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Nipah: Could a little-known virus become the next global pandemic?

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#1 grog

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Posted 28 May 2018 - 02:12 PM

Nipah:

Could a little-known virus become the next global pandemic?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
May 28, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A little-known virus discovered 20 years ago could become the next global pandemic.
 
A recent outbreak in South India has renewed interest in Nipah virus, a disease that generally spreads from bats or pigs to humans and kills nearly three-quarters of those infected. It has no vaccine and no cure. The virus has so far killed 11 in the current outbreak, with 14 additional cases confirmed. It has many strains capable of spreading from person to person, which increases the chances of a strain emerging that rapidly spreads among South Asia's densely populated communities and beyond.
 
Among other Nipah research, Stanford scientists have illustrated potential pathways between people and bat secretions, shown Nipah contaminating hospital surfaces and piloted a way of preventing transmission. Stanford epidemiologist and Nipah expert Stephen Luby has co-authored recent work linking changes in temperature with the virus's spread from bats to humans and examining the impact of behavioral changes that reduce the likelihood of people consuming potentially virus-contaminated tree sap.
 
Luby spoke with Stanford Report about risks posed by the current Nipah virus outbreak and interventions that could slow or halt its transmission.
 
How might Nipah adapt to more efficient human-to-human transmission and thereby become a global pandemic threat?
 
It is conceivable that there is currently a strain of Nipah virus circulating among bats that, if it infected people, would efficiently transmit from person to person. So far, we have not identified such a strain.
 
Characteristics that might increase the risk of person-to-person transmission would be a virus that has a stronger tendency to move to the respiratory tract in high numbers. It is conceivable that the virus could acquire a mutation that would enhance this capacity. One concern is that anytime a virus infects a human, it is in an environment that selects for survival in that context.
 
What role, if any, does land conversion have in altering the epidemiology of infectious diseases, including the emergence of novel infections such as Nipah? 
 
The natural habitat for Nipah-carrying Pteropus bats is tropical forests. As these forests have been converted into agricultural lands, the bats have sought out other sources of food. In Bangladesh, the virus moves from bats to people because the bats are licking fresh date palm sap and so passing their saliva - which occasionally is infected with Nipah virus - on to people who drink the sap. Because of habitat loss, Pteropus bats in Australia are more likely to stay in suburbs where fruit trees are available, and people and horses are nearby. The bats have halted much of their annual migration because of habitat loss.
 
Why are emerging diseases such as Nipah important to study?
 
Emerging infections have resulted in the most devastating infectious diseases that humanity has ever faced. These include HIV, tuberculosis, measles and smallpox. History has taught us that emerging infections can be major threats.
 
How can the global community thoughtfully respond to the threat?
 
Both Ebola outbreaks and hospital-based transmission of Nipah illustrate that hospitals in low-income countries are important sites for transmission of potential pandemic organisms. We cannot predict which organism is likely to be the next pandemic, nor are we likely to have everyone vaccinated against these unknown threats. There has been much less enthusiasm for efforts to reduce the risk of transmission in low-income country hospitals. This requires addressing difficult problems with adequate supplies, behavior and accountability. In addition to developing vaccines and drugs, improving conditions in health care facilities is a key step for reducing global risk. As an example, Lily Horng of Stanford has published nice work on the difficulty of implementing basic hand hygiene practices in Bangladesh hospitals.
 
Investing in research to develop and test new strategies for sustaining improved infection control practices in low-income country hospitals would be a particularly useful area for research. It would also be useful to enhance surveillance, so we have a better idea about where the human cases are occurring, how many there are, what strains are involved and what pathway the virus is using to infect people.
 
Nipah was discovered 20 years ago, and there is still no vaccine. Why? 
 
Vaccine development requires large amounts of money. The number of people infected with Nipah is small, and so, until very recently, there has been limited investment in developing a vaccine. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations recently announced plans to fund the development of a human vaccine against Nipah.
 
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#2 Mario Milano

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Posted 28 May 2018 - 02:29 PM

Colloidal silver, problem solved. Buy some


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#3 grog

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Posted 28 May 2018 - 02:48 PM

 
 
 
 
 
 

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#4 RobertD

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Posted 28 May 2018 - 04:43 PM

Colloidal silver, problem solved. Buy some


Make it, much cheaper.
Buy two silver bullion coins, use a 9v battery and two wires in a glass of water.

