Jews Didn't Lead or Fund the Russian Revolution, and the Lenin / Stalin Death Toll Is Wildly Exaggerated
"In the Soviet days, Russian population had grown at steady average 0.60% per annum, double of that in the UK and France, and much more than in post-Soviet Russia. Russian Empire entered the WWI with 160 million population; the USSR had 210 million in 1959, impossible figures if you accept the multimillion figures of Stalin’s repression."
This is a discussion of some issues raised in a previous article by Ron Unz:
Back in those late Cold War days, the death toll of innocent civilians from the Bolshevik Revolution and the first two decades of the Soviet Regime was generally reckoned at running well into the tens of millions… I’ve heard that these numbers have been substantially revised downwards to perhaps as little as twenty million or so, but no matter.
Although determined Soviet apologists may dispute such very large figures, they have always been part of the standard narrative history taught within the West.
Meanwhile, all historians know perfectly well that the Bolshevik leaders were overwhelmingly Jewish… a few years ago Vladimir Putin stated that Jews constituted perhaps 80-85% of the early Soviet government, an estimate fully consistent with the contemporaneous claims of Winston Churchill, Times of London correspondent Robert Wilton, and the officers of … Both of these simple facts have been widely accepted in America throughout my entire lifetime.
“I was given a full access to all archives, I learned everything there is about Stalin’s victims, and I prepared a complete report. However, I decided to save it for some future time. If I were to publish it, [I’d probably lose my job, there will be no more grants], my friends would drop me like a hot potato, I’d remain alone, and nobody will believe me anyway”.
This frank admission had been made in 2012 by the high authority on Communist era repressions, the founder and the chairman of the Memorial, a Russian anti-Communist NGO, Dr Arseny Roginsky. (He recently had died and had been lamentedby his American supporters.) The Memorial is a designated foreign agent, in receipt of generous aid from the State Department and George Soros Foundation, and the chairman Dr Roginsky was a life-long enemy of the Soviets, a person not likely to err in the Reds’ favour.
What was this terrible truth that Dr Roginsky decided to hide? “According to my calculations, – he wrote, – in the entire Soviet period from 1918 to 1987, according to the surviving documents, it turned out that 7 million 100 thousand people were arrested by the state security agencies (the Russian equivalent of the FBI) across the country. And that includes those arrested for banditry, smuggling, counterfeiting. And for many other criminal offences.”
Before you say that seven million is also quite a lot, bear in mind that just last (2017) year, in the peacetime USA, over ten million persons had been arrested, admittedly not only by the FBI, as I couldn’t find their statistics. The Russian numbers relate to seventy years of rebellions, civil wars, the world war, cold war and over vast territory embracing the Ukraine, Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Baltic states and Russia proper.
Among those arrested by state security there were tens of thousands of Bandera fighters, far-right Ukrainian nationalists, who had fought on Nazi Germany’s side in the world war and had continued their fight well into nineteen-fifties. Over one hundred thousand of them were arrested and over 150 thousand were killed in action, here are details in Russian. The state security fought against and arrested numerous Islamic insurgents in Central Asia and in Caucasus mountains, the predecessors of al Qaeda and ISIS. The US Secret services supplied and armed the Baltic and Ukrainian rebels, while the Brits supplied the Islamic ones.
Despite these enormous difficulties, the Russian FBI (State Security) had arrested only seven million persons for seventy years; the majority of the arrested were common criminals or rebels, said Dr Roginsky and continued:
“Here is the final figure of 7 million for the whole Soviet period. What should I do with this research?
The public opinion says there were 12 million arrested only for 1937-1939. I belong to this society, I live among these people, I am a part of them. I knew for sure that, first, they would not believe me. And, secondly, it would mean that everything that we were told about the figures until now is untrue.
And I put all my calculations aside. For a long time. And there was no right time yet”.
