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#1 RobertD

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Posted 02 April 2020 - 09:23 PM

Just thinking, hydraulic oil is quite heavy, I was wondering if there could be light to very light liquid that would be incompressible just like oil is, as replacement.
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#2 RobertD

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Posted 02 April 2020 - 09:28 PM

Turns out butane has a density of 0.6 and gasoline is 0.7.

They would have to be stabilized chemically in order to be useful.
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#3 RobertD

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Posted 02 April 2020 - 09:30 PM

Maybe other gases could be used like helium, but problem of temperature and extremely low boiling point make them unusable in their natural form.
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#4 RobertD

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Posted 05 April 2020 - 03:33 AM

Brings me to low density solids...

If it was possible to chemically stabilize liquid helium or hydrogen to turn it into say a metal that would be very light.

🤔
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#5 RobertD

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Posted 05 April 2020 - 03:37 AM

Well I found this...

Helium will form a metallic liquid alloy when mixed with hydrogen. ... Using quantum mechanics to calculate the behaviour of helium under different extreme pressures and temperatures, the researchers found that helium will turn into a liquid metal at very high pressure.Aug 7, 2008

https://www.universe...d-metal-helium/
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#6 RobertD

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Posted 05 April 2020 - 03:38 AM

Problem is low temperature or extreme pressure.

Impractical.
We're looking for something stable at room temperature to be useful.
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#7 RobertD

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Posted 05 April 2020 - 03:42 AM

Inserting a third component to hydrogen and helium metal perhaps...🤔

I have reached the limit of my chemical knowledge. I cannot pursue this thread any further.
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#8 RobertD

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Posted 05 April 2020 - 03:42 AM

...as much as I would like to.
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#9 RobertD

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Posted 05 April 2020 - 01:10 PM

How about combining helium hydrogen and carbon...?

Would that form a stable molecule?
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#10 RobertD

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Posted 15 April 2020 - 01:55 PM

Reading about it, I found that helium is inert. Helium ions are difficult to produce. So what if one or two electrons were separated from the atom, producing a strong positive ion, and couple this with a strong negative material to form a stable compound...?

🤔

.

Edited by RobertD, 15 April 2020 - 01:56 PM.

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#11 RobertD

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Posted 15 April 2020 - 02:09 PM

It gets interesting...

https://www.scientif...eird-compounds/

A Noble Gas Surprise: Helium Can Form Weird Compounds
A new idea explains recently discovered chemistry that seems to break the rules of high school textbooks everywhere

Helium, the most noble of the noble gases, long thought to be completely inert and thus too standoffish to bond with other atoms, recently surprised chemists by forming chemical compounds after all.

Last year scientists reported producing the compoundscrystals made of sodium and helium atomsbut could not understand how they formed. Now a new team of researchers has offered an explanation: Helium manages to combine with other atoms without making any chemical bondsthat is, without sharing or exchanging any electrons. The element does this by shielding positively charged atoms from each other, acting as a buffer between their repellent charges. They have proposed an explanation, and I like it, says Artem Oganov, a chemist at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology in Russia and leader of the group that initially discovered the helium compounds. This model is predictive and it explains all the observations we have so far.

The compounds are stunning because scientists had thought helium extremely unlikely to combine with other atoms. This is because a helium atom is loath to give up its two electrons, which perfectly fill its only electron shell. Every atom has such shells, which hold specific numbers of electrons and structure these negatively charged particles around the atomic nucleus. Atoms prefer their shells to be totally full, and will bond with other atoms that can take or give an extra particle or two to fill out a shell. Elements with shells that are already full and have no electrons to lend are called noble gasesand helium, the smallest of these, is considered the most inert. And then came this wonderful work last year, says California State University, Northridge, chemist Maosheng Miao, leader of the team that offered the new explanation. Miaos graduate student, Zhen Liu, was lead author of the paper, which was published March 5 in Nature Communications. They found that if you put sodium and helium together and compress it to pressures like at the center of the Earth, sodium can actually react with helium and form stable compounds. At first some scientists thought helium might be sharing electrons after all. But Miaos team suggested an alternative explanation: Maybe helium is not giving or receiving any electrons, but is somehow combining with sodium anyway.


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High-enough pressure can crush a collection of sodium atoms to the point that the extra electron on each atom gets squeezed out, turning all the atoms into positively charged ions. Each ion then repels all its neighboring ions, because like charges push against each other. Miao and his colleagues reasoned that if helium atoms could come and sit in between sodium ions, the distance between the positive charges would increaseand the repulsive energy would lessen, stabilizing the material. I think this is the first time ever that theres no chemical bond involved, and yet you can form a stable compound, Miao says. Very clever work, says Roald Hoffmann, a Cornell University chemist who was not involved in the research.

Based on their hypothesis, Miaos team performed exhaustive computer calculations using the quantum mechanical laws governing each atom, and found that indeed such compounds should work. It was exciting that the idea turned out to be correct in the computations, says Eva Zurek, a chemist at the University at Buffalo, S.U.N.Y., and a member of the team. We could also predict new compounds that have not been studied previously. The scientists hope experimentalists will try to create the new compounds, which include combinations of helium with magnesium fluoride and calcium fluoride.

The discovery may also have implications for the composition of elements thought to exist deep inside our planet. Scientists had thought helium, lacking a way to bond with other elements, could not possibly be locked away inside Earths rocks. Now it becomes increasingly clear that this is a gross oversimplification, Oganov says. Even helium, the most inert of all, is not actually as inert as we thought. It can actually form stable compounds and be retained in the Earths mantle.

In the future chemists would like to find more general rules to predict when such unusual molecules could arise, because under high pressure many of the normal laws of chemistry do not apply. This is a weird kind of chemical bonding, says Richard Dronskowski of RWTH Aachen University in Germany, a collaborator on the team that discovered the sodiumhelium combination. If you think about it for a while, everythings perfectly reasonable but you dont expect it at the beginning. Its fascinating.
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#12 RobertD

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Posted 15 April 2020 - 02:15 PM

More.

https://www.sciencea...helium-compound
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#13 Bett

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Posted 19 May 2020 - 06:26 PM

Thank you Robert D for the word on Helium.  The most fun as a child to see the physics of what Helium could do!  See the balloons. Listen to the chipmunks.

Now, I see He3 is once again sought after for a fuel source.  I'm sure you know!

https://www.extremet...m-3-fusion-fuel

What say you?  think they have something?

I personally like the dilithium crystal thing myself. 


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#14 RobertD

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Posted 20 May 2020 - 11:09 PM

Quote: The Moon, on the other hand, is a far more concentrated depot with up to five million tons conveniently embedded in its top surface layer.

...

I'm certain that space travel will be driven by resources, no doubt that different elements in different ratios will justify moon colonies to begin with, and provide a jumping point to other farther places such as Mars, should preliminary exploration reveal much needed material here on earth.

.

Edited by RobertD, 20 May 2020 - 11:11 PM.

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#15 Bett

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Posted 21 May 2020 - 05:51 PM

Good to meet you RobertD. 

Good luck to them if they they can tame He.


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#16 RobertD

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Posted 22 May 2020 - 02:39 PM

Good to meet you also Bett.
🙂
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