Problem solved.
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#5 Ivan88

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Posted 29 May 2018 - 03:12 PM

Talmudists used small pox against Native Americans.

United States Congress invented AIDS to kill Africans.

They probably invented Ebola and this Nipah stuff too.


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#6 Mario Milano

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Posted 29 May 2018 - 03:35 PM

Talmudists used small pox against Native Americans.
United States Congress invented AIDS to kill Africans.
They probably invented Ebola and this Nipah stuff too.


Wasn't there a US bio chem lab smack bang in the middle of the ebola outbreak in Sierra Leane a couple of years ago?

Yep there was, and the Sierra Leone Government eradicated it by using colloidal silver....but the jew media kept that part really quiet
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#7 Ivan88

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Posted 30 May 2018 - 07:16 AM

Wasn't there a US bio chem lab smack bang in the middle of the ebola outbreak in Sierra Leane a couple of years ago?

Yep there was, and the Sierra Leone Government eradicated it by using colloidal silver....but the jew media kept that part really quiet

Big thanks, Mario for this little gem.... or shiny piece of white metal.

 

I read a testimony regarding an Ebola outbreak by some disease scientist who went to Africa to discover a source.  

He finally got to a remote medical center where the initial outbreak occurred, that was big on injections for solving health issues.   They re-used needles, supposedly washing them between uses.

The CIA could have arranged for Ebola to enter this situation, figuring that Ebola would spread.

One scientist who also went in search of Ebola source caught Ebola.  He suffered a lot to get to an airport, driven there by the first guy in this story.

On the plane, he was stuck in a plastic bubble like thing, and suffered more on the long flight to where the system was able to save him.


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#8 grog

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Posted 30 May 2018 - 11:32 AM

Characteristics of microorganisms most likely to cause a global pandemic
 
 
 
 
 
May 29, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary:
 
A potential global catastrophic risk-level pandemic pathogen will most likely have a respiratory mode of transmission; be contagious during the incubation period, prior to symptom development, or when infected individuals show only mild symptoms; and need specific host population factors (e.g., immunologically naïve persons) and additional intrinsic microbial pathogenicity characteristics (e.g., a low but significant case fatality rate) that together substantially increase disease spread and infection. RNA viruses are the biggest threat.
 
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FULL STORY
 
Infectious disease preparedness work focuses predominantly on an historical list of pathogens derived from biological warfare agents, political considerations, and recent outbreaks. That fails to account for the most serious agents not currently known or without historical precedent, write scholars from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in a new report on the traits of microorganisms with high pandemic potential.
 
The report, "The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens," establishes a framework for identifying naturally occurring microorganisms that pose a global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR) and makes broad recommendations for improving GCBR preparedness efforts. GCBRs are events in which biological agents could lead to a sudden, extraordinary, widespread disaster beyond the collective capability of national and international governments and the private sector to control. No exhaustive catalogue of GCBR culprits exists, leaving the health security community to rely on historical examples (e.g., 1918 Spanish Flu) to guide their preparedness priorities.
 
"Health security preparedness needs to be adaptable to new threats and not exclusively wedded to historical notions," said Amesh Adalja, MD, project lead and senior scholar at the Center. "A more active-minded approach to this problem will, in the end, help guard against a GCBR event occurring."
 
Adalja's project team included senior scholar Eric Toner, MD, and senior analyst Matthew Watson. To formulate the findings and recommendations in their report, they reviewed published literature and reports on emerging infectious disease characteristics, the pathogenic potential of microbes, and other related topics; interviewed more than 120 technical experts from academia, industry, and government; and convened a meeting of a subset of those experts to discuss preliminary analysis of the information the team had gathered.
 
The first and primary finding presented in the report outlines common characteristics of a potential GCBR-level pandemic pathogen. Its mode of transmission, the team concluded, will most likely be respiratory. It will be contagious during the incubation period, prior to symptom development, or when infected individuals show only mild symptoms. Finally, it will need specific host population factors (e.g., immunologically naïve persons) and additional intrinsic microbial pathogenicity characteristics (e.g., a low but significant case fatality rate) that together substantially increase disease spread and infection.
 