The Russian (as well as the Western) public had been taught very different numbers. 40 million were killed by Stalin, said Roy Medvedev, a noted dissident; 80 million, said Antonov-Ovseenko; 100 million, said the grey cardinal of Perestroika, a close associate of Gorbachev, A. Yakovlev, and his opinion was especially important, for it was introduced as the ‘full truth and nothing but truth’ in the critical years 1987-1991. This number included “children that weren’t born, but could be born”, he added in sotto voce, learning probably from pro-life calculations of millions killed in abortion clinics. He was anyway overtaken by the assassinated opposition leader Boris Nemtsov, who counted (in 2003) 150 million of Stalin’s victims, quite a lot for a country of 200 million!
After that, 7 million sounds quite a pedestrian number. Real numbers are even lower. Two best and most reliable documents regarding numbers of imprisoned and killed in Stalin’s days are (1) The Attorney General et al report to Nikita Khrushchev in 1954, saying 2.5 million were imprisoned for all Soviet period, and 600 thousand sentenced to death, and (2) Dr Victor Zemskov painstaking research, well known for its thoroughness. Zemskov had studied activities of the state security bodies from 1921 to 1954, and he discovered that in this period 650 thousand persons have been sentenced to death (not all of them were actually executed) and 2.3 million were sentenced to prison terms. That’s for 33 difficult years of Stalin’s rule. That’s all, folks.
Zemskov also provided numbers for each year. In the terrible 1937, there were 1,2 million prisoners in GULAG. Compare it with the US: in 2013, – 2,2 million adults were incarcerated in US federal and state prisons, and county jails. About 1% of adults in the U.S. resident population, 0.8% for the USSR. Additionally, in the US 4,75 million were on probation or on parole, says Wikipedia. There were fewer prisoners in Gulag than in American penitentiary system. For more careful comparison see here.
So much for the claims about terrible bloodiness of Russian history and of the Bolshevik rule! In the Soviet days, Russian population had grown at steady average 0.60% per annum, double of that in the UK and France, and much more than in post-Soviet Russia. Russian Empire entered the WWI with 160 million population; the USSR had 210 million in 1959, impossible figures if you accept the multimillion figures of Stalin’s repression.
If it is so, why does “the standard narrative history taught within the West” uses those huge numbers? The main reason is fear of communism, a very reasonable and justifiable (for rich guys) fear of losing their millions and billions. It makes sense for them to spend some of their capital persuading you that Communism is bad for you, while it is only bad for them. They lied so much and so efficiently that they convinced everybody. Even a poor American or Englishman is afraid of Communism, for the Communists will take all he has including his wife and kids, and they will send him directly to GULAG.
A few days ago, President Trump said at the UN:
“Virtually everywhere, socialism or communism has been tried. It has produced suffering, corruption, and decay. Socialism’s thirst for power leads to expansion, incursion, and oppression. All nations of the world should resist socialism and the misery that it brings to everyone.”
The nations of the world had laughed. Trump’s dislike of socialism is a good recommendation for it. In the same speech, he lauded two exemplary countries, Israel and Saudi Arabia. They are good for him and bad for us. ‘Socialism or communism’ are awful – for billionaires like Trump. They are wonderful for ordinary people.
The problem is, Trump and other rich guys are not going to allow you to have socialism. That’s why, after this tirade, Trump continued: “Today, we are announcing additional sanctions against [Venezuela’s] repressive regime, targeting Maduro’s inner circle and close advisers.” If you want to have socialism, you’ll get US sanctions, interventions, blockade, war. They will try to make you miserable, so you’ll regret the moment you chose socialism.
American workers had miserable lives before Russia broke the way to socialism in 1917; they had it rather good while Russia was socialist; and they reverted to misery in 1991, when socialism was dismantled in Russia. All the achievements of Russian socialism – 8-hour working day, pensions, health care, protected tenancy, paid holidays, annual leave, no arbitrary sackings, – were adopted in Europe, and now are on their way out, because the rich guys won.
Naturally they lie about socialism because they do not want you to have it, or even to dream of it. This is something you should remember and memorise whenever you hear another dreadful story about the Bolsheviks.
The story of Jewish-made Bolshevik revolution (my esteemed friend Ron Unz enlarged on it in his recent pieces here and here) is another frightful story out of this arsenal of fear. A sincere and diligent researcher, Ron Unz uncovered this old hat while digging for forgotten truths. Surprise: not only truth is being hidden and forgotten; fake news are being buried by sands of time, too.
