Peace be on you.
1= Allah is One and has no associate, no one is worthy of worship and obedience except Him. He has no associate, so no opponent can dominate Him. None is worthy of worship except Him, it means Allah is perfect, His attributes and excellence are so High that if, based on perfect properties, we desire to choose a God from all beings - or -we think the best and highest attributes about God,
then the Highest - no highest can be there than Him - is that Allah, making associate in His worship will be oppression. Explanation is from verse of Quran, ‘howalla hollazi la ilaha illa howa. [from al hashr 23]
2= Allah is ‘aalemul ghaib’ [from al hashr 23] i.e. Only He knows His Self. No one can encircle Him in comprehension. We can see shapes of sun, moon and every creature, but not of Allah.
3=He is ‘aalemush shahadah’ [ derived from al hashr 23] i.e. nothing is hidden from His sight. It is not right to think that He, being God, can be ignorant of things. In fact, He keeps eye on each particle of universe, but human cannot do so. He knows when He would break this system and bring Qiyamat. No one knows except Him when it will happen.
4= ‘ho-war rahman’ [from al hashr 23] i.e. He provides means of comfort, even before the existence of living things and their deeds. He does so only by His favor, neither for any need, nor as reward to anyone’s deeds. For example He made sun, earth and other things before our existence and existence of our deeds. This grant is called ‘rahmaniat’ in the Book of Allah. Due to this act Allah is called al-Rahman.
5= ‘al-Raheem’ [from al hashr 23] i.e. Allah grants better reward for good deeds, and does not waste anyone’s toil. By virtue of this act, God is al-Rahim, and this property is called ‘rahimiat’.
6=’maalekey yaumiddin’ [al Fatiha 4] i.e. Allah keeps reward of everyone in His Hand. He has not made a caretaker, to whom He have given rule of earth and heavens and reward giving capacity, and Himself is separated and does nothing.
7=’al-malekul quddus’ [from al hashr 24] i.e. Allah is Supreme, He has no spot of weakness. Human kingdom is not free of weakness e.g. if all subjects migrate to other country, kingdom cannot stay. Or if all subjects suffer from famine, where royal tax will come from? If people begin to debate with king what more wisdom he has, what will he prove? Thus, kingdom of Allah the Exalted is not like it. He can destroy all world and can make more creation.
If he was not such Maker and Powerful then how His kingdom could have continued, once He forgave people [in next world]. Should He have revoked forgiveness with oppression to send people back in this world [to continue life in world]. In that case, His God-hood would have been affected like stained kings of world who makes laws for earthliness, get angry over little things, and when find oppression is necessary, they do it. For example, rule of worldly kings allows that, people in a boat may be killed to save people in ship. But Allah has no such constraint. His ship is in motion with all Powers with justice.
8= ‘al-salam’[from al hashr 24] : Allah does not have any weakness, He is safe from troubles. He gives safety. Had He suffered from troubles or hurt by people and failed in His plans, how could hearts have felt peace that such a God will save us in problems? Allah says about false Gods [al-hajr 74-75 gist] those whom you think are Gods, they are such if they all gather to make a fly [insect], they could never. Rather, if a fly takes something of them they shall have no power to take it back. Worshipers of such Gods are weak in wisdom, and theses Gods are weak in power. Are Gods like this? Allah is more Powerful than all powerful ones and Dominant over all. No one can catch or kill Him. People who do not recognize value of Allah, they think wrong about Him. They do not know how a God should be?
9= ‘al mo-meno’ [from alhashr 24] ; Allah grants peace, and establishes arguments for His excellence and Oneness. This is indication to the fact that a believer of True God neither can be ashamed in a gathering, nor before God because he has very strong arguments. But believer of artificial God is in big trouble. Instead of giving arguments, he calls every unreasonable thing a secret, to avoid laughed at, and he wants to hide proven errors.
10=’al-muhaimul azizul jabbarul motakabbiro’ [from al-hashr,24] : He is Guard of everyone, Dominant over all, Reformer of deformed works, His Being is Supreme, very Free-of-Need
11= ‘ho-wallahul khalekul bari-ul mosaw’wero lahul asma ul husna’ [al-hashr 25] : Allah makes bodies and souls, draws picture in womb. All good names, which can be thought, belong to Him.
12= ‘yosabbeho lahu maa fissamawate wal-arzey wa ho-wal aziz ul hakim’ : [al-hashr 25] People of heavens and people of earth glorify His name. This verse shows populations exists in heavens and they too are bound to Allah’s commands.
13= ‘alaa kulley shey-in qadeer’ [al-baqara 21] : Allah is very Powerful. It is comfort for worshipers because if God is helpless and not Powerful, what expectation can be from Him?
14= ‘ rabbil aalameen – al rahman irrahim – maalekey yaumiddin – ojebo dawataddaa-ey ezaa da-aaney’ [al Fatiha 2 to 4 , al-baqara 187] : Allah nourishes all worlds, Rahman and Rahim and Master of day of judgment He has not delegeted this authority to anyone, He listens to call of every caller, and Answer-Giver i.e. listens to prayers.
15= ‘al haiyul qaiyoom’ [al Baqara 256] : Allah is Forever, Life of all lifes and Support of all beings. He said so
16= ‘qul howallaho ahad – allahus samad – lam yalid wa lam yulad - wa lam yakun lahu kofowan ahad’[from alIkhlas, 2 to 5] Allah is One. He is not son of anyone. He has no son. No one is equal to Him. No one is like Him.
To believe Tauheed [Oneness] of Allah correctly, and not doing any excess and shortage in it, it is such Adl [justice] which human serves to his Master.
[Based on Book ‘The Philosophy of Teachings of Islam’ by Founder of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community]