The report continues its findings with an explanation of the pandemic potential of certain categories of microbes, noting that RNA viruses are the biggest threat. The project team's preparedness-related findings are reflected in 8 key recommendations:
 
Preparedness against GCBR-level threats should have a focused approach with some flexibility.
 
Historical pathogen list-based approaches should not stand as permanent fixed ideas that stultify thinking on pandemic pathogens.
 
Improving surveillance of human infections from respiratory-borne RNA viruses should become a higher priority.
 
An increased emphasis on developing a specific pipeline of various antiviral agents for RNA respiratory viruses -- both broad spectrum and virus-specific -- would add resiliency against potential GCBR agents.
 
Vaccines against RNA respiratory viruses -- including a universal influenza vaccine -- should be pursued with increased priority.
 
A clinical research agenda for optimizing the treatment of respiratory-spread RNA viruses should be funded by pharmaceutical companies and medical device companies and pursued by clinical centers.
 
Special review is warranted for respiratory-borne RNA virus research that could increase pandemic risks.
 
Pursuing microbiologically specific diagnoses of infectious disease syndromes in all locations globally should become more routine.
 
"We hope policymakers and practitioners consider our recommendations in their work to strengthen health sector resilience and fortify pandemic preparedness," said Adalja.
 
 
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#9 grog

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Posted 05 June 2018 - 10:54 AM

The Terrifying Lessons of a Pandemic Simulation
 
 
 
 
 
 
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
A recent outbreak exercise held by the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security revealed vulnerabilities that are hardwired into the American system.Photograph by Palani Mohan / Getty
 
Iwas in the ballroom of the Mandarin Oriental in Washington, D.C., when the worst pandemic since the 1918 Spanish flu broke out. On cable news, there were reports of four hundred confirmed cases, mostly clustered in Frankfurt, Germany, but with infected individuals reported as far afield as Tokyo, Kabul, and Caracas. Brow furrowed, eyes widened, the anchorwoman's tone was urgent as she described the spread of a new type of parainfluenza virus, called Clade X. Transmitted through inhalation, it left the infected contagious but otherwise unaffected for up to week before killing more than ten per cent of its victims.
 
In the ballroom with me, seated around a U-shaped table under glittering chandeliers, were ten senior political figures, an ad-hoc working group convened at the President's request. The situation looked bad. At Ramstein Air Base, in southwest Germany, three U.S. service members were critically ill, and three infected Venezuelans warned that the outbreak there was much worse than authorities were admitting. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a vaccine would likely take more than a year to develop. Meanwhile, Australia, China, and South Africa had already imposed travel restrictions on flights from Germany and Venezuela. A bipartisan group of senators was calling for a similar travel ban; a recent poll had suggested that sixty-five per cent of the public supported them. "What should our priorities be?" the national-security adviser asked.
 
The room was divided. The health experts at the table warned against closing the borders. "This is an opportunity to do something that will achieve nothing except for diverting resources from real problems," the Secretary of Homeland Security said. The director of the C.D.C. noted that disrupting global supply chains was a terrible idea, given that most personal protective equipment is imported from overseas. The Secretary of Defense was not convinced. "Look, I'm not talking about going out with our hands waving and our hair on fire," he said. "But if the President is seen as not taking vigorous action, they're going to start firing from the Hill."
 
Fortunately-and, as you might have guessed by now-this was a fictional outbreak. "Clade X" was a daylong pandemic simulation held by the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, in May. The C.D.C. director was being played by a former holder of that job, the Secretary of Defense was the former Republican senator Jim Talent, and the Secretary of Homeland Security was played by Tara O'Toole, a former Under-Secretary in that department. Clade X turned out to be an engineered bioweapon, combining the virulence of Nipah virus with parainfluenza's ease of transmission. It had been intentionally released by A Brighter Dawn, a fictitious group modelled on the Japanese doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo, which carried out the sarin-gas attacks in the Tokyo subway system, in 1995. A Brighter Dawn's stated goal was to reduce the world's population to pre-industrial levels. By the end of the day, which represented twenty months in the simulation, they had managed to kill a perfectly respectable hundred and fifty million people. "America was just wiped out," Talent said, before heading to a post-event cocktail reception.
 