This particular fib had been invented in 1920s; it was popular in 1930s; it had been forgotten to such an extent that nowadays the Communists are supposed to be anti-semites in modern discourse. Here you can find a text by one Jew being angry at another Jew for undercounting Bolsheviks’ antisemitism. In 1994, Jewish author Arkady Vaksberg wrote a book entitled Stalin Against the Jews. Its fundamental thesis is that Stalin was a fanatical anti-Semite. Louis Rapoport’s Stalin’s War Against the Jews reflects the same theme. But this Jewish fantasy of Reds against Jews has its symmetric partner in the fantasy or Jews controlling the Reds. Both are false.
Did Jews join the Bolshevik party? Many did, though more Jews supported the Provisional Government of Mr Alexander Kerensky, the enemy of Bolsheviks. The Prime Minister Kerensky had an established record of supporting the Jewish causes; his government granted them full equality. The Provisional Government had appointed Jewish representatives to prominent positions from governorships to Mayors of the two Russian capitals and to the Head of the Government Office.
The main appeal of the Bolsheviks to the Russian masses: an immediate end of the War, nationalisation of factories and agrarian reform were of little importance or attraction for the Jews. The Bolsheviks’ victory was in doubt, at best, or almost improbable, so career-minded Jews didn’t rush under the Red banners.
And still, many did, for Jews are active people, and many of them supported the revolution for the best of reasons. Communism is Christianity minus God; secularised Christianity, in learned words. Better Jews are immensely attracted to Christianity, attracted to and scared of, for they are conditioned to reject Christ. Communism was a way out for them, a way to unite with people avoiding the scaring (for them) name of Christ. And neoliberal capitalism is Judaism minus God, secularised Judaism, so the worse type of Jews are being attracted by neoliberalism. Karl Marx said that [neoliberal] capitalism is weekday religion of a Jew, while Judaism is the religion of Sabbath. Capitalism Judaises the Christians, while Communism Christianised the Jews.
In the long run, it didn’t work well, for you can’t avoid God forever; He reasserts His position. But then, it was not clear, and many Russian Jews joined revolution for a good reason.
Others joined the Revolution for not-so-noble reason, seeking adventure, looking for power or just for change. It is more useful to ponder why the Revolution took them on board. Jews had no sentiments about the Old Regime, and they had little compassion for ordinary Russians. Together with the Letts, they were the mainstay of State Security: they were literate, honest, not-too-compassionate. For revolution (or any large enterprise) to succeed, you need ruthless, smart and devoted people. Jews did well as organisers, too.
They never were the leading force of the Revolution. Is it true (as Putin said and Ron Unz quoted) that Jews constituted perhaps 80-85% of the early Soviet government? No, it is not.
Here is a photo of the first Soviet government. There are 15 ministers, their ethnic origin is clearly stated. There is just one Jew – Leon Trotsky.
In 1918, a coalition government of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was formed. You can read the full list here in Russian – there are two Jews, both from the LSR party.
If you want to become an expert, you can learn the names of all Soviet ministers from October 1917 to the end of nineteen twenties, each name is accompanied by dates of his staying in the office and by his ethnic origin. There are 62 names of most powerful Bolsheviks, among them there were 7 Jews.
Why, then, did Putin say that? Putin said that in order to get Jews off his back when they demanded a Jewish library presently in Moscow to be transferred to Brooklyn. Putin had meant that the Jews in the first Soviet government had their reasons to nationalise the library, and he does not intend to revert their decision and give it away to American Jews. It was a smart answer, factually wrong, but very convincing and flattering for Jews, as Putin-the-lawyer (by his background) would give.
So much for “reports of the overwhelmingly Jewish leadership of the Russian Bolsheviks”, as Ron Unz writes. Perhaps these reports weren’t “bigotry and paranoia”, but they were certainly grossly exaggerated in order to undermine legitimacy of the Bolsheviks. Some people view Jews with suspicion; political manipulators are aware of it, and they claim that a person they fight with is a Jew. A brief internet search will “prove” for you that Stalin and Hitler, Yeltsin and Putin, Clinton and Trump are Jews. This is true about political forces. Calling a party being under Jewish control is a sure-fire way to limit its attraction to some extent.
