to their respective coils and take note of the firing sequence number of the coil that will be 'on' when the rotor magnet actuates that particular switch. The only time coil # 1 will be on, is when switch # 8 is actuated, and so on. Remember that any arching over any line(s) means that these lines (wires) are not connected within the circuit/diagram. Also take note that the generator coil numbers correspond directly with the switch numbers.

 

Before this thread is closed out, I plan to present the many pole arrangements for two, four and six pole rotors that can be used for many other applications other than aircraft. Also, I will work up some drawings of the simplest of circuit designs that leaves out any electronic circuitry. What you will discover are split, one and one and a half phase motors well suited for fan, pump and drive motors for whatever you wish to use such for. The one drawback of a straight forward design (no frills) is contact burn/wear... if you do not dissipate the energy flowing out of the stator coil when the switch opens, the contacts will wear-out quickly due to pitting of the contact's surface.  

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Here's one of those "no duh, Vanka" drawings... it shows the motor placement within the wings (top view).

top-view_AAM.png

The little zigzag lines indicate that the sections have been shortened meaning that there is much more to the dimensions than indicated.  I almost added pilot seats and the fiber-optic speed control, which would have been located between said seats, in a traditional manner.

 

I forgot to include the dust cover over the bearings at the back-end of these motors... just picture a yellow square over the end that shows the spline plate.


Edited by Vanka Savolov, Today, 02:07 PM.

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#5 Vanka Savolov

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Posted 18 October 2017 - 08:58 PM

One last idea before I move on to the next phase of this presentation...

8-phase_theory.png

I had mentioned to place the second rotor at 90 or 45 degrees to the first rotor, however, orienting these rotors like that will not produce an 8-phase motor. The correct orientation would be at 22.5 degrees, so that the firing sequences of the second rotor falls between that of the first. The math is simple, since the first rotor's magnets are set at a 45 degree off-set, the second rotor must fall between that at 22.5 degrees in its fixed position to the first rotor, or the two rotors will basically fire in phase with each other, where a duplicate phasing occurs instead of a true phasing.

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The next set of missives are intended to mitigate the effects of those who know "just enough to be dangerous".  All that was presented prior is intended for those individuals whom have a firm grasp of the workings of such devices. There's enough information there to give these devices a run for their money.

 

What's up and coming are some simple forms of the same design which will give plenty to one's understanding of what these things can do. To start with, I will present a drawing of a two-pole rotor with 6 ohm stator coils, running at 24 Vdc--which is a great place to start... every thing from there is either upped in voltage and/or doubled, tripled, quadrupled, etc. in terms of pole/coil, configurations. There are many options for switches, and you can bet that you'll  burn-out most, if not all of these switches as you experiment. During this whole half of the presentation, I will be driving home the importance of keeping your wits about you and will provide all the terminology necessary in a 'Glossary Of Terms' which will be presented in another thread.

 

After that, there is another motor design that is more complex in both its design and function, but it's a wonder of a motor because, it too, doesn't operate in any conventional manner and it is highly efficient, energy wise. This motor requires a bit of knowledge of math, regards this formula: T=RC which I had mentioned in another post and I will fully explain what it means and how it is applied.  Once a good understanding of these motors is gained, you'll be on your way to dreaming of your own designs and/or ways of improving on what's been presented here.

 

Cheers!

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Here's two drawings two contemplate. (I've combined them on a single page.)

two-pole.jpg

Drawing # 1 is a most basic circuit that includes a BEMF capture circuit. This is a 'split phase' (half phase) motor that will surprise you in both energy efficiency and output torque. I'm suggesting that anyone whom has never tried to build anything electrical to start with this model, without the BEMF circuit. The 'CEC' in this drawing stands for "Cold Electrical Circuit" and if you build this right, while maintaining a proper gap between the switch contacts, it will operate at room temperature. Use two 12 volt batteries in series (+ to - from one battery to the next) for a 24 volt source. Find some magnetic wire with a gauge size of 22 or 20 or 18 gauge. You'll need to construct a frame of sorts to hold the bearings/shaft and coils positioned as shown. The switch can be made of any conductive metal that you can fix a magnet to, and also have it pivot in a way so that the pivot point is center the magnet end and the contact end. There will are strong forces applied to this lever switch, and so the whole pivot mechanism must be a rigid as possible, where need be, and as free as possible on its pivot to allow the contacts to open and close as rapid as the rotor will spin... and spin it will.

 

Drawing # 2 shows a twin two-pole rotor set up that equals one full phase. I've presented a commutator and brush system that should work as well as any other device of that nature. However, I suggest placing switches in place of the brushes for the sake of simplicity. Have fun!

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How to arrange magnets on a rotor to allow for inline switches.

1-1.5_phase_rotors.png

The top rotor drawing is for a 1.5 phase motor where each of its magnet's north poles are placed at 60 degrees to the next magnet's north pole. The bottom drawing is for a 1 phase motor where its magnetic poles are set at 180 degrees. Without the aid of a machine shop you can construct the various shafts geometries by sleeving a square, hexagonal or octagonal tube onto a round shaft--where a roll-pin is used to fix the two together.

 

When/if you construct one of these motors, always bear in mind that you will have very fast moving parts. After the magnets are set in place, you must tape them with a strong 'strapping' tape or use an aluminum tape designed for sealing duct work. There are other ways to fashion magnets to a shaft, for instance, if all you have are 1/4 inch diameter, long-bolts to work with, cut a bolt in to two lengths to match the length of the magnet, and then place the bolt intended to act as the shaft, between the two shorter lengths. Set a magnet on all three pieces and align it all center to the shaft bolt (cut-off the bolt head). There isn't much one can do to balance a rotor configuration of this nature, but you can evenly space the two cut pieces and fill all voids with hot glue before you set the second magnet in place. All you'll need is a set of bearings with a 1/4 inch inside diameter (I.D.), some type of framework, (made of wood) and a switch made of non-ferrous metal.

 

If you have some 10AWG copper wire, you can cut several pieces in even lengths (about 1.5 inches) where you solder all of them lengthwise and one of these pieces crosswise at dead center as you can make it. You'll need to find some type of sleeve into which the cross piece ends will fit tight enough for free movement but not so loose that it has trouble aligning to its mating contact. In the next post, I'll present some drawings of how to use junk, or whatever to build/prove these asymmetrical motor designs. Plus I'll include how to make jigs for winding consistent coil sizes. 


Edited by Vanka Savolov, Today, 03:25 PM.

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