"Clade X" was a daylong pandemic simulation held by the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, in May.Photograph Courtesy Larry Canner / Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
 
This is the third major pandemic exercise that the Center for Health Security has run. The first, called Dark Winter, was held in 2001 and simulated a smallpox attack on Oklahoma. Its timing, just a few months before 9/11, made its terrifying outcome-the near-complete breakdown of government and civil society-deeply resonant. Dark Winter is credited, in part, with spurring George W. Bush to pass Directive 51, a largely classified plan to insure the continuity of government in the event of a "catastrophic emergency."
 
"I would say there has been enormous progress in our preparedness since then," Tom Inglesby, the center's director, who played the national-security adviser in Clade X, told me. These advances include new preparedness programs and offices at the C.D.C. and the Department of Health and Human Services; national stockpiling of vaccines and medications; and, at the international level, investments in emergency financing and infectious-disease infrastructure. According to an article that appeared last year in the British Medical Journal, however, the world remains "grossly underprepared." Philanthropist-in-chief Bill Gates drew on models developed by the Institute for Disease Modeling, a venture founded by his former Microsoft colleague Nathan Myhrvold, to warn that, at our current state of readiness, roughly thirty-three million people would die within the first six months of a global pandemic similar to the 1918 flu.
 
"Even with the progress that's been made, there are a lot of serious vulnerabilities," Inglesby told me. "The reason we wanted to do this now is because there are new leaders, and there are still large issues that have not been resolved." Some of these issues emerged during the Ebola crisis of 2014, when the United States came very close to shutting down air travel from the West African countries where the disease had broken out. Such a ban would have been in violation of the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations, to which the U.S. is a signatory; it also, in the opinion of most health professionals, would be both ineffective and counterproductive. "To contain a nasty outbreak like that, you need to move people; you need to move assets; you need labs, equipment, supplies, medicine, food all coming into West Africa," Inglesby explained.
 
But, while scientific opinion on the wisdom of travel bans is established, political and popular instinct lags behind-and it was here that the value of Clade X became apparent. As the experts at the table discussed the issue, it was clear that even those who initially leaned toward a ban, such as Talent, were perfectly willing to follow expert advice; they were just extremely sensitive to the pressures of public perception. Telling the average American that a travel ban wouldn't work "is not going to wash," Talent said. "This needs to be communicated in terms of their health-that a travel ban will detract from our ability to protect their health." None of the health professionals at the table had thought to frame their opposition to the ban this way, which left the politicians without the rhetoric they needed to reassure their constituents.
 
Many of the day's surprises involved the triumph of these kinds of intangible considerations over rational decision-making. Presented with a scenario in which limited supplies of the vaccine were going to be given to essential workers, including members of Congress and business leaders, rather than children and pregnant women, the table revolted. As acting Attorney General Jamie Gorelick put it, the correct advice may well be to put your own facemask on first before helping others-but leaving babies unprotected is not an option. Meanwhile, faced with a request for military support from Jordan, whose government, weakened by the outbreak, was under siege from terrorist groups, the group was unanimous in agreeing that the United States must continue to support its allies in the Middle East, despite the medical risk and the fact that eighty per cent of Americans thought that the mission was a bad idea. "A number of the players, a number of times, said the equivalent of 'We can't do this; it's not consistent with American values,' " Inglesby said. "When you're having a public-health debate about quarantine, say, or resource allocation, you don't always go to that level."
 
Some of the day's dilemmas revealed vulnerabilities that are hardwired into the American system. Some private hospitals, for instance, turned away Clade X patients in order to protect their shareholders. (By the end of the simulation, American health care had been forcibly nationalized.) Governors enacted state-level quarantines and border cordons. "In a serious outbreak, there will be federalism issues," Inglesby said. "They may be manageable. They may not be."
 
Several challenges, however, were ones that could be solved with more planning and investment. Julie Gerberding, a former director of the C.D.C., pointed out that global vaccine-manufacturing capacity is insufficient to meet projected demand during a worldwide pandemic. Margaret Hamburg, a former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration who was playing the Health Secretary, argued in favor of an idea that has been floating around without funding for years: a clinical corps, equipped to travel to the source of outbreaks and try to contain them there before they reach pandemic proportions.
 