The anti-communists invented ZOG long before this term was applied (with better justification) to the US. It’s Mensheviks, the opposition to Bolsheviks, where the Jews were indeed numerous; and rude Stalin once suggested in jest that a good pogrom would remove the Mensheviks from the Party. In the most decisive months April to November 1917, there were very few Jews in the Party leadership, and none of them had any access to the Party’s financial affairs.
“The heavy financial support of the Bolsheviks by Jewish international bankers” is also a myth. Ron Unz discovered an old red herring of the Jewish banker Schiff funding the Bolshevik cause.
Unz had read and quoted Kenneth D. Ackerman’s 2016 book Trotsky in New York, 1917. Indeed Ackerman says that a leaked U.S. Military Intelligence report of the period, called Judaism and Bolshevism “directly made that astonishing claim”, but he also dismantles this claim.
The US MI report had been authored by Boris Brasol, the former Russian official who had prosecuted the 1913 Mendel Beilis ritual murder case in Kiev. In the US, he had become chief promoter of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, hardly an impartial observer. More to the point, his report was not based on intelligence research of any sort. The Russian émigré had no access to Bolsheviks neither to Schiff, and his claim that Schiff paid ten thousand dollars (not twenty million) to Trotsky hadn’t been substantiated.
“When Lenin and Trotsky seized power for themselves in November 1917, Schiff immediately rejected them, cut off further loans, started funding anti-Bolshevist groups, and even demanded that the Bolsheviks pay back some of the money he’d loaned Kerensky”.
While Schiff didn’t finance Trotsky, the future War Commissar (Minister of Defence) had some important Western backing. Not by the Jews, but by the Brits who used Trotsky to sabotage Bolshevik plans for separate peace with Germany. It was considered that Lenin and his people were allowed by German HQ to return to Russia in April 1917 for they constituted a pro-German faction of the Russian Social-Democrats. Trotsky and his people, on the other hand, were allowed by the Canadians, British and Americans to proceed to Russia for they were a pro-Anglo-American faction. Indeed Lenin called for immediate cease-fire and separate peace treaty with Germany, while Trotsky proposed “no war, no peace” formula and tried to disrupt negotiations with Germany, with some success.
The story of German financing was running heavy, and it was discussed and argued pro and contra for a long time. The version of Jewish financial support for the Bolsheviks had been marginal in the years following the Russian Revolution, while the contemporaries had some first-hand knowledge of events. Now, with the old generation gone, there is a time old fakes can find a new life.
Ron Unz is not alone here. In 2017, the anti-Communist Russian media also played with the idea of Jewish financial support for the Reds as the defining force behind the revolution. They could not find any evidence re Schiff, and they preferred to personify this corrupt Jewish influence in the figure of Alexander Parvus aka Israel Gelfand. Parvus is the main protagonist of Solzhenitsyn’s Lenin in Zurich, where he appears like a Mephistopheles to Lenin’s Faust.
Parvus, an adventurer and a revolutionary with an eye for profit, indeed tried to keep in touch with Lenin whom he considered, correctly, the strongest strategist of revolutionary movement. Lenin was unwilling to play ball with him, and refused to meet him when Parvus came to revolutionary Russia.
Jewish money rule the world, this is a very popular idea among Jews. Theodor Herzl, and before him, Benjamin Disraeli wrote of “terrible power of Jewish money”. Nowadays, such wealthy Jews as George Soros and Sheldon Adelson are proud of their influence upon the US politics. They surely have influence, but I doubt anybody considers this influence is a decisive and defining one. Both failed at their enterprises, Soros had been kicked out of every East European state (including Russia), Adelson preferred Marco Rubio, but Trump won anyway. In short, Jewish money can influence events, can improve the lot of politicians, scribes, media lords, but can’t define our future. Otherwise, we’d live already in the world-wide Gaza Strip. Jews are powerful, but omnipotent they aren’t.
Russian revolution had been made by Russian people, inclusive of Russian Jews, Russian Letts, Russian Poles, Russian Ukrainians, Russian Georgians and other ethnic groups. It was such a great event that it still scares the rich guys, and they still try to explain it away and convince you and themselves that Lenin won’t come back.
Ron Unz is doing an important and beneficial job for American public, as he reveals deceit in the core of the dominant narrative. Some deceits are laying too deep for him to uncover right away. Deceptions surrounding socialism lie deeper than Holocaust stories or JFK assassination.
Still I hope this sincere man will keep on digging until the truth will come out.
Кроме большевиков в правительство входили эсеры. Слева направо:
1.Исаак Штейнберг — член партии левых эсеров. Народный комиссар юстиции с декабря 1917 г. по март 1918 г. Национальность – ЕВРЕЙ. Купеческого сословия.
2.Иван Скворцов-Степанов – настоящая фамилия Скворцов, литературный псевдоним — И. Степанов. Член партии большевиков. Народный комиссар финансов. Крестьянского сословия. Национальность – РУССКИЙ.
3.Борис Камков – член партии левых эсеров. Сын земского врача. ЕВРЕЙ.
4.Владимир Бонч-Бруевич – член партии большевиков. Управляющий делами Совета Народных Комиссаров. Национальность – ПОЛЯК. Происхождение – дворянин.
5.Владимир Евгеньевич Трутовский – член партии левых эсеров. Народный комиссар местного самоуправления с декабря 1917 г. по март 1918. Происхождение – дворянин. РУССКИЙ.
6.Александр Шляпников – член партии большевиков. Народный комиссар труда (1917—1918). Родился в семье мещан старообрядцев. РУССКИЙ.
7.Прош Прошьян (Прошян) – член партии левых эсеров. Нарком почт и телеграфа декабрь 1917 – март 1918 г. АРМЯНИН.
8.Владимир Ульянов (Ленин) – член партии большевиков. Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров. Дворянин. РУССКИЙ.
9.Иосиф Джугашвили (Сталин) – член партии большевиков. Нарком по делам национальностей. ГРУЗИН. Из ремесленного сословия.
10.Александра Коллонта́й (урождённая — Домонтович) – член партии большевиков. Нарком государственного призрения. Первая женщина – министр в истории. Дворянка. Мать – ФИНКА, отец – РУССКИЙ.
11.Павел Дыбенко – член партии большевиков. Народный комиссар по морским делам. Родился в бедной крестьянской украинской семье. УКРАИНЕЦ.
12.Кокшарова Елизавета – член партии большевиков. С декабря 1917 г. по август 1918 г. работала в аппарате Совета Народных Комиссаров вторым секретарем. Из мещанского сословия. РУССКАЯ. 13.Подвойский Николай – член партии большевиков. Нарком по военным делам ноябрь 1917 – март 1918. Родился в семье украинского сельского священника-учителя. УКРАИНЕЦ
14.Горбунов Николай — член партии большевиков. Секретарь Совета Народных Комиссаров и личный секретарь В. И. Ленина. РУССКИЙ. Родился в семье инженера.
15.Невский Владимир (настоящая фамилия и имя — Кривобоков Феодосии Иванович) – член партии большевиков. Зам. Наркома путей сообщения. Из русской купеческой семьи. РУССКИЙ.
16. Александр Васильевич Шотман – член партии большевиков. Член президиума ВСНХ (Высший совет народного хозяйства). Родился в финской семье мастерового Обуховского завода, ФИНН шведского происхождения.