Margaret Hamburg, a former Food and Drug Administration commissioner, played the Health Secretary during the Clade X simulation.Photograph Courtesy Larry Canner / Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
 
Even within the artificial confines of the simulation, there was a lack of leadership. Everyone agreed that the President had the final word on everything in general, but nobody seemed to be responsible for America's outbreak response specifically. The table returned endlessly to questions about who would brief Congress; who would be capable of authorizing an emergency deployment of military tents as civilian isolation units; who would call state governors to try to ensure a coördinated national response; and who, even, would attend all the funerals. As the former senator Tom Daschle, playing the Senate Majority Leader, complained, halfway through the day's exercise, "We're five months into this crisis and I still can't tell you who's in charge." Ironically, just a couple of days earlier, the person to whom this responsibility would have fallen in real life, Rear Admiral Tim Ziemer, had been removed from his position as the head of global health security on the White House's National Security Council after the Trump Administration cut funds for fighting pandemics.
 
"In a way, it's sad that we're still having these conversations," Gerberding told me, during a pause in the proceedings. Back in 2001, she helped lead the C.D.C.'s response to the anthrax attacks of that year. "We have a Department of Defense, we fund it pretty well, and it's pretty stellar," she said. "We still don't have that for this kind of defense."
 
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#10 grog

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Posted 17 June 2018 - 08:10 AM

Louisiana Water Supply Infected With Deadly Brain-Eating Parasite…Again
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
June 15, 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A potentially deadly brain-eating amoeba has been detected in a water supply in Pointe-aux-Chenes, Louisiana.
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This is the third time since 2015 that the organism has been found in the same district, but officials still insists tap water is safe to drink.
 
The organism does not cause illness if swallowed, but can be deadly if it gets up the nose.
 
RT reports: Naegleria fowleri, a parasite which causes fatal brain swelling and tissue destruction, was identified in Terrebonne water. All freshwater sources in the parish have been affected, including drinking water, water in the bayous and pools, and water used for showers and baths.
 
The fatality rate for those infected by the parasite is over 97 percent, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
 
Officials from Consolidated Waterworks say the water is "perfectly safe to drink" - it's just not safe to get up your nose. Infection occurs when water containing the amoeba enters the body through the nose and travels to the brain where it destroys tissue.
 
"Normally we see this amoeba in surface water when people go swimming and they get it way up in their sinuses and they'll get an infection," said Jimmy Guidry, Louisiana Department of Health's medical director. "They'll start getting symptoms that are similar to meningitis."
 
A notification was issued to residents in the community of Pointe-aux-Chenes, Sunday, and a 60-day pure chlorine wash has been applied to kill the microbes in the water.
 
This marks the third time in three years that the amoeba has been detected in the area. Last June, Terrebonne Parish's water system tested positive for the amoeba in Isle de Jean Charles, where it had also been found three years ago.'
 
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#11 Ivan88

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Posted 17 June 2018 - 05:05 PM

I once spent some time in a small town in Chihuahua, Mexico, and drank the water there. I noticed a lot of people there had a brown stain in their front teeth.

When I returned to California, I noticed that same brown stain on my teeth, which was blood coming out of the area between the tooth and the gums. 

It took several months of using  Listerine to get rid of it. I should have tried silver.

 

Regarding health benefits of silver,  I met a fellow that went to Chihuahua who had bluish lips from using so much silver internally.

I never heard whether he was immune to that water in Chihuahua.

 

Another aspect not mentioned is that using silver spoons & forks, & NON-stainless steel cooking utensils helps the Prostate, whereas using stainless steel untensils increases Prostrate problem.

Source of the problem is nickel in the stainless steel.   Nickel enhances bacterial activity and is a cause of some portion of female urinary infections.

 

And, using silver pitchers for drinking water etc. also increases one's bodily resistance to parasites, viruses and bacterial infections.

But all that is limited by some adulterants in our food supply such as propyl compounds.  Propyl alcohol, for example, is a toxin that enhances the ability of parasites, viruses and bacteria to invade ones body and even thrive there.

 

Another factor is that water reacts to our emotional mental state.  Be thankful and the atomic structure of water is beneficial. Be angry, vicious, arrogant, proud, etc., and the water's atomic structure is much less beneficial.


Edited by Ivan88, 17 June 2018 - 05:09 PM.

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