17. Георгий Чичерин – член партии большевиков. Нарком иностранных дел. Дворянин. РУССКИЙ.Appendix B
1. Председатель – Владимир Ильич Ульянов (Ленин)(26.10.1917 – 21.01.1924) – великоросс
2. Наркомат внутренних дел:
Алексей Иванович Рыков (26.10. – 4.11.1917) – великоросс
Григорий Иванович Петровский (17.11.1917 – 25.03.1919) – малоросс
Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский (30.03.1919 – 6.07.1923) – поляк
Александр Георгиевич Белобородов (7.07.1923 – 13.01.1928) – великоросс
3. Наркомат земледелия
Владимир Павлович Милютин (26.10 – 4.11.1917) – великоросс
Александр Григорьевич Шлихтер (13.11. – 24.11.1917) – обрусевший немец (отец: 1/2 немец, 1/2 казак; мать родом из украинских дворян)
Андрей Лукич Колегаев (25.11.1917 – 16.03.1918) – великоросс
Семен Пафнутьевич Середа (3.04.1918 – 10.02.1921) – малоросс
Валериан Валерианович Оболенский (Осинский)(вр. 24.03.1921 – 18.01.1922) – великоросс
Василий Григорьевич Яковенко (18.01.1922 – 7.07.1923) – великоросс
Александр Петрович Смирнов (7.07.1923 – 19.12.1928) – великоросс
4. Наркомат труда
Александр Гаврилович Шляпников (26.10.1917 - 8.10.1918) - великоросс
Василий Владимирович Шмидт (8.10.1918 – 29.11.1928) – обрусевший немец
5. а) Комитет по военно-морским делам (26.10. - 8.11.1917 ), Совет военных комиссаров (8.11. – 26.11.1917):
Владимир Александрович Антонов-Овсеенко – малоросс
Павел Ефимович Дыбенко – малоросс
Николай Васильевич Крыленко – великоросс
б) Наркомат по военным и морским делам (26.11.1917 – 20.06.1934)
Николай Ильич Подвойский (27.11.1917 – 14.03.1918) – малоросс
Лев Давидович Троцкий (Бронштейн)(14.03.1918 – 26.01.1925) – еврей
в) Наркомат по морским делам (22.02 – 17.12. 1918)
Павел Ефимович Дыбенко (22.02. – 15.03.1918) – малоросс
Лев Давидович Троцкий (Бронштейн)(6.04. – 17.12.1918) – еврей
6. а) Наркомат торговли и промышленности
Виктор Павлович Ногин (26.10. – 4.11.1917) – великоросс
Александр Гаврилович Шляпников (и.о. 4.11.1917 – 26.03.1918) – великоросс
Василий Михайлович Смирнов (и.о. 2 – 22.04.1918) – великоросс
Мечислав Генрикович Бронский (и.о. 22.04. – 9.05.1918) – поляк
Леонид Борисович Красин (14.05.1918 – 12.06.1920) – великоросс
12.06.1920 преобразован в Наркомат внешней торговли
б) Наркомат внешней торговли (1920 – 91)
Леонид Борисович Красин (12.06.1920 – 18.11.1925) – великоросс
в) Комиссия по внутренней торговле при СТО (24.12.1922 – 9.05.1924), Наркомат внутренней торговли СССР (9.05.1924 – 18.11.1925)
Андрей Матвеевич Лежава (24.12.1922 – 9.05.1924)(9.05. – 17.12.1924) – грузин
Арон Львович Шейнман (17.12.1924 – 18.11.1925) – еврей
7. Наркомат просвещения
Анатолий Васильевич Луначарский (фам. по наст. отцу – Антонов)(26.10.1917 – 12.09.1929) – великоросс
8. Наркомат финансов
Иван Иванович Скворцов-Степанов (26.10.1917 – 20.01.1918) – великоросс
Вячеслав Рудольфович Менжинский (20.01. – 28.03.1918) – поляк
Исидор Эммануилович Гуковский (2.04. – 16.08.1918) – еврей (?)
Николай Николаевич Крестинский (16.08.1918 – 10.10.1922) – малоросс
Григорий Яковлевич Сокольников (Бриллиант)(10.10.1922 – 16.01.1926) – еврей
9. Наркомат иностранных дел:
Лев Давидович Троцкий (Бронштейн)(26.10.1917 - 8.04.1918) - еврей
Георгий Васильевич Чичерин (9.04.1918 – 25.07.1930) – великоросс (мать из рода немецких дворян)
10. Наркомат юстиции
Георгий Ипполитович Ломов-Оппоков (26.10 – 9.12.1917) – великоросс
Исаак Захарович Штейнберг (9.12.1917 – 16.03.1918) – еврей
Петр Иванович Стучка (18.03. – 22.08.1918) – обрусевший латыш
Дмитрий Иванович Курский (22.08.1918 – 18.02.1928) – великоросс
11. Наркомат продовольствия
Иван Адольфович Теодорович (26.10 – 4.11.1917) – поляк
Александр Григорьевич Шлихтер (18.12.1917 – 24.02.1918) – обрусевший немец
Александр Дмитриевич Цюрупа (25.02.1918 – 12.12.1921) – малоросс
Николай Павлович Брюханов (12.12.1921 – 9.05.1924) – великоросс
12. Нарком почт и телеграфов
Николай Павлович Глебов (Авилов)(26.10 – 9.12.1917) – великоросс
Прош Перчевич Прошьян (9.12.1917 – 16.03.1918) – армянин
Вадим Николаевич Подбельский (11.04.1918 – 25.02.1920) – великоросс
Артемий Моисеевич Любович (24.03.1920 – 26.05.1921)(12.11.1927 – 14.01.1928) – еврей
Валериан Савельевич Довгалевский (26.05.1921 – 6.07.1923) – русский
Иван Никитич Смирнов (6.07.1923 – 6.10.1927) – великоросс
13. Наркомат по делам национальностей (Наркомнац) РСФСР (1917 – 23).
Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили (Сталин) – осетин
14. а) Наркомат по железнодорожным делам (26.10.1917 – 24.02.1918)
Марк Тимофеевич Елизаров (8.11.1917 – 7.01.1918) – русский
б) Наркомат путей сообщения (24.02.1918 – 15.03.1946)
Алексей Гаврилович Рогов (24.02. – 9.05.1918) – великоросс
Петр Алексеевич Кобозев (9.05. – 24.06.1918) – великоросс
Владимир Иванович Невский (Кривобоков)(25.07.1918 – 15.03.1919) – великоросс
Леонид Борисович Красин (30.03.1919 – 20.03.1920) – великоросс
Лев Давидович Троцкий (Бронштейн)(и.о. 20.03. – 10.12.1920) – еврей
Александр Иванович Емшанов (10.12.1920 – 14.04.1921) – великоросс
Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский (14.04.1921 – 2.02.1924) – поляк
Ян Эрнестович Рудзутак (2.02.1924 – 11.06.1930) – латыш
15. а) Наркомат государственного призрения (8.11.1917 – 20.03.1918)
Александра Михайловна Коллонтай (30.10.1917 – 17.03.1918) – малоросска (по отцу, по матери – финка)
б) Наркомат социального обеспечения (1918 – 1991)
Александр Николаевич Винокуров (20.03.1918 – 30.06.1921) – великоросс
Николай Александрович Милютин (и.о. 14.04.1921 – 29.12.1924) – великоросс
Василий Григорьевич Яковенко (29.12.1924 – 2.10.1926) – великоросс
16. Наркомат государственных имуществ РСФСР
Владимир Александрович Карелин 9.12.1917 – 16.03.1918) – великоросс
Петр Петрович Малиновский (и.о. 18.03. – 7.04.1918) – русский
17. Наркомат местного самоуправления РСФСР
Владимир Ефимович Трутовский (19.12.1917 – 12.06.1918) – русский
18. а) Наркомат государственного контроля РСФСР
Карл Иванович Ландер (9.05.1918 – 25.03.1919) – ? (прибалтийский немец или еврей)
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин (Джугашвили)(30.03.1919 – 7.02.1920) – осетин
б) Наркомат рабоче-крестьянской инспекции (Рабкрин) РСФСР (7.02.1920 – 34)
С 6.07.1923 объединение с Центр. контрольн. комиссией ВКП (б)
в аппарат ЦКК-РКИ.
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин (Джугашвили)(24.02.1920 – 25.04.1922) – осетин
Александр Дмитриевич Цюрупа (25.04.1922 – 6.07.1923) – малоросс
Валериан Владимирович Куйбышев (6.07.1923 – 5.11.1926) – великоросс
19. Наркомат здравоохранения
Александр Николаевич Винокуров (пред. Совета врачебных коллегий 21.01. – 27.06.1918) – великоросс
Николай Алекандрович Семашко (11.07.1918 – 25.01.1930) – великоросс